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THE 



CVBA REVIEW 




THE CUBA REVIEW 



"LINK-BELT" 
LOCOMOTIVE CRANES 

Steam or 
Electrically Operated 

Arranged for handling 
Grab Bucket, 
Lifting Magnet, 
Hoisting Block . 

and other special 
applications 



THE LATEST DESIGN OF 
THE FOREMOST MANU- 
FACTURERS 

SPECIFICATIONS AND 
PRICES UPON REQUEST 




LINK-BELT 
COMPANY 

PHILADELPHIA - CHICAGO 
INDIANAPOLIS 

New York, 299 Broadway 




COPYRIGHT, 1910 



ALL 

ABOUT 

Cuba- 



it COVERS THE ISLAND'S 

INDUSTRIES AND ACTIVITIES 

ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR POSTPAID 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advebtisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




Mejor 

extrac- 

cion 



PAifiNTE PELAEZ 



Esta maza puede colocarse faclimenteen rualq-jier trapiche, sea de dos 6 tres mazas. Machuca bien 
la-c.-ina desiiiemizAndola v extrayendole al m.sniot empo las dos terceras partes de su guarapo. dejaiido 
la cana bien preparadd para el seguiido trapiche. Ejecuta todo el tiabajo de una desmenuzadoia de 
priniera clase y sin luiis gasto que cuando se opera con una maza lisa. Ksta maza es de acero y se ha 
sacado privilegio para ella en todas las partes del mundo donde se cnltiva la caiia de azucar. Pu^' 
envienos un dihujo de la niaza superior que usan Uas , asi que de su eje, y les cotizarenios precios bajoa 
por una maza completa para desnienuzar la caiiad^ este trapiche. 

NEWELL MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 149 Broadway, New York, E. U. A. 

PIERRE DROESHOUT, Agt., Apartade 861, Havana, Cuba 



HOTEL PLAZA, CAMAGUEY, CUBA 

Accommodates 7h guests. Entirely rebuilt and in first-class condition. 
Fifty rooms, 2c) baths. The Lest meals served on the Island. 

Moderate Prices I. GROSSMAN, Proprietor. 



GARROS 



PARA TODOs usos y de todos tanianns, de los para cana con cuatro ruedas y capa- 
cidad de \\2 toneladas a los con juegos dobles de ruedas y capacidad de 30 toneladas 
Hacemos una especialidad de juegos de licirajes, tncluyendo los juegos 
de ruedas, comt'-etatnetite arinados, con todas las pic;:as de metal, y pianos 
completes para coustrmr los carros a su destino de tnaderas del pais 




RAMAPO IRON WORKS, 30 Church St., New York, N. Y. 



Cable Address: 
Ramaliam 



FOR LUBRICATION 



OF ENGINES AND MACHINERY 
OF ALL KINDS 



Dixon's Flake Graphite gives results impossible to oil or grease alone. 
Write for free booklet, "Graphite as a Lubricant." 

Cuban Agent: CtiAS. BLASCO, HAVANA 
JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE COMPANY - . = = JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



DON'T OVERLOOK THE 
ADVERTISING PAGES 

OF 

THE CUBA REVIEW 



They form not the least interesting portion of the publi- 
cation, and there is sufficient variety of investment propo- 
sitions and valuable merchandise announcements to mett 
everyone's need. 1 Get in correspondence with CUBA 
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Todos los comerciantes y agricultores 
en la Isia de Cuba saben de que el nom- 
bre de FARQUHAR es el solicitado para 
Arados, Implementos de Agricultura y 
Maquinaria. — Qrandes partidas estan 
proveidas constantemente por los comer- 
ciantes de todas las ciudades de la Isla. 



Se envian Catalogos llustrados 
a previa peticion 



Agentes: AMERICAN TRADING COMPANY. NUEVA YORK Y HABANA 



A. B. FARQUHAR & CO. 

Cotton Exchange Building New York. U. S. A. 




Prensas de 

Filtrar 

para Ingenios 

SHRIVER 

FILTER PRESSES 

Write us for 
Catalog, Prices 
and Information 

T. Shriver & Go. 

814 Hamilton St. 
Harrison, N. J. 

Represented in Lout 

siana by E. A. SAM 

MONS CO.. Ltd.. 

New Orleans, La. 

Represented in Porto 
Rico by McMUR 
TRIEGUILER CO.. 
Inc., San Juan, P. R. 



FOR MOLASSES USE 

STEEL TANKS 



BUILT BY 



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MATERIAL FABRICATED OR ERECTED COMPLETE 
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THE CUBA RLVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 
An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 82-92 Beaver Street, New York 



MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Editors and Publishers 



SUBSCRIPTION 
$1.00 Per Year --------- lo Cents Single Copy 

Advertising Rates on Af'plication 



Vol. X 



DECEMBER, 1911 

Contents of This Number 



No. 



The cover page illnstratiou is of a very interesting scene, sliowing the harvesting of 
pineapples. 

Cnlian government matters occupy pages 7 to 11. The aemands of the Veterans' Associa- 
tion and the new treaty proposals of Spain are on page 7. Colonel Gorgas' praise of 
(.'iiha's sanitary condition, and a description of the lands for the United States Naval 
.Station at (Inantanamo is on pa^c 8. Political gosrip and some talk regartnng C"al)inel 
changes are on ]>age 9. The damage claims of three governments against Cnha, and 
the activities of Havana's ]lealth Department are treated on page 10. Cuba's customs 
revenue for five years is given on jjage 11. 

Short newsy items from all over the island are on pages 12 and 13. 

Some suggestive newspaper and i dividual comment on Cuban matters is on page 14. 

Ceneral notes are on pages 15 and 16. 

The last word regarding the "Maine" is that furnished by the report of the Board of 
Inspection, which is given on ])age 17. Some experiences of the New York "Giants" 
and their successful games in Havana are given on page 17. 

New tobacco duties and other interesting items are on page 18. 

United States Consul (icneral Rodgers' statement that there are only 3, (KM) .\mericans in 
Cuba is on iiage 19. 

Traffic receijjts of the Cuban railroads are on jiai^e 20. 

The amalgamation of the United Railways of Havana and the Western Railways of 
navana being completeil. a condensation of the last report of the latter railroad, 
together with a map of the road, is given on page 21. 

I'urther railroad notes, earnings and maps, showing the latest extensions of the Cuba 
Railroad, are on page 22. 

A comparative statement of Cuba's imports during the last five years, compiled by the 
Cuban Treasury Departtnent, will be found on page 23. 

N'arious commercial items will be found on page 24. 

Two very interesting illustrations of Cuba's important mining districts are given on 
page 25. 

Cuban musicians and their methods of work are descrioed on pages 26 and 27. 

Agricultural matters are treated on pages 28, 29 and 30. A scientific article, showing that 
the sugar content of pineapples does not increase after picking, is on page 28. Sug- 
gestions from the United States Department of Agriculture regarding the marking of 
poultry to determine the age, and a description of picking oranges in Spain and the 
yield of aguacate trees are on page 29. 

W'liy cane sugars are polarized is on page 31. Some further sugar items are on page 32. 

The monthly review of sugar prices at New York and a summary of the sugar situation 
by Messrs. Willett and Gray is on page 33 and 34; the same article in Spanish is 
on page 36. 

MANY BEAUTIFUL ILLUSTRATIONS 






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THL 
CUBA RLVILW 



"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 



Copyright, 1911, by the Munson Steamship Line 



MBR> 
NEW Y 
BOTANJ 

QAkDJ 



\'OLUME X 



DECEMBER, 1911 



Number 1 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 



The 

Veterans' 

Association 



The campaign of the Vet- 
erans' Association of Cuba 
against the maintenance in 
office of former Spanish 
sympathizers and enemies 
of the repubhc has not lessened, and a 
great victory was secured by the members 
on December .sth, when the Senate with 
one dissenting vote passed the House bill, 
suspending the civil service law for 9 
months in order to enable President Gomez 
to dismiss from office former guerrillas and 
other opponents of Cuban independence. 
The Senate amended the bill so as to ex- 
tend its application to judges, who were 
exempted by the provisions of the House 
bill. The bill will go back to the House for 
recurrence in this amendment. 

The veterans have prepared a list of so- 
called traitors and guerrillas, many of 
whom hold high offices, and will now bring 
pressure to bear on the president to dis- 
miss them and replace them with patriotic 
Cubans. 

General Nunez, former governor of Ha- 
vana Province, is president of the \'et- 
erans' Association. 

Xot all prominent Cubans are in favor 
of the sw^eeping dismissal of office holders. 
Salvador Cisneros, Marquis de Santa 
Lucia, a general in the two great Cuban 
wars and an ex-president of the revolu- 
tionary republic, has spoken against the 
project and said recently: 

"Although I vote against the law, it 
should prove no surprise, even though I 
am a veteran. Before I am a veteran I am 
a citizen, T am a liberal and I am a patriot. 
That law is contrary to the constitution." 

Hon. ?*Ianuel Sanguily, secretary of state 
and a veteran of the Cuban revolution of 
1868, is stated to have said that he feared 
the veterans' campaign against "traitors" 
and "guerrillas" would lead the country to 
civil war or would at least lead to an- 
other American intervention. 

Chief Justice Juan ^lenocal of the 



Audencia of Havana has unearthed a bill 
passed by the United States Congress six- 
teen years after the republic was estab- 
lished w'hich establishes a precedent for the 
action of the veterans. The United States 
statute barred fmm public service all who 
fought against the independence of the 
country. 

The new'—proposals which 
Sf'ain's ha\e been made by the 
Treaty Sjianish government for a 

Prof^osals trade treaty with Cuba arc 
much more favora'^le than 
former ones, especially on tobacco. Spain 
agrees to import from Cuba a minimum of 
•J.OOO kilograms of Wielta Abajo filler, 
140,000 kilograms of Vuelta Abajo "capa- 
dura," or the second cutting : 1,335.000 kilo- 
grams of Remedios "capadura," and 526,000 
kilograms of Remedios filler per annum. 

The treaty stipulates, however, that it 
will not be complied with if the tobacco 
purchase price exceeds $10 Spanish gold 
for ev-ery forty-six kilograms of Remedios 
and $14 for Vuelta Abajo. 

The treaty reduces to 25 pesetas the duty 
per kilogram on cigars, boxed or unboxed, 
and to 18 pesetas the duty on cut tobacco. 

Xo reduction is made on cigarettes, and 
the reason is explained by saying that it is 
necessary to protect the home industry and 
also the importers of Cuban tobacco in the 
leaf. 

The standard weight is to be including 
the package on cigars and cut tobacco. 

Leaf tobacco is only to be imported into 
Spain by the "Tabacalera" (the company 
holding the monopoly in Spain), and in 
quantities as stated above. 

In return. Spain wants Cuba to maintain 
her present tariffs during the life of the 
treaty, and asks for a reduction of 15 per 
cent on the present duty on wine, and to 
promise a revision of the tariff on onions, 
potatoes and tomatoes from the Canary 
Islands. 



THE CUBA R E V I E W 




Senor Guillermo Patterson y Jaureguiy, recently 
appointed sub-secretary of state. He is a talented 
lawyer with considerable diplomatic 
having served Cuba at Madrid, 
and Liverpool 



experience. 
Philadelphia 



Colonel W. C. Gor^as, who 

Fraiscs was director of sanitation in 

Cuban Cuba ditring the first inter- 

Sanitatioii vention, and who attended 

the health congress held in 

Havana a few weeks ago, was asked for 

an opinion regarding the present sanitary 

condition of the island, and replied : 

"I am very inuch pleased with the sani- 
tary condition of Havana and of Cuba. I 
think that the Cubans have done wonder- 
fully well in the way they have conducted 
their sanitary affairs. They have taken 
up the work where we left off and have 
gone on with it. I have much praise and 
no adverse comment to make concerning 
their work. 

"Cuba has a great advantage in its na- 
tional sanitary law. It is something that 
we do not enjoy in the United States. What 
few laws we have on sanitary matters are 
mere makeshifts which are passed by each 
state or municipality." 



WANT DUTIES REDUCED 

.\ petition, made by pineapple exporters 
asking that paper used for wrapping pine- 
apples be placed under another classification 
of the tariff law and therefore pay a 
smaller duty, is pending action l)y the 
Treasury Department. 



Paynunt of $210,000 for a 
-\( Ti' Lands first mortgage on the 900 
(// caballerias of land adjoin- 

CJuanhniaino ing the United States naval 
station at Guantanamo, and 
for which the United States has been ne- 
gotiating with Cuba for several months, 
was paid to Colonel Jane Nicolas Jane, the 
owner, on Decemlier 5th, and a valuation 
of $1,999,998 for the property was accepted 
by General Montalvo. 

As the Cuban government must purchase 
or expropriate the property, if it is deliv- 
ered to the United States government, the 
figures certified to in the notarial document 
when the mortgage was executed is taken 
as an indication of the price that will be 
asked. 

In the draft of the treaty with the United 
States for the acquisition of additional 
lands adjoining the Guantanamo naval sta- 
tion, it is proposed to cede in return the 
rights for a coaling station at Bahia Honda. 
These rights were obtained at the same 
time as those of Guantanamo, but the sta- 
tion has never been developed. 

The |)rincipal reason for the desire of 
the United States to increase its Guan- 
tanamo holdings is that the present site has 
no water supply. The property of Colonel 
Jane is crossed by the Yateras River, which 
furnishes excellent drinking water. 

Commander George W. Kline has been 
appointed commander of the United States 
naval station at Guantanamo, Cuba. 



It is believed that Cuba will 
[ndeninity have to pay to citizens of 
Demanded England, Germany and 

France the $6,500,000 in- 
demnity claimed by them. Secretary 
Sanguily of the Department of State said 
on December Sth that he did not see any 
way for Cuba to avoid the payment. 

The secretary also said that the claims 
would be taken up after M. Jules de Clerq. 
the new French minister, presents his cre- 
dentials. The claimants will then be heard. 
The three governments claim indemnity 
for damages which their citizens declare 
they suffered during the Cuban revolution. 
The claims have never been pressed, al- 
though they have been called to the atten- 
tion of the Cuban government from time 
to time. About three months ago a joint 
note from the three powers was handed 
Secretary Sanguily with the request that 
Cuba state what she intended to do about 
the alleged indebtedness. 



NEW MINISTER ARRIVES 

Arthur M. Beaupre, the newly appointed 
American minister to Cuba, arrived at 
Havana December 6th. Mr. Beaupre was 
appointed minister to Cuba two months ago 
to succeed J. B. Jackson, who has been 
transferred to Budapest. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



The Conservati\ t.s are still 
Discussiiiy asking General Alenocal to 
tlic signify his acceptance to 

Candidates their request that he be- 
comes a nominee of their 
liarty, for president of Cuba, and La Liiclui 
probably reflects general opinion when it 
says, "That the Conservatives will follow 
(ieneral Alenocal to a man, if he will ac- 
cept the nomination, is not to be doubted 
by anyone, for such is in the conscience 
of all." 

As for the Liberal Party, the name of 
(Governor Asbert is popular with the 
majority and it is believed preferred by 
the politicians. He probably controls 
Havana and Pinar del Rio Provinces, and 
as his strength in other parts of the island 
is growing, he being favored by President 
(iomez as his successor, a sufficient number 
of national delegates to ensure his nomi- 
nation is indicated. It is said that he will 
even secure pronounced support from these 
who formerly favored Alfredo Zayas. 

"The only thing that Governor Asbert 
talks of," says La Lucha, "to all those who 
care to hear him is that the Liberal Party 
will win ;' that he will not be the candidate 
imtil he is nominated, and that there will 
be no re-election for Gomez." 



La Lucha. an influential 

Opposes Havana daily, does not 

the like Dr. Alfredo Zayas, 

I ' ice-President nov>' vice-president of Cuba. 

as a candidate for the 

office of oresident at the next election, and 

it gives its reasons as follows : 

"We were one of the first to say it, when 
it was most timely, that Dr. Zayas had taken 
more care of his personal interests and 
conveniences than the interests and con- 
veniences of the party ; that far from de- 
fending the interests of the community he 
had taken sides with those who were do- 
ing the pillaging, and that instead of 
making his protest against the acts com- 
mitted or abetted by the government, he 
had taken a torch and joined the proces- 
sion, marching happily and satisfied with 
those who were reaping the benefits." 

The paper was formerly one of his most 
ardent supporters. 

According to the Havana Telegraph. 
President Gomez in lending his support 
to the candidacy of Sr. Asbert, Havana's 
provincial governor, for the presidency 
only exhibits his own shrewdness for 
Paragraph 2, Article 65, of the Cuban con- 
stitution, says that: "To be president of 
the Republic of Cuba it is requisite to have 
completed forty years of age." 

"Now it so happens," says the Telegraph, 
"that Governor Asbert will not have com- 
pleted his forty years of life at the time 
of the inauguration, and this way force 
the renominat'on of President Gomez." 



Havana will have a daily 

Better (except Sunday) mail serv- 

.)iail ice after January 3, 1912. 

Service All the arrangements for 

the service have been made. 

The cost will be divided equally between 

the United States and Cuba. 

Steamers will leave Knight's Key daily 
at S a. rn. and arrive in Havana at 5 p. m. 
They will leave Havana at 9.30 a. m. and 
arrive in Knight's Key at 6.30 p. m. 

After the Key West service is started 
the mail steamers will leave Key West at 
U) a. m. and returning will leave Havana 
at 9.30 a. m. 

MENOCAL PESCANDO 




\Amigo. dejelo que pique 6 suelte la cana para 

qnc otro pesque! 
I.a Lucha' s cartoonist persists in picturing General 
Menocal as fishing for the presidential nomination. 
The star is the emblem of the Conservative Party. 



Secretary Joaquin Chalons, 
More of the Department of Piib- 

Cabinet lie Works, presented his re- 
Changes signation to President Go- 
mez, who accepted it. 
The opposition of the Veterans' Associa- 
tion to the continuance in oi^ice of former 
Spaniards and others hostile to the Cuban 
cause in the country's war for its inde- 
pendence, proved too strong for Secretary 
Chalons. He was a colonel in the Spanish 
army and his appointment to a Cabinet po- 
sition created much opposition. Two can- 
didates for the vacancy are Orencio No- 
darse, formerly postmaster-general and 
later director of the lottery, and Sei'ior 
Portuondo, former director of public works. 
Secretary Chalons is reputed to be one 
of the best engineers in Cuba and several 
months ago was named as one of the en- 
gineers for the Port Improvement Company. 



10 



THE CUB A R I-. V 1 i: W 



The joint ikiIc which ha^ 
More been presented l)y Gt-r- 

Daiiiagc many, France and England 
Claims requesting- the Cuban gov- 
ernment to settle for the 
damage done the jtroperty of their sub- 
jects during the war of independence, is 
being discussed by politicians, senators 
and congressmen of both parties in an 
effort to advise the government. 

When the Treaty of Paris was con- 
cluded, an agreement was made that the 
United States would guarantee all dam- 
ages caused by the Spanish troops in the 
Cubans' war of independence done to prop- 
erty owned by foreigners in the island of 
Cuba. But the treaty did not include the 
damage done to the property of foreigners 
by the Cuban army, which accounts for 
the great decreases made in the awards 
bv the Spanish Treaty Claims Commission 
as compared with the amount of claims 
filed. 

As far as the United States is concerned, 
all these claims have been settled. 



Havana's Department of 
Sanitary Sanitation is after the 
Milk milkmen and new rules 

Cans provide that all milk wa- 

gons must be kept clean 
and painted with strong oil paint, bearing 
the name of the establishment to which 
they belong and they will not be allowed 
to carry anything else. Those carrying 
milk on horses must use saddles made of 
linen, sack cloth being barred. 

Three months' time is granted to do 
away with the milk cans of less than 
three gallons, and six months to all other 
cans containing larger amounts. These 
are to be substituted by others, the model 
of which must be approved by the Depart- 
ment of Sanitation. 

The milkmen are forbidden to use the 
old tin and zinc milk measures which they 
have been using from time immemorial and 
are to substitute others made of vitrified 
material or enamel ware, in order to pro- 
tect the public from the oxidation of the 
package which has been pronounced as in- 
jurious to the public health. 

The Agrarian League will 
Renewal petition Congress to pass a 
Eariiestlv measure authorizing the 
Desired president to establish rela- 
tions with the United States 
with a view to renewing the reciprocity 
treaty existing betwen that country and 
Cuba. A new treaty of five years' duration 
is suggested. The old treaty legally ex- 
pired December ?,1. VMS, and is operative 
to-day only because it has not been deter- 
mined by either country. 

The people and merchants of Cuba want 




Men talkoi ..i m c aba — .^r. Joaijuin Chalons, re- 
cently secretary of public works, who resigned 
owing to the opposition of the Veterans' Asso- 
ciation, he being a Spaniard. 



the treatx' to continue and there is no great 
danger that Cuba will notify the United 
States that she wants it tern. mated. It is 
the attitude of the United States which is 
troubling the commercial interests of the 
island, hence the determination to seek a 
renewal. 



The 

Annual 

Exposition 



The national exposition for 
agricultural products will 
open in Havana on January 
:iSth and close on February 
24th. The exposition will 
include all horticultural and agricultural 
products from vegetables to flowers. Every- 
thing in zootecnics, the met'nods employed 
in the fisheries, hunting and catching of 
all kinds of game on Cuban land and 
waters will be shown, and also forest pro- 
ducts, mining products, and exhibits of 
mineral waters of the island. 

The prizes to be offered for these ex- 
hibits will amount to $5,000, and lavish 
work is to be done in illuminations and 
decorations of the grounds and buildings. 
The director of the exposition will per- 
mit a limited number of high-grade and 
refined public spectacles and entertainments. 



Figures regarding the exportations of St. 
Louis to Cuba, as supplied by the Cuban 
State Department, are as follows : 

1909 $2,199,579 

1910 2,.320,812 



T 11 1-: c u B A R E \- 1 1-: \v 



11 



Wants 

Treaty 

Changed 



The figures, giving the vol- 
ume and vahie of Cuba's 
trade with the United States 
in 1910. are shown in a most 
interesting way in the chart 
which forms the full page illustration on 
page 6. The American Economist of Xew 
York, analyzing these government statistics, 
has the following to say in a recent issue : 
■'Last year, according to Cuban returns, 
she sent 86 per cent of all her exports to 
the United States, but took from this coun- 
try only 52 per cent of her imports. She sold 
Spain one-half of 1 per cent of her exports, 
but took nearly 8 per cent of her imports 
from that country. She took over $6,542,000 
of her imports from Germany, but sold to 
that country only $3,646,000 worth. From 
France she bought $5,514,000 worth and 
sold $1,500,000. From the United Kingdom 
she purchased $12,000,000 worth and sold 
to that country $10,000,000. From other 
countries she bought $16,000,000 worth, and 
sold only $4,000,000. 

■'In other words, the United States paid 
Cuba a net lialance of $68,000,000 to spend 
in buying goods from other countries, 
which gave Cuba no advantages of any 
kind. The treaty should either be greatly 
changed in favor of the United States, or 
else abrogated.*' 



A new bill for introduction in the Senate 
provides that each senator be furnished 
with a private secretary at a salary of 
$2,000. The legislators declare that routine 
•letail takes up too much time. 




Castellanos has beeti appointed President of 
Cuba's Civil Service Commission 
Dr. J. Lorenzo CastcUaiios. Presidcnic de la 
comision del Scrvicio Civil 

The first wireless messages to be ex- 
changed between Cuba and Mexico over the 
wireless telegraph were finished on Decem- 
ber 1st. when the government station at 
Morro Castle was atile to reach the new 
station recentlv installed at Veracruz. 



Cuba's Customs Revenue 



The total receipts of Culia's 
officially given as follows : 

1906 

Banes $256,027 

Baracoa 18.221 

Batabano 6.168 

Caibarien 409.866 

Cardenas 461.544 

Cienfuegos 1.641.;)41 

Gibara 172.952 

Guantanamo :!94.35l 

Habana 17.>9T.672 

Jucaro 

]\Ianzanillo :i44.030 

Matanzas 7:i4.()19 

Xipp 82.777 

Xueva Gerona 1.828 

Xuevitas 292.093 

Puerto Padre 97.192 

Sagua 319.345 

Santa Cruz 3,s23 

Santiago de Cuba.. 2,003.163 

Trinidad S..'>56 

Tunaz de Zaza .... 32.534 

Total $25.17>.lii9 



customs houses for the five vears ending with 1910 is 



1907 

$78,588 

17.267 

4,731 

444.597 

379,975 

1,519,312 

148,119 

322,144 

19,328,064 

362.075 

823,923 

284,911 

1,114 

227,136 

57,9.52 

297,844 

3,605 

1,992,916 

1.378 

16,167 



1908 

$31,027 

16,59.5 

3,042 

472,220 

380,875 

1 ,,372,883 

112.202 

196,367 

16.244,257 

326.048 
715,736 
378,587 

6,5.54 

153,577 

44,447 

211,651 

4,101 
1,-554.896 

1 ,076 

6,824 



1909 

$46,010 

10.056 

1,064 

531.015 

459.479 

1.674. 81() 

127,994 

235,426 

7.127.584 

1.790 

404.470 

902.313 

.■07.762 

9.363 

137,148 

71.069 

264.056 

4.951 

1.614.206 

9S0 

13.. 524 



1910 

$52,884 

' 7,845 

5,949 
579,196 
549,120 
1,670,175 
153,955 
297,857 
17,215,332 

3,987 
502,691 
973.616 
619.637 

6,033 
165,707 
107.027 
402,496 

7.249 
1.561.152 

2.784 

1 492 



$26,311. > 26 



$22,232,974 



$2t.l i:).:iS5 



$24.S26 195 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



ALL AROUND CUBA 



INTERESTING NEWS NOTES REGARDING VARIOUS MATTERS PERTAINING 

TO THE ISLAND 



Earthquakes sliook the city of Santiago 
dc Cuba on Novemljcr 28th and two more 
on the following day. Much alarm was 
caused, but no damage reported. 

Three men of Patchogue, Long Island, 
have gone to Culia to open up a typical 
American moving picture theatre. 

On November 32d, President Gomez 
signed the bill passed by Congress author- 
izing the creation of 150 more school 
rooms throughout the island. 

Captain Philip Sheridan Golderman, 
U.S. .A., who for the last two years has 
been instructor in coast artillery to the 
Cuban army, has been appointed director 
of the military academy recently established 
at Cabaiia fortress. This is a military 
school for the instruction of officers of 
the coast artillery and infantry of the "per- 
manent army." 

The Cuban navy, when completed, will 
comprise the following vessels: Cruiser 
"Cuba," 2,200 tons; schoolship "Patria," 
1,750 tons ; flagship "Hatuey," 538 tons ; 
"Baire," 500 tons; "Yara," 339 tons; 
"Twentieth of May," 141 tons ; "Enrique 
Villuendas," 132 tons; "Twenty-fourth of 
February," 208 tons; "Oriente," 150 tons; 
and "Tenth of October," 208 tons. The 
vessels will aggregate 6,166 tons and 1,000 
men. 

The notorious bandit Solis has kidnapped 
two youths, the son and nephew of a rich 
planter of the name of Alvarez, living 
near Camaguey. and has demanded $15,000 
ransom. 

The new drinking fountain, which was 
recently given by the National Humane 
Alliance of New York to the city of Ha- 
vana, costs about $800. It will be installed 
in the Plaza de San Francisco, one of 
the places where a fountain is most needed, 
because through it hundreds of mules and 
horses pass daily, many of them coming 
from long distances in the country with 
heavy loads, and returning with still 
heavier ones. 

The president has signed the bill admit- 
ting the fountain free of duty. 

The construction of an important high- 
way in Santa Clara Province is proposed. 
The road in question is one which starts 
from Santa Clara and runs north to Cala- 
bazar de Sagua and which when finished 
will be a part of the central highway from 
Sagua la Grande to Cienfuegos, reaching 
clear across the province. 



The question of the two-wheeled carts 
has been one that has troubled Havana 
for years. From time to time the city 
council has nxcd periods for them to be 
retired from traffic, without, however, 
meeting with much success, and the great 
wagons are still a nuisance in the city's 
narrow streets, l)locking all traffic for the 
time being. The three-year extension ob- 
tained by the Cart-owners' Union to allow 
the two-wheeled carts to be removed, ends 
this month, and the association is now 
working for a further extension. 

The American government lias asked the 
Cuban government for information regard- 
ing the depth of water in the bay at Puerto 
Padre. Two steamers have grounded re- 
cently in this bay, and the testimony given 
by both captains tends to show that the 
hydrographical maps in the possession of 
the United States government are incorrect. 

A survey made immediately after the 
Spanish-American war gave much deeper 
water for Puerto Padre bay than now. 

President Gomez has preferred charges 
of libel recently against three orators, 
citizens of Remedios. Santa Clara Prov- 
ince, who at various political meetings ner- 
mitted their denunciation of the adminis- 
tration to pass the limit of the law. The 
cases will he pushed. 

The director of the boys' reform school 
at Guanajay, Pinar del Rio Province, has 
been charged with employing the inmates 
on his private farm. The Department of 
Sanitation has ordered an investigation. 

The Havana Board of Health is pre- 
paring to supply typhoid fever vaccine to 
any one wdio wishes to guard against 
typhoid fever. It will be manufactured in 
the National Laboratory. 

The aviators of the United States navy, 
who have been conducting a series of tests 
with difl'erent types of flying machines at 
Annapolis, Maryland, for the last three 
months, will leave for Santiago, Cuba, 
about January 1st, where further tests will 
be made during the winter. 

A new department to be known as the 
Foreign Information Bureau is to be added 
to the Cuban Department of State. Its 
business will be to keep the government 
informed of the trend of opinion regarding 
Cuba-i matters, as shown in the foreign 
press or reported by the different consuls 
and ministers, and also to answer them 
and prove the falsity when untrue. 



THE CUBA R E \" 1 E W 



By decree of the secretary of agriculture, 
tlie time set for the rectifications in the 
cattle registry for the province of Santa 
Clara, Camaguey and (.)rienic, which ex- 
pired September 1st last, has been ex- 
tended to March 1, 1912. 

.\ group of about 100 students gathered 
in Cienfuegos November 27th and called 
upon all the Spanish societies, requesting 
them to lower their flags on their buildings 
to half mast, in observance of the anni- 
versary of the shooting of the medical 
students in Havana. 

The sickness, which occurred at Banes, 
Oriente Province, recently, among some 
Spanish workmen, which at first was be- 
lieved to be yellow fever, turned out upon 
official exaniination to be grippe with 
jineumonia complication. 

An orator at Cruces has been sentenced 
to six months' imprisonment for an attack 
upon President Gomez in a recent socialist 
meeting. 

Dr. Juan de Dios Carcia Kuhly was ap- 
pointed minister to Holland. The new 
appointee is a brilliant lawyer and was se- 
lected for his special knowledge of inter- 
national law. 

Dr. Carlos Finlay. the distinguished 
Cuban yellow fever expert, was elected a 
corresponding member of the French 
Academy of Medicine November 8th. 

A company has been organized to build 
a new theater in Camaguey. The comoany 
has a capital of $60,000. 

Monsieur de Clercq. who several months 
ago was named as French Minister to 
Venezuela, was a few weeks ago trans- 
ferred to Havana as minister to Cuba. 

Two more Boston fishing schooners 
have been sold and will be taken to Cuba 
to engage in the red snapper fisheries there. 
Each is equipped witli an auxiliary motor 
and in the holds are large tanks to be used 
to keep the fish alive after being netted. 

Swedish newspapers so strongly opposed 
the emigration of the people from that 
Country to Cuba, that Cuban immigration 
agents now in Sweden will forego all 
further efforts. 

The Swedish immigrants with families 
were to be given farms by Sir William 
Van Home along the line of the Cuba 
Railroad, the Cuban government to pay 
transportation charges and necessary farm 
implements. 

Orders have been issued to the owners 
of lands at the foot of Atares hill, Havana 
harbor, to fill the marshes there with 
stone or other dry material. An inspection 
there has shown that these lands form a 
great place for the breeding of mosquitoes. 



Miguel Alberque, a Cuban, has been de- 
ported from the Republic of Ecuador on 
the charge of being a pernicious foreigner. 

Rigid inspection rules will be enforced 

against all vessels arriving from Europe 

because of the prevalence of cholera in 

France, Italy and Spain. 

The Supreme Court heard November 
22d some new arguments advanced on the 
second appeal taken by Major Andre 
against the ports improvement act. The 
first appeal, which was argued November 
11th, was ruled out of order by the court 
on the ground that the law had not been 
applied in the case in question. This time 
the attorney for the appellant tried to 
have the court hand down a ruling on the 
law. 

In accordance with the international 
agreement between the American nations, 
Cuba will promptly notify all the other 
countries of the existence of any cases of 
j'ellow fever. The policy of Cuba is to 
spare no money in fighting the disease, and 
not to hide the fact of its existence, as has 
been done by other nations. 

The ^lanufacturers' and Producers' As- 
sociation of Knoxville, Tenn., is contem- 
plating a trip to Havana, with representa- 
tives of the Manufacturers' Association of 
Chattanooga. 

An invitation has been received from 
President Gomez, Vice-President Zayas. 
Governor Asbert and Mayor Cardenas to 
visit the city. The trip will be made in 
January or February. 

No cyclones visited Cuba this season. 
Experienced observers say that not in many 
years, at least eighteen, has a cyclone oc- 
curred in Cuba later than October 19th. 
the date of the great cyclone of 1906. and 
never within the period during which 
records have been kept has ? cyclone oc- 
curred later than October 30th, after which 
date, seemingly, cyclones are impossil»le 
in Cuba. 

Solis, the bandit, has defied the authori- 
ties for about three years. He must have 
received in this time in ransoms sums 
aggregating $40,000. The rural guards 
have made strenuous efforts to capture . 
liim, but always without success. 

Bernarda Toro de Gomez, the widow of 
General Maximo Gomez, the commander- 
in-chief of the Cuban Army of Liberation, 
died November 29th from paralysis at her 
home in Havana. President Gomez at- 
tended the funeral in person and was one 
of the pall bearers. The line of the fu- 
neral march to Colon Cemetery was cov- 
ered by two regiments of infantry, and 
military honors were rendered by a squa- 
dron of the rural guard. 



14 



THE CUBA R E \M E W 



PRESS AND INDIVIDUAL COMMENT ON CUBAN 

MATTERS 



WARNS AGAINST SELLING LANDS 

El Miindo, an Havana daily paper, 
sees trouble ahead for Cubans if they con- 
tinue selling their lands to Americans. 
It said recently: 

"We have heard that some capitalists 
and American business men have recently 
notified their lawyers and representatives 
in Cuba to purchase all kinds of farms. 
They do not want to buy homes, for this 
is not 'business.' This is all very well 
for the women and younger people. What 
they want to purchase is agricultural 
lands. What they desire is 'the earth.' 
When the Yankees took Puerto Rico, the 
Puerto Ricans immediately tried to sell 
them their lands, believing it to be good 
business. The money was invested in 
houses and mortgages. To-day all those 
who sold their lands are, unfortunately, 
unhappy, while the yankee purchasers are 
entirely contented. They are the owners 
of the land, that is to say, they are the 
economical owners of Puerto Rico. This, 
however, is forgotten by the Cubans. 
They sell their lands, they part with them 
with the same joy that the yankees buy 
them. The great land-holders are not the 
only ones that sell. The small ones also 
sell. Cuba is not, as yet, very populous, 
but it is on its way there. Let the Cubans 
continue selling their lands, and let the 
yankee continue purchasing them. They 
will become poor as well as the others be- 
come wealth}-. A\'hen we shall have neither 
lands, nor commerce, nor mines, nor in- 
dustr3% nor railways, what light shall we 
have to the political or administrative 
policy of the country? How can we 
expect that foreigners who are solvent 
will resign themselves to being governed 
by the natives who are insolvent or land 
poor." 

CANADIAN VIEW OF CUBA 

Commenting on a recent address of j\Ir. 
Andrew Carnegie, delivered at the Cana- 
,dian Club in New York, in which he said 
that if Canada got into difficulties, some 
400,000 would cross the border to help 
them, the Montreal Star, an influential 
conservative journal, intimated that they 
would remain in Canada and absorb it, 
and cites the entrance of the United States 
into Cuba as supporting their view. It 
says : 

"They landed in Cuba to set free that 
lovely and afflicted isle, and, though they 
have formally withdrawn, notice has been 
served upon the Cubans that they will be 
allow-ed to govern their own affairs only 



as long as they d(j so in the fashion that 
tlu'ir rescuers deem proper." 

SPANIARDS DOING CUBA's WORK 

"Ninety per cent of the laborers on the 
plantations and in the mines of Cuba are 
Spaniards," said Burton Vandyke, superin- 
tendent of one of the largest iron works 
in Santiago, at the New Ebbitt. "They 
make good workmen, far better than the 
natives of Cuba. In fact, the Cubans will 
not work as laborers. They. are all right 
in other lines of employment, but not as 
workingmen. The Spaniards have almost 
entirely taken the place of laborers of other 
nationality. The wages paid are based on 
an average of a dollar a day, but many 
make as high as $3 by doing 'task' work. 

"Cuba is rich in minerals, but the devel- 
opment of the island is retarded by the con- 
tinued unrest due to the fear that at any 
time, as in any Latin country, there may 
be a revolution. I don't think that a re- 
volution is imminent in Cuba. That would 
not be correct; but there is always the ap- 
prehension that some time there may be 
an uprising. 

"I have given no attention to politics in 
Cuba. That is a question that doesn't 
appear to concern many Americans. There 
is no doubt, I think, that if it were not for 
the unsettled political conditions of Cuba, 
American capital would feel safer in in- 
vesting there, and there would be many 
more Americans going there. At this time 
I do not believe there are any more Amer- 
icans in Cuba than there w^ere a few years 
ago, although the opportunities for making 
money in sugar plantations and in other 
lines are manv." 



AMERICAN CONTROL GROWING 

The growth of Culja's sugar industry is 
the theme of an editorial in the Haiaiia 
Telegraph. It says : 

"The island's sugar industry has for 
years been passing more and more into 
American hands, but now. with the brilliant 
prospects for the coming zafra, the move- 
ment has received a great acceleration. 
With sugar selling at seven reales, all ef- 
forts to keep back a flood of American 
capital will prove as futile as Dame Par- 
tington's endeavor to sweep back the ris- 
ing tide of the ocean with her Isesom. 
The addition of a hundred millions to the 
American capital invested in the island 
will be a long step toward annexation, by 
which the American people will profit, as 
well as the Cubans." 



THE CUBA R E A' I E W 



GENERAL NOTES 



CUBAN PHARMACISTS PROFITS 

Dr. Erancisco llerrara, secretary of the 
Havana Pharmaceutical Association, at- 
tended the October meeting in New York 
of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion and made an interesting address. He 
spoke of the catalog of uniform prices he 
had introduced in Cuba — all pharmacists 
selling" patent medicines at one price, a 
law having been passed to that effect. 
This regulation, however, does not apply 
to prescriptions, and the profit to the 
pharmacist is not in prescriptions, but in 
the patents, a condition quite the contrary 
here. A profit of not less than eight per 
cent is realized on all patents. Dr. Her- 
rara's remarks proved highly interesting 
to the members and he was accorded a vote 
of thanks. 



LABOR TROUBLES 

Workmen in a chocolate and biscuit 
factory at Ceirba recently went on strike. 
Their demands were that they be given 
wine with their meals, that the cook be 
discharged, that employees with families 
be paid some monej- on account every 
Saturday, that suitable dormitories be 
provided for employees and that seven 
employees who were discharged on ac- 
count of promoting the present movement 
be reinstated. 

The emploA'ers resist their demands. 

A general movement is being made over 
Santa Clara Province on the part of the 
government telegraph operators for a gen- 
eral increase in their salaries. 



THE CUBAN CHESS CHAMPION 

So eager are the chess players of the 
Latin races to bring about a meeting for 
the world's championship between Jose R. 
Capablanca of Cuba, winner of the San 
Sebastian tournament, and Dr. Emanuel 
La.sker, the title holder, that Buenos Ayres 
has come forward with an offer of $5,000 
for the winner and $2,500 for the loser, 
if such a match were played in the Argen- 
tine Republic. 

Eor the second time Dr. Lasker has de- 
clined to meet Capablanca and his reason 
is unique. If play takes place in a Span- 
ish speaking country, says he, "national 
sympathy" will lean heavily in favor of 
Capablanca. Another reason, and one not 
quite so shadowy, is the fact that the 
advantage of the choice of environment 
will be with the 22-year-old challenger, 
instead of with the defender of the title. 

A fine home in Havana has been pre- 
sented to the Cuban champion. 



CLEANING HAN'ANA S HARBOR 

Capt. T. L. Huston, president of tlie 
Cuban Ports Company, which has the 
contract to deepen the harliors of Cu!)a, 
while in New York recently gave the 
newspapers some interesting facts regard- 
ing the difficulties surrounding the clean- 
ing out of the harbor of Havana. He 
said that the harbor of Havana has been 
filling up with silt for literall}^ hundreds 
of j-ears. Every rain washed more ma- 
terial into it. The city's sewerage has 
been at least in part discharged into it 
or dumped from barges not too far out 
at sea, so that the material washed back. 
The waters of the harbor contain 253 
wrecks, of all sizes and ages. That is, 
that number has been charted. There may 
1)6 more. Every one of them is a peril 
to navigation and every one is a nucleus 
around which the process of silting up the 
harbor proceeds vigorously. There has 
never been an effort made to remove any 
of these wrecks. Condemned vessels in 
the old days were taken into the harbor 
and scuttled. No one ever thought of 
taking them out to sea. To-day vessels 
of light draft, which are able to enter 
the harbor proper, have to pursue a nar- 
row and tortuous course, because of these 
wrecks and the harbor shoals. 

So that Cuba is just going to dig up 
that harbor and wipe it dry and put it 
back again. It is estimated that not less 
than 26.000.000 cubic yards of mud will 
be dredged out. The harb(-)r will be 
dredged from 26 to 30 feet deep, and here 
and there even deeper, to permit the big 
freighters to get in and rub noses with 
the docks. 

Work on the cleaning of the harbor of 
Santiago will begin sometime this month, 
but will be finished before the work in 
Havana harbor is complete. 

The nlans include the removal of the 
Punta Diamante, extra dredging at Punta 
Gorda and the removal of the Colorado 
shoals. 



EPISCOPAL CHURCH GROWTH 

Speaking of missionary work being done 
in Cuba, the Very Rev. Charles Colmore 
Dean, dean of the cathedra!, said in a ser- 
mon preached November ^•^th at Nashville, 
Tenn. : 

'Tn 1905 the work was undertaken by 
the Episcopal Church in a definite sys- 
tematic way. Since then the work has 
increased amazingly. When Bishop Knight 
first went there he found only two clergy- 
men in the field. The church now nuii- 
isters to three classes of i^eoiile in Cuba. 



10 



THE C U B A R E \' I ]•: W 



the Americans who have gone there to 
seek their fortunes and Enghshmen, 
second, the people from the West Indies 
who have gone there, the majority- of 
whom are negroes, and third, the natives 
who are the Spanish-speaking people of 
the island. 

"The Cubans are being turned against 
the religion of their fathers, the Roman 
Catholic faith, since they have connected 
it with the oppression they suffered for so 
many generations. 

"There are two sides taken up by the 
Episcopal Church, the evangelistic and the 
educational work. There are now twelve 
church buildings, and in Havana alone 
there are five parochial stations. The ca- 
thedral is built in the old mission style 
and is a magnificent edifice. The cost 
of the building was $70,n00." 



NOT ENOUGH MATCHES 

Match boxes, according to the Cul)an 
law, must state the number of matches 
contained ; besides this the revenue stamps 
for this class of article sets forth tin' 
number of matches each box holds. 

A suit has been brought in Havana by a 
purchaser of a box of wax matches said 
to contain .50, but which contained only 
40. The case goes to the examination 
court of the district, which will make an 
investigation to find out how many per- 
sons have been swindled in the same way. 



■'iri!*-**S»! 




Steel bridge recently built over the Zaza River 

near Sancti Spiritus, Santa Clara Province. The 

length of the bridge is 228 meters. 



HAVANA S VOLUNTEER FIREMEN 

Havana only pays a small force of per- 
manent firemen who are constantly on duty. 
When an alarm is sounded, they rush to 
the fire, lay the hose and turn the streams 
on the fire. In the meanwhile the volunteer 
fireman, who has go::a to his home, 
sometimes distant, and donned his expensive 



uniform, arrives at the lire and expects the 
paid fireman to step aside and let him finish 
the work. The refusal of the former to 
relinquish the hose to the volunteers has 
led to a number of conflicts recently and 
resignations are threatened. A new set of 
regulations, which have recently been 
drafted and which the volunteers refuse 
to accept, are also causing friction. The 
regulations state the relative positions and 
duties of the volunteers and permanent 
firemen. 




One of Havana's volunteer firemen 

THE SANTIAGO CUSTOM HOUSE 

The custom house in Santiago de Culia, 
erected only about a year ago at a cost of 
over $800,000, is defective and in danger 
of falling. So imperative was the danger 
considered, that the local government tele- 
graphed to Havana on November 19th for 
l)ermission to seek other quarters, which 
was immediately granted and the customs 
officers authorized to move to another 
building. The report created ugly charges 
in connection with the construction work. 
An examination by government engineers 
showed that necessary repairs would cost 
$1.")0,()00. Large cracks have appeared in 
the walls of the building, which is of steel 
and concrete, and the foundation appears 
to be sinking rapidly. 

The engineers say that the concrete 
foundations were not allowed to dry suf- 
ficiently and that the weight of the super- 
structure l)roulit about a collapse. 



THE CUBA RE V 1 E W" 



17 



AN OUTSIDE EXPLOSION 

The myster_v surrounding the origin of 
the explosion which sent the battleship 
■■2\Iaine'" to the bottom of Havana harbor 
was definitely cleared up by the report of 
the Joint Army and Navy Board of In- 
spection, laid before President Taft De- 
cember 8th, finding that the ship was 
blown up from the outside. The findings 
of the board are contained in the follow- 
ing statement, given out b}- Secretary 
Meyer: 

"The board finds that the injuries to the 
bottom of the "Maine"' were caused by the 
explosion of a charge of a low form of 
explosive exterior to the ship between 
frames 28 and 31, strake 8, port side. 

"This resulted in igniting and exploding 
the contents of the six-inch reserve maga- 
zine, A-14-M, said contents including a 
large quantity of black powder. 

"The more or less complete explosion 
of the contents of the remaining forward 
magazine followed. The magazine explo- 
sion resulted in the destruction of the 
vessel." 

The board has devoted its entire time to 
an exhaustive examination of the wreck, 
which involved excavations many feet be- 
low the keel and the taking of hundreds 
of photographs, many of wliich show the 
aspect of the bottom of the ship as taken 
by flashHghts. 

The result of the examination by the 
Sampson Board of 189S. which was con- 
ducted by divers groping in the dark, un- 
der the direction of Ensign Powelson. 
is therefore fully confirmed. 

A model of the "Maine," which can be 
dissected by simple mechanical methods, so 
as to show an accurate representation of 
the present condition of the wreck and the 
results of whatever explosions, whether in- 
side or outside, sank the vessel, was taken 
to the United States by Constructor Fergu- 
son when the Board of Survey went north 
on December 4th. 

The army engineers will now lose no 
time in complying with the law of Con- 
gress, which provides for the removal of 
the hulk from Havana harbor. The after 
part of the ship, according to reports, can 
be raised and floated out to sea, where it 
will be sunk in deep water. The bow will 
have to be cut in sections and placed on 
scows and disposed of in the same manner, 
:i;id thus all traces of the wreck visible 
abo\ e Havana harbor will l)e obliterated. 

The remains of more than fifty victims 
of the disaster have been recovered and 
will be buried in the Arlington National 
Cemetery. The mainmast of the A'essel 
will be erected over the graves as a 
memorial. 

A monument is projected for Havana in 
memory of the American sailors lost in 
the disaster. The plan ha? the approval 



of President Gomez, who suggests a site 
in one of the public parks as a fitting lo- 
cation rather than in Colon Cemetery as 
also proposed. 



BASEBALL AND HORSE RACING 

The Philadelphia Nationals closed their 
season with the local Havana teams on 
November 21st, with a victory which gave 
the Americans one game the best of the 
series with the Havana Reds and left them 
tied with the Almendares Blues. With the 
Havanas the Philadelphias won three and 
lost two, while the series with the Al- 
mendares stands two and two. As a result, 
the Blues still maintain that they are the 
champions not only of Cuba, but of the 
world. 

In consequence of some disgraceful 
rows during the ball games. Sir Ruyole, 
the inspector of pubHc entertainments, who 
lias full authority from the city in all such 
affairs, delegated absolute authority inside 
the grounds fenced off for the players to 
Umpire Rigler, who could even command 
the police to obey his orders. It is the 
first time that an umpire has ever had 
such authority in Cuba, and it worked suc- 
cessfully, for when a player became angry 
at a decision and tore ofif his glove, throw- 
ing it on the ground, Rigler promptly told 
him he could keep his glove ofif and retire 
from the game, which he was forced to 
do despite some energetic protests. 

Mathewson of the New York Giants met 
Mendez of the Almendares Blues, whom 
the baseball enthusiasts of Havana call the 
"Black Mathewson" because of his great 
ability as a pitcher, at a game on Thanks- 
giving Day in Havana. A newspaper re- 
port of the game sums up the result as 
follows: "After the game, most of those 
who braved the elements, decided that it 
was a mistake about there being two 
Mathewsons. At least there was only one 
Mathewson in sight yesterday, and he was 
white." The pitcher for the Giants had 
some new curves for the Cuban players, 
which they had never met before. The 
game resulted, therefore, in favor of the 
New York players, with a score of 4 — fl. 

After all the talk of a great racing meet 
in Havana this winter, it has been callecf 
oflf for this season, owing to the fact that 
arrangements of a satisfactory character 
could not be made with the authorities in 
Cuba. 



November rains caused the destruction 
of the Tuinicu bridge in Santa Clara 
Province, cutting out all rail communica- 
tion with Camajuani. The Tuinicu bridge 
stood 75 feet above the river bed, and was 
built of steel on concrete foundations, 
which were carried away by the onrushingf 
water. 



18 



T II 



c u r. .\ k !•: v i !■: \v 



DECIDED AFTER FIFTEEN YEARS 

An echo of tlic liylit fur Cuban inde- 
pendence was heard on Xoveniber :2Utii in 
the Supreme Court of the United States at 
Washington, when that tribunal decided 
that Collector George 1). Bryan of Charles- 
ton, S. C, was not liable for the detention 
of the steamer "Laurada" during the 
struggle for independence. In 1895 Col- 
lector Bryan received instructions from 
Washington to take measures for the de- 
tention of the steamer "Laurada," which 
was supposed to have landed a hostile ex- 
pedition from the United States in Culia. 
This suit was to recover for damages 
alleged to have resulted from the collector 
detaining the boat. The Supreme Court 
held that it was the United States marshal 
and not the collector who detained the 
ship. 

THE NOVEMBER RAIN STORM 

Losses in excess of $1,000,000 was caused 
by the rain storm of November. In Pinar 
del Rio Province the tobacco crop, it is 
said, may prove a total loss. If bad 
weather continues and the planters be un- 
able to obtain nev/ seedlings, the loss will 
reach several millions, because no crop will 
be harvested this year. Some of the 
smaller farmers have been hard hit and 
are asking for government aid. At Guines, 
near Havana, a great center of vegetable 
growing, and where the picking and pack- 
ing of tomatoes for the New York market 
was about to begin, a total crop loss is re- 
ported. The storm raged for three days. 
The same heavy rains benefited the sugar 
crop materially, and a yield of over 1,700,000 
tons is expected. 



NEW TOBACCO DUTIES PROPOSED 

A bill recently introduced in the Cuban 
llou.se provides for a duty of one cent a 
p(jund on all leaf and cut tobacco exported 
from Cuba, the tax to be used in erecting 
schools throughout the ishmd. It is esti- 
mated the tax will pniduce in the neigh- 
borhood $300,000. 

Up to the present, no export duties have 
been levied in Cuba. Such duties, chiefly 
on tobacco and cigars, were imposed during 
the Spanish-colonial jieriod and were re- 
tained in the tariffs of the American mili- 
tary government, but were abolished on 
April 1, 1901, by order of the president of 
the United States under date of March 
i:j, 1901. For a short tiine export duties 
on sugar (1892 — 1895) and on coffee 
1 1893 — 1898) were imposed by budget laws, 
Init were not formally embodied in the 
tariff. 

The law of I'\'liruary 27. 1903, creating 
internal-revenue taxes, provided for export 
duties on cigars, at the rate of $1 per 
thousand, on cigarettes at 10 cents per 
thousand, and on manufactured tobacco at 
6 cents per pound, if the proceeds from 
the other taxes should prove insuflicient. 
These duties have not been put in force. 
A tax of 5 cents per bag containinp' not 
more than 14 arrolias f about 3.50 pounds) 
of sugar manufactured in Cuba, was like- 
wise authorized, but has not l)een actually 
apiilied. 



Tliere has recently been built at San Luis, 
in Oriente Province, a factory for making 
starch of the tubers of the yucca. This 
plant grows well in Cuba and the industry 
gives every promise of success. 

The Chinese consul of Cail^arien recently 
appealed to the city authorities to pre- 
vent the flying of the flag of the Chi- 
nese rebels of a local Chinese club. The 
club was recently organized and 
the flag of the Chinese rebels was 
floated above the building along- 
side that of the Cuban emblem. 
The consul claims that the per- 
mitting of the flag to fly is a vio- 
ation of the laws of neutrality. 




Cart all' 



iiiiiie-'.-' In 



reii trmdem frt-iiuentlv seen in Havana streets near the markets. 



THE CUBA R K \- I !•: W 



19 



ONLY 5,000 AMERICANS IN CUBA 

iKrom i;. S. Consul Ceneral .lames L. Rodgfis. 
Havana ) 

The last census of Cuba, that of 1907, 
gave the American population as 6,713, of 
which :;.91t7 were ir.ales and :2.71G females; 
of this, 6,026 were white and 687 colored. 
These American citizens were distributed 
as follows : In Camaguey Province, 715 ; 
in Habana Province, 3,706 (in the city of 
Habana, 2,422) ; in Matanzas Province, 
387; in Oriente Province, 1.009; in Pinar 
del Rio Province, 46.5; and in Santa Clara 
Province, 431. 

As this census was taken during the 
early period of the last American inter- 
vention in Cuba, it is extremely probable 
that the American residents at that time 
were much more numerous than at present ; 
in fact, it is to be doubted if in the whole 
of Cuba there are over 5,000 Americans 
at the present time. There is absolutely 
no waj' of determining this definitely, as 
but a small proportion of them are regis- 
tered at American consular offices. 

I am informed by the Deijartment of 
Sanitation, under whose control comes the 
department of the examination and regis- 
tration of physicians, that it cannot at 
present trace the American physicians, but 
it is stated that the number is exceedinglv 



small. In the same census referred to 
there were 1,240 physicians and surgeons 
ot all kinds, of whom 1,084 were native 
white and 9 colored, and 147 were foreign 
white. The American physician and sur- 
geon IS hardly in evidence in Cuba at all, 
this being shown ])y the fact that in the 
city of Havana there are only three li- 
censed physicians and surgeons' of Amer- 
ican nativity and about six dentists. 

MORE LIGHTHOUSES NEEDED 
It is said that hydrographic knowledge 
of the Caribbean Sea is scarcely more than 
it was four centuries ago. According to 
a writer in the Rez'iczv of Reviews, no 
accurate chart exists of the south coast 
of Cuba and its outlying keys. As com- 
pared to the )ilediterranean coast, with its 
534 lighthouses, the Caribbean, with a much 
longer shore line, otters only 96. It is 
apparent, however, that better lighting 
and charting of the waters around Cuba, 
Jamaica, Porto Rico and the Bahamas will 
be a question for international considera- 
tion. Xo less than fifteen different gov- 
ernments have territories i)ordering on 
this extensive Atlantic basin. Those spe- 
cially interested in the matter propose that 
a conference committee meet in Wash- 
in"ton. 




\ ifw of the new custom house at Santiago, but recently finished. It 
in dangei- of collapse through faulty construction, say engineers. 



20 THECUBAREVIEW 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD, THE HAVANA ELECTRIC, ETC. 
The Cuba Railroad Company's Earnings 



The report of the Cuba Railroad for the month of October and four months ended 
October 31st compares as follows: 

1911 1910 1909 1908 1907 

October gross $257,681 $190,691 $156,698 $133,195 $134,118 

Expenses 154,601 119,007 116,608 83,997 99,705 

October net $103,080 $71,683 $40,089 $49,198 $34,413 

Charges 60,125 36,666 36,657 32,487 28,329 

October surplus $42,955 $35,017 $3,432 $16,710 $6,084 

Four months' gross $1,037,947 $821,882 $641,234 $556,052 $577,574 

Net profits 451,875 346,454 196,595 214,952 159,582 

Fixed charges 240,500 146,666 141,877 129,257 113,317 

Four months' surplus $211,375 $199,787 $54,718 $85,677 $46,265 



Earnings of the United Railways of Havana 



Weekly Receipts: 1911 

Week ending November 4th £17,899 

Week ending November 11th 19,818 

Week ending November 18th 18,619 

Week ending November 2r)th 16,261 



1910 


1909 


1908 


;i6,324 
18,972 
17,361 
17,883 


il5,183 
15,630 
15,638 
15,750 


il3,972 
13,486 
13,050 
14,005 



Earnings of the Havana Electric Railway 



Weekly Receipts: 1911 

Week ending November 12th $48,601 

Week ending November 19th 46,26S 

Week ending November 26th 41,430 

Week ending December 3d 44,692 



1910 


1909 


1908 


$44,033 


$40,816 


$34,636 


42,737 


39,091 


35,501 


41,954 


38,397 


34,873 


43,167 


41,510 


;!8,951 



November Quotations for Cuban Securities 

Supplied by Lawrence Turnure & Co., New York 

Bid Asked 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (interior) 99% 99% 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (exte.nor) 102% 103 

Havana City First Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 107 109 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 103 106 

Cuba Railroad First Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds 101 H> 103 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 86 96 

Cuba Company 6 per cent Debentures 94 ¥2 100 

Havana Electric Railway Consolidated Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds .... 99 99% 

Havana Electric Railway Preferred Stock 98 101 

Havana Electric Railway Common Stock 93 

Matanzas City Market Place 8 per cent Bonds-Certificates 104 105 

Cuban-American Sugar Co. Coll. Trust 6 per cent Gold Bonds of 1918 . . 96% 98^ 

Central Vannina 8 per cent Mortgage Bonds lOf^ 

All prices of bonds quoted on an "and interest" basis. 



102% 



T H i£ L L" U .\ 1< E \' I E W 



RAILROAD AND COMMERCIAL NEWS 



AMALGAMATION PERFECTED 

At a meeting in London, November 22d, 
of the United Railwajs of Havana and 
Regla Warehouses, Limited, resolutions 
necessary to carry out the agreement under 
which the United absorbs the Western 
Railway of Havana, Limited, were adopted. 
The Western Railway also gave assent to 
the plan. Particidars regarding the terms 
of the transfer were printed in the No- 
vember issue of The Cuba Review. 

From the report of the directors to the 
shareholders of the Western Railway of 
Havana, for the year ended June 30, 1911, 
the following figures, showing the results 
of the working of the railway for the 
period named as compared with the pre- 
vious year, are taken. 

1910-] I 1909-10 

Gross receipts £259,151 £248,264 

Working expenses . . . 140,810 143,872 

Net receipts ill8,.341 £104,392 

To this balance must be added. . . . £118,340 
Brought forward from June 30, '10 10,797 

Transfer fees, etc 60 

Difference in exchange, etc 1,398 

Net revenue Hacendados Ware- 
houses and other properties.. 2,783 

Total £15,038 

Grand Total £133,378 

Deductions — 

Taxes, etc £5,189 

Interest on Debenture Stock 24,750 

Interim Dividend 33,000 

Total £62,9 39 

Leaving a disposable balance of . . . £70,441 

Out of this available balance on net 

revenue account of £70,441, the board pro- 



poses to pay a l)alance dividend of 8s. per 
share (subject to income tax), making, 
with the interim dividend paid in April, 
7 per cent for the year on the share capitai 
of the company, to transfer £10,000 to the 
general reserve fund, and to carry forward 
£16,441. 

The traffic statement for 1910 shows 
562,725 passengers carried as against 
571,145 in 1911. 

The freight traffic included 11,878 tons 
of tobacco in 1910 and 12.090 tons in 1911 
The road carried 10,835 tons of sugar in 
1910 compared with 8,325 tons in 1911 The 
decrease is due to the shortage in the 
crop. Fruit and vegetables w^ere carried 
to the extent of 31,344 tons in 1910 as 
agamst 25,399 tuns in 1911. The decrease 
bemg due to phenomenal storms that 
swept the western end of the island The 
figures for all freight showed 361,219 tons 
m 1910 and 416,058 tons in 1911. 

The company has new shops in full 
operation equipped with modern machinery 
and apohances, which are naturallv produc- 
ing considerable economy in the cost of 
repairs and contributed toward reduction 
in working expenses. Despite adverse 
conditions in the first half of the year, the 
gross receipts show an increase of £10,887 
over 1910. 

Passenger earnings for the year 1911 
likewise showed an increase over 1910 of 
£7,649. 

The company has paid a 6 per cent divi- 
dend for the years 1902, 1903 and 1904, and 
7 per cent since. 

The change in ownership is only another 
step toward the unification of all the Cuban 
railroads under one head. The entire 



^■ 



WESTERN RAILWAY OF HAVANA, Lta 






a u L F. O 1 ^ 







Uroa 



^-..., B 15 JL^^^^^o^ 



Map showing thf lerritorv covered by the W'c^tcni Kailu^y ab=,uiL.ed by the United RaiK 

of Havana a few weeks ago 



T 1 J E CUBA REVIEW 



RAILROAD AND COMMERCIAL NEWS (c.„n.„. 



d) 



mileage of the island, as has been said, 
being really a one road proposition. As 
regards the Pinar del Rio district, the 
combination can only insure to the general 
betterment of all concerned, giving plant- 
ers and travelers superior service and in- 
creased transportation facilities. 



HAVANA CENTRAL EXTENSIONS 

Work has begun on the Artemisa ex- 
tension of the Havana Central Railroad. 
The western branch at present runs only to 
Guanajay and the extension means an addi- 
tion of fifteen kilometers. 

An extension has also been contracted 
for from the eastern line of the Havana 
Central through San Jose de las Lajas, 
Tapaste and Santa Cruz del Norte, about 
forty kilometers. 

Plans are also being considered for ex- 
tending the lines of the Havana Central 
from Regia to Casa Blanca to Cojimar on 
the northern side of Havana harbor. 



to llaxana along the norlii coast. The 
United Railways very thoroughly supplies 
the transportation needs of this' section 
with frequent trains and good time. 

The Havana Electric Railway has been 
granted a concession allowing it to con- 
struct the all-land route from Havana to 
(hianabacoa on the other side of Havana 
harbor. The fare will be ten cents. 



News from Matanzas is to the effect that 
an electric road is talked of to be built 



CAMAGUEY COMPANY EARNINGS 

The Camaguey Company holds a per- 
petual electric light concession for the cit}- 
of Camaguey, while the railway franchise 
runs for sixty years beginning September 
26, 1906. 

The authorized stock of the company is 
$1,000,000 at par, of which $700,000 has been 
issued. 

Earnings for the last five years were as 
follows : 

1906 $27,791 

1907 :!S.780 

1908 51,848 

1909 r)8,492 

1910 6.'],989 




Map showing the new extension of tlie Cuba Railroad in Oiiente and Camaguey Provinces now 

recentlj', completed and in service. The new connections link Marti with San Luis via Bayamo, 

and the latter with Manzanillo, an important city on the south coast. 



THE CUBA R E \- I E W 



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24 



THE CUBA K E \' I 



W 



COMMERCIAL MATTERS 



HAVANA S CUSTOM HOUSE REVENUES 

The custom house receipts of Havana 
for November compare as follows : 

1911 $2,022,293 

1910 1,769,859 

1909 1,759,682 

1908 1,446,351 

1907 1,739,743 



TARIFF REVISION 

It is believed, says the New York Globe. 
that the next revision in the United States 
tariff will in all events call for free duty 
on iron ore. The last revision reduced the 
duty on this commodity from 40 cents a 
ton to 25 cents. If iron ore is placed 
on the free list, Cuba will be the centre 
of operations. Steel makers in the Pitts- 
burgh district will be able to bring ore 
from Cuba cheaper than they are now get- 
ting it from the Lake regions. Cuba is 
now the fifth largest producer of iron ore 
in the world, being exceeded only by the 
United States, Germany, the United King- 
dom and France. 



CANADA S TRADE WITH CUBA 

Canada's importations from and exporta- 
tions to Cuba, during the five years ended 
March 31, 1910, according to the figures 
just issued by the Cuban Department of 
State, are given below. The Cuban trade 
figures represent 22 per cent of Canada's 
total imports and 55 per cent of her exports. 

IMPORTS 

1906 $445,100 

1907 475,319 

1908 515,163 

1909 496,485 

1910 841,209 

EXPORTS 

1906 $1,221,766 

1907 992,832 

1908 1,366,319 

1909 1,403,442 

1910 1,737,385 



HINTS TO AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS 

Mr. Charles W. Harrah, Cuban consul 
at Detroit, Mich., in an addr-ess a few 
weeks ago before the export committee of 
the Board of Commerce of that city, spoke 
on trade conditions and opportunities in 
Cuba as follows : 

"Although many automobiles are used 
in the country, most of them are of foreign 
make. In auto trucks there is a field in 
Havana and a few other cities. Wind- 
mills to draw water in the cattle-raising 
section which lack running streams, motor- 
boats for the wonderful harbors and other 
waterways, engines for the farms and 
paints and brick machinery are some of the 
things in which exporters could work up 
a considerable trade." "Flies," he con- 
tinued, "are few in number, but mosqui- 
toes are often very numerous and beds 
are enclosed in screens to protect the in- 
mates." He recommended that an attempt 
be made to introduce more wire netting 
for windows and doors, something almost 
lacking now. 

"In working up a trade I would suggest 
that it be done through manufacturers' 
agents," said the consul. "The Cubans 
have to be shown before they are ready 
to take up with new things or discard the 
German, Spanish or English for the 
American make." 



NOW HAS TWENTY-TWO BRANCHES 

President Gomez signed a decree on 
November 19th, making the National Bank 
of Cuba the depository of the govern- 
ment's funds for four years more. This 
bank has been the disbursing agent of the 
government since Cuba became a republic. 
The bank also offered to furnish a place 
for safe keeping in its vaults of the funds 
which are daily collected in the fiscal zone, 
for which it will make no charge to the 
government. 

The bank announces also the inaugura- 
tion of another branch bank in Cuba, lo- 
cated at Placetas in Santa Clara Province. 
The city is in one of the most important 
centers of sugar industry on the island. 



Cuba's Imports and Exports of Merchandise 

(From latest available official sources.) 



12 months ending with December : 
Average per month during period : 



1910 

Imports $91,448,000 

Exports 124,711,000 



Imports 
Exports 



$7,621,000 
10,393,000 



1911 
;i03,657,000 
150,824,000 

$8,638,000 
12,5fi9.n00 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



CUBA'S GROWING MINING INDUSTRY 







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\'iew of IJaii|iiiri: .\ great niiuint; ct-nter in (Jriente Province 




Nodulizing plant at Felton, Oriente Province, to convert iron ore into nodules. Burns 

out all foreign matter. 



26 



T H 1-: C U B A R E V 1 E \V 



CUBAN MUSICIANS AND THEIR WCRK 



VIOLA UNKNOWN DISCIPLINE IN ORCHESTRA ABSENT NO PROTECTEE 

ORGANIZATION EXISTING 



Leonard L. Vosburg, of the American 
Federation of Musicians, writes an inter- 
esting letter to the International Musician 
concerning orchestral music in Culia. He 
says : 

"At my first orclu-stra rehearsal in Ha- 
\ana there were tliirty-nine musicians in 
the i)it. Eight of them were on "percus- 
sion.' Nineteen of them had violins in 
their hands. Three of them were equipped 
with rotary valve E flat alto horns, and, 
my interpreter tells me, they would play 
my French horn parts. All the clarinets 
— there were four — were 'C instruments. 
There was one five-string contra bass and 
one three-string, which made a good 
average in this important section. There 
was one 'cellist (a Mexican), and one 
man to play the flute parts, who was 
equipped with a Db band piccolo only. 
And one lone cornetist who had an Amer- 
ican cornet. 

"The 'percussion' end of the orchestra 
was the first to be dealt with, and to say 
the least, they were interesting. One of 
them had a bass drum which was over 
20 inches in diameter, and to beat it he 
had a hollow gourd. This gave a fair 
tone, too, but the man and his equip- 
ment were absolutely incapable of produc- 
ing but one variation of volume, and such 
a thing as pianissimo or a sforazando was 
impossible. This latter characteristic I 
found to be universal with the whole or- 
chestra. The others had a cymbal with 
a wire beater, a triangle whfch would 
weigh at least two and a half pounds: a 
one-headed snare drum, two very ancient 
looking tympani — a man for each ; and 
the other two had an assortment of hollow 
gourds which were elaborately carved and 
upon which they produced some very 
queer tones by scraping them together or 
scratching upon them with small pieces of 
wire. 

"The viola is almost unknown here, but 
two of the violinists played from a A'iola 
part, which produced surprising results in 
some of the passages. This orchestra, 
which is in the largest theatre in Havana 
("Theater Payret), is considered very -fine 
here, and they play opera for the numer- 
ous Spanish and Mexican repertoire com- 
panies which come here. They can at 
least play in tune, notwithstanding some 
of the queer tones they get. Some of the 
violinists show excellent schooling, but 
absolutely no real theatrical experience, 
from our American viewpoint. 

"Discipline in the orchestra is very con- 



spicuous b}- its absence. At ))erformances 
the musicians stand up at will and watch 
parts of the performance. They all 
smoke cigarettes at all times. A stop 
to assist one section of the orchestra 
during rehearsal means that the majority 
of the others will roll and light cigarettes, 
and a consequent delay of from three to 
ten minutes always. To get them to a 
rehearsal at a given hour is absolutely im- 
possible, and 1 always give them at least 
a half hour leeway. During a performance 
the conversation in the orchestra pit is 
often so unbearable, that boys in the 
gallery will shout 'Musica silencia!' The 
musicians here are more independent than 
anywhere else in the world, I belie\fe. In 
Havana, with a population of more than 
300,000, there are less than 100 'business 
players,' and they constitute a law unto 
themselves. 

"There is no union or other protective 
organization of any kind among them, and 
they work under what I would call the 
'padrone system' entirely. This theater 
orchestra here is controlled by a man who 
is not a musician at all. but who has four 
brothers in the orchestra. He engages 
the men and contracts with the 'teatro 
impresarios' to furnish them with an or- 
chestra for a given amount, which is paid 
during each and every performance. The 
Cuban people do not trust each other for 
a minute, and if the money for an en- 
gagement is not paid into their hands be- 
fore the performance is completed, it 
never will be completed. 

"The individual pay varies from 40 cents 
to $2. SO CSpanish silver) per performance. 

"The total cost of the orchestra here to 
the theater managers is $.")0 per perform- 
ance, and their agreement with the 
'padrone' calls for not less than thirty- 
two men. 

"During our first week here I had from 
thirty-five to forty-five men in the pit, and 
they explained it by saying that some of 
them came in to 'practicar' (obtain ex- 
perience). I soon determined that the 
principal reason for the changes was that 
they came to see the show, and I had it 
stopped with but little difficulty. 

"T will say that these people are very 
polite, deferential and hospitable, espe- 
cially to Americans. Not because they 
admire us so much, as for the reason that 
Americans are superior to the Spaniards 
in their treatment of the Cubans. They 
recognize American justice and progres- 
siveness, and are very quick to adapt new 



r ]{ E CUB A R E A' I E W 



methods if they are not too laborious — 
the laziest people in the world, but by no 
means the slowest. 

"I sent to the States for a trap drum 
outtit and picked out a man to use it. He 
is progressing rapidly, but it is principally 
for the reason that be has suddenly be- 
come conspicuous in the orchestra, and 
the attention he attracts appeals greatly 
to his vanity. By the use of a little 'con' 
I have secured results which surprise even 
myself, and although I have had a few 
arguments with individuals, the majorit}' 
of them are extremely courteous and help 
me in every possible manner. With abso- 
lutely no knowledge of Spanish when I 
first came here, I have at all times been 
able to make myself understood, musically, 
and from constant practice for a period 
of more than two months, we now have 
an orchestra which does remarkably and 
which is connnented upon by the public 
to a considerable degree. The playing 
of American music is very much appre- 
ciated, and at the first performance we 
played a 'rag' number, which was the occa- 
sion of much applause. 

"The native music is very reminiscent of 
the Moorish and Oriental style, as near 
as I can describe it, and is very irregular 
as to meter and rhythm. Xo good motifs 
are obtainalile and while i)laying for their 



native dance (the "Rumba"), there is main- 
tained a sort of accompaniment bv the 
strings and gourds, while individual reeds 
and brasses play improvised melodies 
which at times include well-know^n opera 
tunes. 

"The statements I have incorporated in 
this article may seem strange to the 
readers of the International Musician, but 
they are not overdrawn in any particular. 

"The musicians here are a highly re- 
spected lot of citizens, and they read con- 
siderably about our American bands and 
orchestras, but very few of them migrate 
to the States, and those that do. stay 
there. 

"The Rural Guard has five bands, and 
onlv one of these is a marching band." 



DECLARED CONTRABAND 

Maxim "Silencers" on firearms are de- 
clared to be contraband, by Secretary 'Sia- 
chado, of the department of government, 
and a decree has been issued by him allow- 
ing fifteen days from December 15th for 
the turning- in of all such instruments. 

Penalty of confiscation and deliver}* to 
the courts is imposed on all who do not 
obey the order. The importation, sale and 
use in any form is prohibited. 




Small deer are very plentiful in Cuba, so much so in ^^m- rpctiiin<-. a- to become a n-.iir.ance. especially 
where there are gardens. They are easily tamed. 



28 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



AGRICULTURAL MATTERS 



SUGAR CONTENT OF PINEAPPLES 

All growers, shippers and canners of 
pineapples will be interested in a recent 
discovery b\ .Mr. W. P. Kelley, chemist of 
the United States Experiment station al 
Monolnlu, which would seem to explain, 
at least in part, the well-known superiority 
of canned pineapple over the fresh pine- 
apples commonly found in the markets. 
-Mr. Kelley's investigations are briefiv 
sunnned up in the annual report of the 
Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station 
for 1910 as follows : 

A study of the ripening of pineapples 
has disclosed the fact that the suuar con 
tent of the fruit is derived exclusively 
from the leaves of the plant and does not 
increase after the fruit has been removed 
from the plant. 'f pineapples are picked 
green and allowed to ripen, the sugar c.jn- 
tent at complete ripeness is the same as 
it was when the fruit was removed from 
the plants. An analysis of the fruit shows 
that they contain no substance which can 
be changed into sugar ''uring the ripening 
process. 



Fruits picked too green and allowed to 
ripen, therefore, lack greatly in sugar con- 
tent and in flavor. Tlie sugar content of 
green fruits, or fruits ripened after being- 
nicked too green, is about 2 or :> per c^nt. 
while that of fruits ripened on the plants 
ranges from 9 to 15 per cent. The ripen- 
ing process in fruits picked green appears 
to consist largely in a softening of the tis- 
sues. A microscopic examination of sec- 
tions of green pineapples shows that the 
cell walls in the parenchyma of the fruit 
are greatly thickened, but become extremely 
thin in ripening. It is obvious from these 
facts that, in order to obtain a good flavor 
in fresh fruit, the fruit should not lie 
picked until the sugar content has become 
fairly high and the fruits have turned 
yellow to the extent of about one-fourih 
their length of the base. 

The main point thus brought out is that 
the pineapple contains no starch or other 
material that can be converted into sugar 
during the ripening process, but procures 
its sweetness by circulation from the leaves 
or possibly from the starchy plant stalk, 
and that when once it is picked, it cannot 



A<»EAr NEW ORANGE 
I THAT PACKS.SHIPSAND KEEPS 
THE L.UE CIM CONG 



The Lue Gini Gong Orange has been fruiting at De 
Land, Florida, for nearly fifteen years. It has been 
under our close observation until we are convinced that it 
has more merit than any orange yet introduced. We have 
bought the exclusive selling right. 

The fruit packs 126 to 176 per box. Skin and flesh deep 
orange-red; ten or eleven sections, containing few seeds and very 
juicy. The flavor is excellent — rich sub-acid, medium sweet. Com- 
mences ripening in June, is good in July and is at its best in August 
and September — throwing it into a season when the market is bare of 
all except some Californias, with prices correspondingly higher. 

THE LUE GIM GONG ORANGE 

hangs on the trees until picked^ — even for two or three years. The juice does not 
dry up nor lose its line flavor. The Lu Gim Gong is nearer an all-the-year- 
around orange than any ever introduced. 

Lue Gim Gong Oranges ship well. By comparison with other standard 
varieties, Lue Gim Gong's stand long-distance shipments better, and 
bring higher prices. This has been proved in actual tests. 

OUR HANDSOME NEW CATALOGUE 

describes all of our citrus fruits, deciduous fruits, nuts, 

shade and ornamental trees, evergreens, shrubs, vines and 

roses. It is one of the most best nursery books issued 

in the South. We are nurserymen and fruit growers 

exclusively. Our experimental work will help you. 

If you intend to plant this season, we will be glad 

til send you our handsome catalogue now. 

GLEN SAINT MARY 

NURSERIES COMPANY 

Rambler Ave., Qlen St. Mary 
Florida 




THE CUBA REVIEW 



become any sweeter, says James D. Dole 
in a letter to the New York Evening Fast. 
This is in contrast to the banana, which in 
its unripe state is composed largely of 
starch, much of which during the ripening 
process is converted into sugar ; and with 
the banana the ripening process seems to 
proceed almost as satisfactorily after the 
banana has been cut from the plant, as 
when left to ripen naturally. 



(lifferent combinations of toe-marking are 
possible. If only one mark is employed 
lor all chicks hatched in a given year, no 
farmer would tind it necessary to use more 
than three or four of these marks, but, if 
it were desired to show ages more closely, 
or to mark pedigree stock, all the forms 
indicated might be found useful. — Bureau 
of Animal Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D.C., Bulletin No. 141. 



MARKING POULTRY TO DETERMINE AGE 

At the present time. 9.j per cent of the 
farmers have no positive method of de- 
termining the age of their poultry. From 
an economic standpoint it is very desirable 
that when a farmer markets a part of his 
stock, he should be able by some accurate 
method to ascertain the age of the fowls 
which he sells. Such a plan would tend to 
decrease the enormous number of pullets 
and yearling hens which through lack of 
system are now being disposed of, while 
old hens are often retained. Yearling 
hens and pullets especially will in the 
course of the year return to the farmer a 
greater profit from the eggs which they 
produce than will the older fowls. Hens 
can be kept at a good profit until they have 
passed their second year, but they are not, 
as a rule, profitable beyond that age. 

The most common method of marking 
poultry is to leg-band them. These bands 
are manufactured from aluminum, wire 
and composite metals, and are placed 
around the leg of the fowl and fastened in 
numerous ways. This system, while emi- 
nently satisfactory, requires more labor 
and attention than most farmers would 
care to give. A more practical method is 
by punching the web of the foot at the 
time the chick is hatched. The operation 
is simple and an entire liatcli can be toe- 
marked in a short time. On this page is 
shown a diagram of a system by which 16 



e. 



A 


A 


- A 


/o \ 


A 


A 


- A 


/ °\ 


A 


/\ 


" /\ 


/ oV, 


A 


/o \ 


- A 


A 


A 


A 


« A 


A 


A 


A 


« A 


A 


A 


A 


'^ A 


A 



a A A '« A A 

Method of toe-marking chicks to determine age. 
Sixteen different toe marks. 



PICKING ORANGES IN SPAIN 

Oranges are gathered in flexible baskets 
of palm leaf and are transported to the 
l)acking store in carts of three stories. 
The lowest is a suspended floor between 
the wheels, reaching to within 1 foot of 
tiie ground, and each floor accommodates 
about 1(3 baskets, each containing 30 to 35 
pounds of oranges. In the store the fruit 
is piled in heaps 2 to 3 feet high and left 
to "purge" two or three days, according to 
the relative moisture or dryness of the 
weather conditions at time of harvesting. 
This purging is really incipient fermenta- 
tion, in which the excess of moisture in 
the skin of the orange exudes through the 
i)ores, leaving it dryer, more flexible, and 
better adapted to the very tight packing 
in Valencia standard cases, which average 
about 165 pounds of fruit each. — V. S. 
Consular Report. 



AGUACATE TREE YIELDS 

In the matter of yield, mature aguacate 
trees of the large varieties are often known 
to produce 500 to 1,000 fruits in each sea- 
son : the small purple varieties are some- 
times extraordinarily prolific, some trees 
having been known to bear as many as 
4,000 fruits in one season. With respect 
to the size of the fruit, the mistaken opinion 
is often held that this should be as large 
as possible : under conditions in the United 
States, a fruit weighing from 15 to 20 oz. 
would appear to be the most suitable. 

For export, it is the best for the form 
of the fruits to be oval or nearly spherical; 
those possesing a neck require much care 
in packing, and are best suited for local 
consumption. Uniformity should exist, 
not only in regard to form, but with re- 
spect to size, particularly as this increases 
the attractiveness of the fruit when it is 
exposed for sale. As regards color, the 
nurple varieties have been most in favor 
in California: in Florida those having a 
(larf crimson color seem to be preferred. 

In the case of avocados for shipment, the 
thickness and toughness of the skin are 
matters of importance. Many of the 
Mexican varieties possess a thick skin, 
while in others it is very thin ; thickness 
is particularly a feature in the skins of 
Cniatemalan types. In the matter of flavor, 



30 



THE CUBA R E X' 



W 



it seems that this is dependent on the per- 
centage of fat in the flesh of the fruit. 
Lastly, the seed 'in avocados for export 
should fit tightly in its cavity, in order to 
prevent it from being shaken against the 
flesh and thus hastening the deterioration 
of the fruit; the seed should also be small, 
and it is hoped that in time the avail- 
ability of a seedless variety will render the 
succe'ssful transportation of the fruit feas- 
ible over much longer distances than are 
l)Ossible at present. — Agricultural Ncivs. 

Professor Patricio Cardin, of the gov- 
ernment experimental station at Santiago 
de las Vegas, knows all about the insect 
pest which is attacking the aguacate trees 
in western Cuba, and says that its destruc- 
tion is easy. It is destroyed by sprinkling 
the trees with a solution of ammonia of 
lead mixed with water, in the proportion of 
two ounces to each gallon. 



\'ALUABLE LIVE STOCK 

Among the recent purchases of the Cuban 
government from the United States was 
$35,000 worth of live stock, consisting of 
twelve fine Kentucky saddle horses, four 
jacks from Missouri farms, eight bulls, 
twenty-six Jersey cows, and from six to 
twenty each of pigs, sheep, geese, chickens, 
ducks, etc. Cuba will utilize them in 
breeding and grading up the live stock of 
the country and to educate the people of 
Cuba in stock raising and culture. 



FRUIT AND VEGETABLE EXPORTATION 

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 19U, 
Havana exported to the United States 
fruits and vegetables to the following 
extent : 

Pineapples 989,83?, crates 

Tomatoes, peppers, etc :.'39,511 

Oranges, grapefruit, etc 19,501 

Aguacates, mangoes, sapotes. 

mameys, etc 5,183 



CAMAGUEY S FAIR 

The proposed agricultural, horticultural 
and live stock show which is being arranged 
for Camaguey this winter will be the first 
exhibition of the products of the various 
products of the island ever given in the 
interior, at least on the extensive scale 
which is intended for this exposition. 

Thomas R. Towns, the president of the 
horticultural society, has joined forces 
with the people of Camaguey, and besides 
doing his share as the president of the 
society, will also provide substantial prizes 
on his own account. The city council of 
Camaguey and the provincial council will 
ofi^er more excellent prizes. 



SI 
USTED 

ESTA' 
INTERES- 

ADO 



EN 



MAQUINAS PARA HACER 
BLOQUES DE CEMENTO 

MEZCLADORAS DE HORMIGON 

(Cement Block Machines and Concrete 

Ml.XERS) 



Pida hoy detalles descriptivos de las md- 
quinas "Climax" las mejores en el mundo 

GALBAN & CO. 

Habana .Nueva York 

Lonja del Comercio 78-80 Wall Street 

Dpto. de Ingenieria y Maquinaria 



AN ALL-AROUND VALUABLE PLANT 

I'Vom experiments conducted in many 
agricultural stations, the i^eanut would 
seem to deserve extensive planting in Cuba, 
combining, as it does, the desirable qualities 
of several important farm crops. The 
portion above the ground makes a supe- 
rior hay for horses, cattle and sheep, 
while the underground portion yields the 
nuts, which, acre for acre, is said to be 
more nutritious than the best corn or root 
crop that could be grown on the same type 
of land. The crop may be pastured, cured 
as fodder, or harvested with a view to dis- 
Iiosing of the nuts as a money crop. Be- 
ing a leguminous plant, it builds up the 
land through its power to utilize atmos- 
oheric nitrogen. ' Its roots are nearly al- 
ways well supplied with the nitrifying 
l^acteria nodules, an indication that the 
plant is performing this valuable function. 
Eor this reason and because it is a tilled 
crop, which leaves the soil mellow, it is 
well adapted for rotation with other crops. 
Furthermore, the crop grows with a less 
amount of moisture and on lands too sandy 
for corn and some other of the more com- 
mon forage crops. 

The United States exported to Cuba in 
the fiscal year 1911 perfumery, cosmetics 
and toilet articles to the amount of S31.(i24. 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



WHY CANE SUGARS ARE POLARIZED 



Whj' cane sugars are polarized and what ingredients are sought after in the examina- 
tion by the polariscope is an important question fully answered by Dr. C. A. Browne, Ph. D., 
chemist in charge of the Xew York Sugar Trade Laboratory and an authority upon 
methods of polarizing sugars, in a recent issue of the American Sugar Industry of 
Chicago. Dr. Browne says that cane sugars are ordinarily polarized in order to arrive 
at a basis of valuation. The polarization of a sugar is reported in the degrees of a scale, 
the 100-degree point of which represents the reading obtained upon a saccharimeter by 
a standard weight of chemically pure sucrose under certain prescribed conditions of 
temperature, volume, length and light. The German sugar scale is the one most gen- 
erally employed in the United States ; a sugar degree of this scale, according to the 
U. S. Bureau of Standards' certificates of standardization, is defined as follows : "A 
sugar degree is one-hundredth part of the rotation shown by 26 grams of sucrose dis- 
solved in water and the volume made up to 100 metric cubic centimeters, for light from 
an incandescent gas mantel passed through 1.5 centimeters of a 6 per cent potassium 
bichromate solution, the temperature being 20 degrees C. for graduation, preparation 
and observation." This definition holds only for a 200mm. tube. 

The polarization of a sugar gives the actual percentage of sucrose only with sub- 
stances which contain no other optically active ingredient that would affect the reading 
of the saccharimeter and where no contaminating impurities occur which would increase 
or diminish the polarizing power of the sucrose. The polarization for example of a 
refined sugar damaged by water would give the true percentage of sucrose. On the 
other hand, the polarization of a raw beet sugar containing raffinose would give more 
than the true percentage of sucrose for the reason that the impurity raffinose has a 
polarizing power of the same character as sucrose and of a much greater degree : so 
also the polarization of a raw^ cane sugar would give less than the true percentage of 
sucrose for the reason that the impurity invert sugar has a polarizing power of a 
character opposite to that of sucrose, thus diminishing the reading of the latter upon 
the saccharimeter scale : so again the polarization of a sugar contaminated by salt would 
give less than the true percentage of sucrose, for while salt itself has no polarizing 
power, its presence exerts a depressing influence upon the polarizing power of sucrose. 

These statements pertain only to the so-called direct polarization of a sugar, by which 
is meant the reading of a solution of a sugar upon a saccharimeter without other treat- 
ment than that of clarification.' By means of the Clerget, or invert polarization, in 
which the reading of a standard weight of a sugar is taken before and after inversion 
("with acid or invertase), it is possible to arrive at a very close approximation to the 
true percentage of sucrose. The inversion method, however, on account of its com- 
plicated character is not employed commercially in the valuation of raw sugar, although 
it is frequently used in factor}^ control work, where it is necessary to determine the 
losses of sugar at the different stages of manufacture. 

The difference between polarization and true sucrose content of raw cane sugars may 
be seen from the following table. 

Kind of Sugar Polarization Acutal Sucrose Difference 

Java Centrifugal 98.5.) 98,75 0.20 

Peru Centrifugal 97.45 97.60 0.15 

Cuba Centrifugal 04.50 95.10 O.GO 

Louisiana Centrifugal 93.70 94.50 O.so 

Louisiana Centrifugal 89.50 90.70 1.20 

Cuba ^folasscs 91.75 92.45 0.70 

Brazil Muscovados 88.90 90.40 1..50 

Philippine Mats 84.10 86.60 2.50 

Louisiana Molasses 82.60 85.60 3.00 

Louisiana Molasses 74.70 78.40 3.70 

The statement is often made that, inasmuch as raw cane sugars are bought and sold 
upon the basis of a test which gives less than the true amount of sucrose, an injustice 
is done to the seller. This statement is made, however, without due consideration of 
all the facts. The price for a raw sugar is determined almo.st wholly by the yield of 
pure sucrose which this sugar will give to the refiner. A raw beet sugar, for example, 
polarizing 93 and containing 1 per cent of ash. is given a value of 88 instead of 93 ; 
for while the true percentage of sucrose may be very close to 93, the presence of the 
mineral matter in the sugar reduces its value for refining to the extent of 5 times the 
amount of a.sh. 

So also with a raw cane sugar which polarizes S2.5. but has a true sucrose content 



32 



T II 1-. (. U B A R !•: \- 



\V 



of 85 per cent. The sugar is given a value of 82.5 rather than 8J tor th<- reason that 
82.5 represents more nearly the value of this sugar to the refiner. 

It may be said, in general ,that raw sugars are polarized simply to arrive at a rapid 
convenient means for fixation of price. The polarization figure is a conventional ar- 
bitrary standing of valuation ; polarization and absolute percentage of sucrose are two 
entirely distinct quantities, the difference between which must always be borne care- 
fully in mind. 



REDUCTION OF SUGAR DUTIES 

It is said that at the present session of 
the United States Congress an attempt 
will probably be made to abolish the 20 per 
cent differential in favor of Cuban sugar, 
provided by the present tariff law. and sub- 
stitute an ad valorem rate of from 40 to 
55 per cent for the present specific rates. 
The average rate now paid on Cuban im- 
portations is equivalent to about 53 per cent, 
and it is urged that the ad valorem rate 
suggested would quite cover the Cuban pro- 
tection, while at the same time the effect 
would be to lower the rate from other 
countries, which is equivalent to 78 per cent. 

If the ad valorem plan prevails, the 
polariscopic test required under the present 
law will be eliminated. 

Concerning the lowering of sugar duties, 
the Cuban Chamber of Commerce in a 
petition to President Gomez says : 

"This measure may be or may not be 
carried out. because a movement of that 
nature would certainly entail the strongest 
opposition from the manufacturers of this 
staple in Hawaii and the Philippines, but 
whatever resolution Congress may adopt 
\n that matter vi'ill radically affect the com- 
mercial relations between Cuba and the 
United States, inasmuch as the reciprocity 
treaty is based on that product. 

"For this reason we should be prepared 
for this contingency. This can only be 
done by initiating the necessary negotia- 
tions towards a new treaty in case of a 
total or a partial reduction of the present 
duty fixed by the American tariff at pres- 
ent. This is necessary because the 20 per 
cent reduction enjoyed by Cuban sugars at 
present is based on the duty now levied 
on sugar, which is 1.(iS5 cents on the pound. 



and would this duty be exaggeratedly re- 
duced, it would be of no benefit to Cuba 
as it now enjoys under the reciprocity 
treaty." 

The Chamber of Commerce does not 
want a further benefit in favor of Cuban 
sugar, which is 20 per cent at present. 
President Gomez is told that in case of a 
new treaty made before Congress convenes 
that the present benefit be left as it is. 

GREAT REVENUE AT STAKE 

In regard to the public demand for the 
removal of the tariff on sugar, because of 
the recent advance in price, the Boston 
Herald considers the question of the loss in 
revenue resulting therefrom and says : 

"Uncle Sam gets $60,00(),0()0 a year from 
sugar duties now; these would be nearly 
wiped out by the annexation of Cuba, and 
completely so by free sugar wholly apart 
of any change in the political status of that 
island. Where is the equivalent sixty mil- 
lions to come from ? The government will 
soon need additional sources of revenue 
anyhow, and so large a sum as this is not 
readily picked up, nor can it ordinarily be 
derived from the luxuries of the few." 



Sr. Ramon Vigil, one of the best known 
sugar men in the central section of the 
island and manager of the Adela Sugar 
Estate, died in Paris November 2d. 



The Cuban-American Sugar Company 
has declared the regular quarterly dividend 
of 1% per cent on the preferred stock, 
payable January 2d. to stock of record on 
December 15th. 



The Cuban and Pan-American Express Company 

The traveling public will find the service of this company of great 
convenience, particularly in the transfer of baggage. 

Pursers on ships and messengers on trains will supply all information 
dcjired. 

MAIN OFFICES: 

NEW YORK, 136 FRANKLIN ST. HAVANA, 150 HAVANA ST. 



T H E C U B A R E V I E W Sd 

SUGAR REVIEW 

Specially Written for The Cuba Review by Willett & Gray, of New York 



Our last review for this magazine was dated November 14th. 

At that time, centrifugals of 9G test were quoted at 5.12c. per lb. and are now 4.87oc. 
per lb., showing a decline of 0.245c. per lb. The decline is the natural coming together 
of the scarce supply period and the new crop sugars of Cuba and Porto Rico. First 
sales of these sugars to our refiners have been made this week at 3 7-16c. c. & f. (4.80c. 
duty paid) for December or 3%c. c. & f. for first half January, and these prices would 
now be readily paid, but planters do not seem desirous of selling freely until assured 
that their grinding season is really on. 

European markets have gone steadily downward during the time under review, the 
fluctuations running as follows: From 16s. ll%.d. to 16s. 6 -/id., to 16s. sVid., to 16s. 5^d., 
to 16s. 6d., to 16s. 3%d., to 16s., to 16s. 3%d., to 15s. 11 ^Ad. at the close for December 
delivery with corresponding changes for other months, the close being Ifis. for January 
and 16s. 3d. for May futures. 

The declining trend of Europe cannot be traced to any change in the beet crop con- 
ditions abroad, but rather to the fact that Russia has surplus stocks of sugar to meet 
the deficiency in crops to some extent if only a means of getting it out of Russia and 
into Europe can be diversed without surrendering the neutral relations of the Brussels 
Convention members for the extension of this convention after its present expiration 
in September, 1913. 

Russia asks permission to export 600,000 tons sugar this campaign instead of 20(i,()00 
tons, the present limit, and while Germany, France and other countries object to any 
change, Great Britain is inclined to withdraw if Russia's demand is not complied with. 
It is notable that Great Britain received some 774,000 tons of sugar from Germany 



El unico colector del agua de condensacion con una 

vdlvula exterior que carece de prensaestopas que tengan 

escape, se adhieran 6 hayan de empaquetarse 



COLECTOR DEL AGUA DE CONDEN- 
SACION "LYTTON" PARA TACHOS 
AL VACiO que de seguro aumenta el 
rendimiento de los tachos 

LOS COLECTORES "LYTTON" PARA TACHOS 
AL VACIO extraen rapidamente el agua de la condensa- 
cion y hacen mucho mayor la eficacia evaporadora de 
los tachos al vacio. Cuando se empleen distintas pre- 
siones del vapor, los serpentines calentadores pueden 
mantenerse exentos de agua y obtenerse un extraordinario 
mayor rendimiento asignando un colector separado a cada 
serpentin. (Vease el grabado.) 

La superioridad de los COLECTORES "LYTTON" 
PARA TACHOS AL VACIO esta en la seguridad y 
eficacia de su funcionamiento y a la poco atencion que 
requieren para mantenerlos en buen estado. Estan con- 
sistentemente construidos y tienen solo una pieza mp- 
vible: el flotador en su interior. El detalle que mas 
los distingue, sin embargo, es que no tienen prensaestopas 
que se escapen, se adhieran 6 hayan de empaquetarse. 
Extraen TODA EL AGUA CONSTANTEMENTE de la 
mejor manera y del modo menos molesto. 
LFabricado por la LYTTON M'F'G CORPORATION. 
FRANKLIN, VIRGINIA. E. U- A. 

Escritorio en Nueva York; 1159 Hudson Terminal 

Escribase 6 vease a nuestro agente en la Habana para 
obtener detalles completos. 

Agente en la Habana: J. E. HERNANDEZ, Aguacate, 

No. 56 



.34 



THE CUBA R E \" I E W 



last year and that Germany has a surphis crop this year over home consumption '..f 
only about 30,000 tons to export, hence the anxiety of Great Britain for the Russia 
sugars and a similar anxiety for some of the new Cuban crop, is likely to bring about 
in the near future a buying demand for Cuba sugars in competition with the United States. 

A touching of bottom in beet prices soon and the turn upward again will likely de- 
velop into buying Cuba sugars for Great Britain. 

Under present and prospective conditions the present Cuba crop as to size becomes 
the most important now visible feature of the campaign. Prices for planters will be 
so extremely lucrative that there is everj^ incentive to make as large a crop as is prac- 
ticable. The same may apply to Porto Rici) and all other cane producing countries. 

The U. K. in its need for supplies has already returned sn.ooo tons of Javas iv.m 
their India destination to the home market and the world will l)e searched for enough 
invisible supply to prevent an actual large decrease of consumption in non sugar pro- 
ducing countries like the United Kingdom. 

Lowest prices of the campaign are likely to rule as usual during the first quarter 
of the Cuba crop season. The United States ran so far short of supplies during the 
interim between crops that the Louisiana and domestic crops were seized upon to meet 
the situation as soon as they appeared. These sugars have gone and arc going into 
consumption so rapidly as to leave the country open for a large consumption of cane 
sugars as soon as they can be had freely. 

We look for higher than present prices to rule as an average for this campaign year. 

Crop estimates have not changed materially since our last report and are not likelv 
to become much improved later. 

Xew York. December 12, 1911. 



METAL AGUILA BABBITT 



EL METAL I5AB- 
BITT "AGUILA" ps 
un metal antifric- 
cion de clase su- 
perior y de prt'cio 
modico. Sus buenas 
cualidades para lu- 
bricarse, sii fluide/, 
y el estar destinado 




HOYT METAI CO 



a absorver y retener 
el ateite, lo liace de 
iniportancia especial 
para niaqiiinaria de 
nioler caiia de azu- 
lar. 

Precio, !.■) cts la 
iil)ra. 



HOYT METAL COMPANY - - NUEVA YORK 




Bomba de Vacio Seco de Marsh 



Bombas de Marsh 



Del mas alto grado 
de eficacia para el 
servicio de Ingenios. 

Garantizamos menor 
consume de vapor que 
cualquier otro fabri- 
cante de bombas de 
accion directa. 
Pidase un catalogo. 

AMERICAN STEAM PUMP GO. 

BATTLE CREEK, MICH. 



T ]I 1£ CUBA R E \' I E \V 




JEFFREY CONVEYER 

in Sugar Mill, carries bagasse to the 
furnaces. Provided with valves or 
gates at stated intervals. Special cast 
iron bagasse feeding hoppers, lo- 
cated between the valves and furnaces, 
deliver the bagasse to the furnaces. 



Vi'vile for Folder on Jeffrey Machiiienj 
for Sugar Plantations and Refineries. 

Jeffrey Mfg. Company, Columbus, Ohio 

Agent: P. D. DePOOL, P. O. Box 297, Havanna, Cuba 



ELECTRIC APPLIANCE COMPANY 

C. ROBERT CHURCHILL, President and General Manager 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTfor SUGAR FACTORIES 

205-7-9 Chartres Street NEW ORLEANS, U. S. A. 



Posicion como superintendente asistante 6 quimico jefe 

de -.in iiigenio. Experieucia comprehensiva oliteiiida en Louisiana y lo? tropic;,. Ketei-i.-iicias de c!ase 
mas aha acerca caracter y aliiliilacL 

Dirigirse a K. Ll'DWIG. Codchaux's Central Ractland. I ;i.. i:. I', d, \. 



LOUISIANA S CROP LOSS 

The loss to the sugar crop of Louisiana, 
due to the freeze and the following warm 
weather of the I'lrst two weeks in Decemlier, 
was estimated by a coterie of experts to 



have reached 2.j per cent, which means a 
loss in round figures of $8,500,000. 

In the upper part of the sugar belt more 
than 2o per cent of the crop has been lost. 
The loss in the southern part was 20 per 
cent. If the warm weather continues the 
loss will be still greater. 



El senor J. E. Hernandez, Aguacate 
56, Habana, Cuba, ha side nombrado 
agente en la isla de Cuba, isla de Pines 
y Jamaica para la venta de los aparatos 
fabricados por la "Lytton Manufacturing 



company" de Virginia. Vease el anun- 
cie que mserta dicha compani'a en otra 
pagina de este numero referente a colec- 
tores del agua de condensacion para ta- 
chos al vacio. 



LINGUISTIC PRINTERS' COMPANY 

Neumann &c Spark, Props. 



Excellent Printing of Magazines and Trade Publications 



Jobs of All Description Tastefully Executed 



124-132 WHITE STREET 



NEW YORK CITY 



36 T H E C U B A R E V 1 E W 



REVISTA AZUCARERA 

Xuestra ultima rcvista para esta publicacion llevaba fccha 14 de Noviembre. En aqnel 
dia, el azucar centrifuga polarizacion »0 grados, se cotizaba a .J.IS cents, la libra, y 
ahora se cotiza a 4.875 cents, la libra, acusando una baja de 0.24.5 dc centavo en libra. Esta 
baja es el resultado natural de la coincidencia del periodo de escasez con la obtencicm 
de azucares de la nuova zafra de Cuba y Puerto Rico. Las primeras ventas de estos 
azucares a nuestras refinerias se hicieron en esta semana a :! 7-lG cents., costo y flete, 
(4.80 cents, derechos pagados ) para cntrega en Diciembre 6 a u% cents., costo y fletc, 
para su entrega en la primera quincena de Enero, y estos precios se pagarian gusto- 
samente, pero los hacendados no parecon dispuestos a vender en grandes partidas hasta 
estar seguros de que la zafra esta realmente en marcha. 

Los mercados europeos ban continuado bajando durante el periodo que comprende 
esta revista, habiendo sido las fluctuaciones como sigue : De 16s ll%d a 16s 6%d, a 
16s 8%d, a 16s 5i/4d, a 16s 6d, a 16s. a 16s 3 74d, a 16s, a 16s 3%d a 1.5s ll^/4d al cerrar 
para entrega en Diciembre, con cambios correspondientes para otros meses, siendo la 
cotizacion a ultima bora 16s para entrega en Enero y 16s 3d para entregas en Mayo. 

La tendencia a la baja en Europa no puede atribuirse a ningun cambio en el estado 
de las cosecbas en el extranjero, sino mas bien al hecho de que Rusia tiene azucar 
sobrante almacenado para compensar hasta cierto punto la deficiencia en la produccii'm 
debida a las malas cosecbas, si se lograse la manera de hacer que ese azucar saiga de 
Rusia y entre en los demas mercados de Europa sin menoscabo de las relaciones neutrales 
de los miembros de la Convencion de Bruselas en cuantn se refiere a la prorroga de 
dicha Convencion a la expiracion del presente convenio en Septiembre de 1913. 

Rusia pide que se le perniita exportar 600,000 toneladas de azucar esta zafra en luvar 
de las 200,000 toneladas a que esta limitada al presente, y si bien Alemania, Francia 
y otras naciones se oponon a todo cambio, la Gran Rretana esta dispuesta a retirarse si 
no se concede lo pedido por Rusia. Es notable que la (iran Bretana haya recibido cerca 
de 774,000 toneladas de azucar procedente de Alemania el ano pasado, y que Alemania 
tenga este ano un exceso de produccion sobre lo necesario para el consumo nacional 
de solo Unas 30,000 toneladas que exportar. y de aqui la ansiedad manifestada por Ingla- 
terra con respecto a los azucares rusos, y una ansiedad semejante por algun azucar 
de la nueva zafra de Cuba, es posilde que determine dentro de poco una demanda por 
azucar cubano cuya adquisicion de lugar a una com])etencia con los Estados Unidos. 

Si los precios del azucar de remolacha llegan pronto a su cotizacion mas baja y luego 
vuelven a subir, es probable f|ue determinen la CDuipra activa de azucar cubann con 
destino a Inglaterra. 

Bajo las presentes circunstancias y las que se vislumbran para el futuro, el volumen 
de la zafra acutal de Cuba es el detalle mas importante del momento. Los precios que 
se pagaran a los hacendados seran tan extremadamente lucrativos, que constitutiran un 
gran incentivo para que procuren lograr la zafra mayor posible. Lo mismo puede decirse 
de Puerto Rico y otros paises en que se produce la cafia de azucar. 

Inglaterra, aprcmiada por la escasez de azucar que siente, ha hecho que se transfieran 
para el consumo nacional 80,()0() toneladas de azucar de Java llevadas a la India, y de 
seguro que se escudrinara todo el mundo en busca de partidas de azucar que comprar 
para evitar una gran disminucinn en el consumo en paises que como Inglaterra no pn)- 
ducen azucar. 

Es probable que como suele acontecer. rijan los mas bajos precios de la zafra durante 
el primer trimestre de la molienda en Cuba. En los Estados Unidos es tanta la escasez 
de azucar durante el periodo que media entre zafra y zafra, que tan pronto como llegaron 
azucares de Louisiana y otros puntos de pais, es compraron para remediar temporal- 
mente la situacion. Estos azucares han ido y estan yendo al consumo con tanta rapidez, 
que el consumo de azucar de cana sera muy grande en cuanto se ponga a la venta la 
de la nueva zafra. 

En nuestra opinion, el promedio de los precios que regiran durante la zafra actual 
habran de ser mayores que los cotizados al presente. 

Los calculos relativos a las cosechas no han variado gran cosa desde nuestra ultima 
revista, y no hay indicios de que mas adelante aumcnten gran cosa. 

Nueva York, 12 de Diciembre de 1911. 



HI-; L U B A R E \' 



1-: w 



CABLE ADDRESS: Tuinubi 



NEW YORK 
64 66 Wall Stkist 



LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

BANKERS 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of Collection aind Remittancr 
of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale 
of Letters of Exchange. Collection of Drafts, Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Paymentt 
by Cable and Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, Spain. 
Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo. Central and South America. 



HAVANA— N. Gelats y Ca. 
MEXICO— Banco Central Mexicano 



CORRESPONDENTS: 

LONDON— The London Joint Stock Bank, Ltd. 
Paris — Heine et Cie. 



ORENSTEIN-ARTHUR KOPPEL COMPANY 



30 CHURCH ST. 

CANE-CARS 

LOCOMOTIVES 

PLATFORMS 




New York 

RAIUS AND 

SWITCHES 

PORTABLE 

RAILWAYS 

DUMP-CARS 



Agents for Cuba Schwab ^ Tillmann, San Ignacio 76, Habana 



SUGAR TESTING APPARATUS 



FUNDADA EN 1851 




Hace una especiali- 

dad de surtir 
Todos los Instru- 
menios para la 
Prueba de Amucot 
y Habilitacidn d* 
Laboratorio. 
Unicos Agentes en 
los Estados Unidoi 
y Canada para loi 

STANDARD 
POLARISCOPIOS 

Su triple 6 doble 
campo de vision ha 
sido adoptado por 
el Gobierno de lo» 
Estados Unidos co- 
mo norma. 

Toda la maquina- 
ria experimental y 
los aparatos descri- 
tos cu ((Agricultural 
Analysis,)) del Prof. 
H. W. Wiley. Se 
suministran c o » 



POLARISCOPIO SOBRE "BOCKSTATIV" LA FORMA MAS MODERNA formes'°Dedidos '" 
Con caja a prueba de polvo, parte de prism a, y engranaje prolongado. ^ 

EIMER & AMEND, 



-»ne '•.I Ti.' J A VI v 1 Pidanse Listas de 

205-211 Third Avenue, New York Predos Ilustradat. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when wbitinc to advertiskm 



38 



THE CUB A R E \' 1 



W" 



HAVANA 



The United Railways of Havana 

in conjunction with the Cuba Railroad, maintain a service of 
two trains daily between Havana and the growing Eastern 
city of CAMAGUEY, and one Express Train daily between 
Havana and SANTIAGO DE CUBA, the "Dream City of the 
West Indies." Buffet lunch is served on these trains. 

FOUR TRAINS DAILY 

in both directions between Havana and MATANZAS, which latter city because of its picturesque 
situation and tne charm of its principal attractions (Yumuri's famous valley and the wonderful 
caves of Bellamar) has long enjoyed distinction as the great "Mecca" of the tourists, and it 
continues to gain in populaiity. EXCELLENT TRAIN SERVICE is maintained to many other 
places of great interest to tourists, all of which are fully described in "Cuba — A Winter 
Paradise," a profusely illustrated 80-page booklet with six complete maps and 72 views illustrative 
of this wonderful island, sent postpaid on receipt of 3 cents in stamps. 

Frank Roberts, General Passenger Agent 
United Railways of Havana . . ng, Prado, Havana, Cuba 



FRED WOLFE isi 



CALZADA DE VIVES, HAVANA 

Cable, "Wolfe" 

of 



Negociante en Todas Clases Dealer in all Classes 
de Ganado Live Stock 

Especialmente en Mulos Especially in Mules 

Always on hand Large Stock of All Classes of Mules — All Mules Sold Are 
Guaranteed as Represented — Can Furnish Any Number Desired on Short Notice 



19 



A NEW BOOK ON AGRICULTURE 

Ninety Pages, twenty-four Illustrations. Describes Cover, Crops, Fruits, Cane, 
Tobacco, Fiber Plants, Root Crops, etc. Ask for "Miscellaneous Economic Plants." 

GERMAN KALI WORKS, box 1007, Havana, cuba 



t's^^m of'^IWo^ the LIVERPOOL & LONDON & globe INSURANCE CO. 

This Company will issue Binders on risks in the Island of Cuba 
at theii New York ofTice, 45 William Street. Tel., 3097 John. 

FIRE LOSS OF INCOME BOILER EXPLOSION 

ENGINE BREAKDOWN 



FIRE AMD BOILER EXPLOSION FOLLOWING FIRE 

Havana Office: 106 Cuba Street 



P. RUIZ a BROS. 

ENGRAVERS 

FINE STATIONERY 

Obispo 22 P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA, CUBA 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

Established 1836, at 105 Wall St. 

Cable Address, "Tide, New York" 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



HAVANA 



CUBA 

National Bank of Cuba 

Government Depositary 

CAPITAL, SURPLUS AND 
UNDIN'IDED PROFITS 

$6,250,000.00 



Head Office — Havana 

20 BRANCHES IN CUBA 

New York A gency 
J WALL STREET 



COLLECTIONS 



THE 



TRUST COMPANY OF CUBA 

HAVANA 



sukp'l'u's''"'' $580,000 

TRANSACTS A 

Cr.NERAL TRjST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT 

EXAMINES TITLES COLLECTS RENTS 

NEGOTIATES LOANS ON MORTGAGES 

Correspomlence Solicited from 
Intending Investors 



OFFICERS 

Xornian 11. Davis President 

O. A. Hornsby - Vice-President and Treas. 
Claudio G. Mendoza - - Vice-President 

Kogelio Carbajal Secretary 

J. M. Hopgood - - - Assistant Treasurer 

Offices: Cuba, 31, Havana 



The Royal Bank of Canada 

INCORPORATED 1869 

l-iscal Agent of the Government of the Republic of 
Cuba for the Payment of the Army of Liberation 

Paid=up Capital 

and Reserve. .. .$13,100,000.00 
Total Assets $95,000,000.00 



Head Office 



MONTREAL 



New York Agency 
68 William Street 

Branches in Havana: Obrapia 33, Galiano 92; 

Matanzas, Cardenas, Manzanillo, Cienfuegos, 

Camag\iey, Santiago de Cuba, Mayari, Sagua, 

Caibarien 



F.STABI.ISHIll 1844 

H. UPMANN & CO. 

BANKERS 

TRANSACT A GENERAL BANKING BUSINESS 
Correspondents at All Principal Places ct the Island 

Saje Deposit I lulis 

Manufaclurcrs of the Famous H. Upmann 
Briiinl of Cigats 



FACTORY: 
Paseo de Tacon 169-163 



OFFICE: 
Amargura 1-3 



l-'.STABI.ISHED 1876 

N. GELATS & COMPANY 

BANKERS 



Transact a general banking business 
Correspondents at all the principal 
places of the world 

Safe Deposit Vaults 
Office: Aguiar 108 



Fruit exporters have made representations 
to the Cuban Treasury Department asking 
for a different classitication of the paper 
used for wrapping fruits for export. They 
claim that they are unjustly compelled to 
pay the high duty charged under the present 
classification. 



Plbasi viktiom the CUBA REVIEW w«m wtuma to ABTitiiiiu 



40 T H E C U B A R E V 1 E W 



-= Canada Land and Truit €o. — 

Owner* : 

Los Indios Los Indios and Canada Tracts Isle of Pines 

Location: Siguanea Bay — The Only Deep-Water Harbor of the Island 

We have at our new and progressive town of Los Indios a sawmill, planing mill, 
general store, hotel, church, post-office— all under the supervision of Americans. 
A strictly American town, with an American school. We also have row boats, 
automobiles, and gasoline launch for pleasure parties. Fishing and hunting the best. 
We own the finest citrus fruit, vegetalile and tobacco land on the island. We offer 
same for sale in acreage to suit purchaser— either for cash or on the installment plan. 
Write for prospectus, price on land and information regarding selling agency contracts 
to our general office, 

117 Wisconsin Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Charles S. Brown, President E. G. Allen, Secretary 

Los Indios, Isle of Pines 10 Follansbee Block, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 



WILLETT 8t GRAY, BroKer. and Agents 

FOREIGN AND ^^^T^^^ 7%. ^K^ ^^1 ^^^ ^^^ 

DOMESTIC V^'l^tjr.^-^.irmLl^^ REFINED 

82 WALL STREET. NEMT YORK 

'ublishcrs of Daily and Weekly Stnlistical Sugar Trade Jounial— the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED. 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

Engines, Boilers andMacHinery 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass 
Castings. Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

S««ainslhip "WTork a Specialty 

A. KLING. Prop. MOBIL#£ A.LA.. 



"Sugar News from Cuba" 

is the title of the interesting correspondence from the tropical island 
appearing in every issue of the 

AMERICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY 

The latest and most relialjle sugar news from every part of the 
World is gathered by our own Special Correspondents, and appears ex- 
clusively in this paper. 

PRINTED IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH 

A Spanish Section has been recently added for the Ijeneht of our 
readers in Cuba, Porto Rico and other Spanish speaking countries. 

Monthly, $2.00 per year in the United States, Cuba, and Mexico. In 
foreign countries, $2.50 per year. Subscribe for it if you want to keep 
posted. 

SAMPLE COPY FREE. SEND FOR ADVERTISING RATES. 

Address: BEET SUGAR GAZETTE COMPANY 

222 North Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 140 Nassau St. New York 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



41 



Telephone, 33 Hamilton 
Nifht Call, 411 Hamilton 



Cable Addreii : 
"Abiworkf," New York 



Atlantic Basin Iron Works 

Engineers and 'Boiler JMakers 

lljichinitta, Plumbers, Tinsmiths, Pipe Fitters, Blacksmiths, Coppersmiths, 
Pattern Makers, Sheet Iron Workers. Iron and Brass Castings. Steamship 
Repairs a Specialty. 

Cor. Imtatf and Summit Streets Brooklyn, f^. Y. 



John Munro & Soa 

Steamship and 
Engineers* Supplier 

722 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address : Kunomale, New York 

Telephone, 2492 South 



Telephone 
215 Hamilton 



Box 186 
Maritime Excbang* 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

CauIkefSt Spar Makers 

Boat Builders, Etc* 

No. 9 SUMMIT STREET 
Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 




The l\vo-\vliccIc(l calls nf llav;in:i uliicli (1r- nu icli.inls desire In he taken cilT the slieel-: 



42 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HENRY E. BROWN Shipphig and Ex- 
port Chemist and 
Pharmacist Druggist. 

Ships' Medicine Chests furnished and re- 
plenished. Prescriptions compounded by a 
(iraduate in Pharmacy. 

Trusses, Surgical Appliances, etc. 

( )ffice and Laboratory, Room 36 

116 BROAD STREET, NEW YORK 



Bottled at the Brewery 




For Sale at all Dealers 
and on the Munson Line 



Sobrinos De Bea & Co. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 
Importacion directa de todas los 
centres manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, 
New York and Mobile; James E. Ward & 
Co., New York; Serra Steamship Company, 
Liverpool; Yapores Transatlanticos de A. 
Folch & Co. de Barcelona, Espafia Indepen- 
dencia Street 17/2L 

MATANZAS. CUBA 



JOHN w. McDonald 

COAL, WOOD, LUMBER 
AND TIMBER 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

112 Wall Street, New York 

Near South Street 

Yard; 56-58 Beard Street, Erie Basin 

Telephones: 

Oftke, 1905 John Yard, 316 Hamilton 



PURDY & HENDERSON 

INC. 

Engineers and Contractors 
New York Chicago Boston 

CUBA OFFICE. EMPEDRADO 32, HAVANA 



November reports to Sccrctar}' Wilson 
of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture show that the work of the Agricul- 
tural Department in experimenting on 
ditching with dynamite in ditches 6 to 12 
feet wide and 3 to 6 feet deep proved 
successful, and it is expected will result 
in the general use of this explosive for 
ditch construction. 



M. J. CABANA ^P.¥^J^^.l^,^ 

M E R C H A N I 

P. O. Box 3, Camacuey 

Handles all Hnei of merchandise either on a comminlon 

basis or unQ<?r agenc> arrangements. Also furnishes all 

desired information about lands In eastern Cuba. 

Journal d' Agriculture Tropicale 

Founded by J. VILBOUCHEVITCH 
164 Rue Jeanne d'Arc Prolongee, Paris 

Subscription, One Year - • 



20 Francs 



Deals with the leading questions of the hour, 
agricultural and commercial, of interest to tropical 
countries. International in character. Illustrated. 
Monthly. Descriptions of machines for tropical 
crops a specialty. Complete review of new agri- 
cultural publications. Commercial part intelligible 
for every one and always interesting 150 con- 
tributors in West and East Africa, East and West 
Indies, Java, Mauritus, Central and South Amer- 
ica, and throughout the tropical world. 



SHOES FOR CUBA 

A feature of the large and growing shoe 
trade that American manufacturers are 
building up in Cuba is the great large cases 
in which the shoes are packed and shipped. 
The cases are made of wood cind are often 
large enough to hold 3(5 dozen pairs of 
women's or misses' shoes. Every pair is 
put in a separate carton and then 12 pairs 
are packed in a large 12-pair carton and 
36 of these are then packed in the big case. 
This class of shoes has always been packed 
in the large case and it seems that the 
Ijuyers prefer them shipped that way. 

THE SNARE AND TRIEST COMPANY 

CONTRACTING ENGINEERS 



STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Brioges. Railroads and Buildings 

We are prepared to furnish plans and estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 



New York Otfice 

143 Liberty St. 



Havana Office 
La Leal Building 



W. H. Bennett 



F. W. HVOSLEF 



Bennett, Hvoslef & Co. 
Steamship Agents and Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY. NEW YORK 



Cable: "Benwalsh" 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



1 








MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE 

(lENERAL OFFICES 

82 BEAVER STREET, NEW YORK 
NEW YORK-CUBA SERVICE 

passenger and freight service between new YORK 
and ANTILLA.NIPE bay, nuevitas, PUERTO PADRE, GIBARA 

Special Through Rates to Camaguey via Nuevitas 










PROPOSED SOUTHBOUND SAILINGS 

S.S. Olinda January 10th 

S.S. CuRiTYBA - January 24th 

S.S. Olinda ----------- February 7th 

Steamers sail from Pier 9, East River, at 12 o'clock noon 


PROPOSED NORTHBOUND SAILINGS 

S.S. Olinda - - - Nuevitas, Dec. 27th ; Nipe, Dec. 29th 
S.S. Curityba- - - Nuevitas, Jan. IOth; Nipe, Jan. 12th 
S.S. Olinda - - - Nuevitas, Jan. 24th ; Nipe, Jan. 26th 

The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 


NEW YORK CUBA SERVICE 

freight only 
New York to Matanzas. Cardenas, Sagua and Caibarien 




MOBILE CUBA SERVICE 

freight only 
Regular Sailings Mobile to Havana; Mobile to North Side 
AND South Side Cuban Ports 




BALTIMORE COLON SERVICE 

freight only 
Regular Sailings Baltimore to Colon 





Plhasf. mektjon the CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisebs 



THE CUBA R E \' 1 E W 



Lrillie Multiple Evaporators 



Model of 1904-1005 « Patented > 




"One of three Lillie quad- 
ruple effects installed is 
1907, in sugar factories io 
Formosa, belonging to tke 
Taiwan Seito Kabushiki 
Kwaisha, of Tokio, Japan. 
1 wo more quadruple effect*, 
one to handle 550,000 gallon/ 
ol cane juice per twenty-four 
hours, and the other to 
handle 325,000 gallons in the 
same period, are now (July 
ist, 1909) being built for 
the same Japanese Company, 
also for St vice in Formosa 
These quadruple effects arc 
arranged for reversing the 
course of the vapors and 
heat at will, a mode of op- 
eration peculiar to the Lillie 
and which has proven ol 
great value for solutions de- 
positing incrustations on the 
evaporating tubes." 



The Sugar Apparatus Manufacturing Co. 

328 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. ''^'' 



«. MORRIS LILLIE. President. 



LEWIS C. LILLIE, Secretary and Treasurv 



THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS 

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LOCOMOTIVES 



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Ei^ta maza puede colocarse facllmente en 'ualqnier trapiche, sea de dos 6 tres mazas. Machuca bien 
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Vol. X JANUARY. 1912 No. 2 

Contents of This Number 

Tlie cover page will give the reader a good idea of tlie Cuban jungle. 

(jovernment and political matters are treated on pages 7, S, 9 and 10. The further 
development of the veterans' movement against all office holders who fought against 
Cuba during the late insurrections against Spain is described. A bill against the 
exportation of shredded cane is before Congress. The Spanish government is de- 
manding payment of some claims of its subjects in the island. Important cabinet 
changes have occurred, and there are more to come, all owing to the opposition 
of the veterans. Candidates for the presidency are discussed, and conventions will 
soon determine wlio the standard bearers shall be. 

Cuban-American Sugar Company report is on page 11. 

Short pithy news notes of the island's activities are on pages 12 and U!. 

Much interesting comment oii Cuban affairs from individuals and ne\vs]iaiiers is on 
pages 14 and 15. 

The Havana cigar. — How it is made. All told in a most interesting way and with 
suitable illustrations on pages 16, 17 and IS. 

Havana's sewerage and paving contract. The system is tlie most comprehensive in 
existence. It is described on page 19. 

Cubans do not play "brainy" baseball, says John jNIcGraw, manager of the New York 
Giants. See page 20. 

The "Maine" wreck will be sunk at sea with appropriate ceremonies. See page 20. 

Railroad and commercial news, railroad reports of earnings, and i|\i(ptatiiiiis of Cnlian 
securities will be found on pages 21, 22 and 23. 

(jeneral notes are on page 24. 

How Miss Barton took .Santiago is described on page 25. 

Fvu'ther general notes with a picture of Capablanca, the Cuban chess cliampion, are 
on page 27. 

Agricidtural matters are discussed on pages 28, 29, 30 and 31. Some new information 
of the aguacate is given, and liberal extracts are printed of an important article 
by G. Harold Powell on "Co-operation in Fruit Handling." How dyn^iinite is used 
in the orchard, and its beneficial etTects are told on page 31. 

Sugar review by Willett and Gray is on pages ii and 34. 

The same article in Spanish is on page 36. 

H. A. Hiineley's estimate of tlie coming crop is on jiage 35. 

HANDSOMELY I1.1.LSTR.\TED Til R()l( 11 lOUT 



THL 
CUBA RLVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, 1912, by the Munsoii Steamship Line 



LIBRAI 
NEW YC 
BOTANIC 

OARDE 



Volume X 



lAXUARY. 1912 



Number 2 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 



A law has been demanded 

Opposition b\- the Veterans' Associa- 

to tion, making it impossible 

Veterans for those who fought 

against Cuba to occupy 

government positions or to be nominated 

for office by any political party. 

This proposal is meeting with opposition 
on the ground that it is unconstitutional 
and undemocratic, and calculated to ex- 
clude from the service of the country 
citizens who have been guilty of no other 
offense than of formerly holding political 
opinions hostile to the separation of Cuba 
from Spain. 

The veterans hold that patriots who 
helped Cuban independence in the war 
with Spain should have the offices in 
preference to those who sided against 
Cuba during the struggle. (See some 
American press opinion on this matter on 
page 14.) 

The president has issued a series of 
interpretative rules, which will help a com- 
mission appointed by him and composed of 
one Liberal, one Conservative, two veterans 
and a presiding officer, to pass on the quali- 
fications of any office holder, if doubt is 
expressed as to his right to continue in 
office under the agreement between the 
government and the veterans. 

The success thus far of the veteran 
campaign brightens presidential aspirations 
of General Emilio Nunez, who is president 
of the association. 

Not all the veterans are in favor of the 
campaign waged by the association, and 
these will organize an association of their 
own under the lead of Senator Cisneros 
Betancourt. The members of the associa- 
tion in Santiago de Cuba are likewise 
ouposed to violent measures, and recently 
adopted the following resolutions : 

"We do not accept the preachings of 
some of our exalted leaders that the 
veterans will not permit a government 
contrary to the veterans, but we respect 



the will of the electors of the republic, no 
matter what the results of the elections. 

"We condemn all campaigns in favor of 
violent methods, because we beHeve such 
methods do not reflect the real sentiments 
of the veterans, and result in injury to the 
moral welfare and orderly march of the 
nation." 

A bill prohibiting the ex- 

Dcssicated portation of sugar cane in 
Sugar any form has been intro- 
Cane duced in the Cuban Senate, 

according to advices re- 
ceived at the State Department on January 
9th at Washington. 

This is of course aimed an the process 
for shredding cane which has been carried 
on with more or less success for the last 
two years at a factory built on the lands 
of the Nipe Bay Company at Preston, 
Oriente Province. Full details of the 
work with illustrations of the mill built 
for shredding the cane, and of the pith 
and fibre were printed in The Cuba 
Review for May, 1911. At that time the 
mill was undergoing alterations to pursue 
greater efficiency results. Not having 
reached the standard required for perma- 
nent and profitable work, shipments of the 
product had previously been sent to 
Madison, Wis., and chemists from the Pres- 
ton mill, who had gone north to witness the 
extraction of the sugar from the dried 
cane, came back somewhat enthusiastic. 

Since then nothing much has been done, 
but within the last month much discussion 
of the process has arisen in Cuba, which 
has resulted in action by the Senate. 

Havana despatches stated that planters 
were alarmed and that foreign consuls 
were investigating in order to report to 
their home offices. Some planters said it 
was difficult to estimate results by the new 
process, but that if successful. Cuba would 
become one vast cane field. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




General Emilio Nunez, former governor of Ha- 
vana Province and president of the Veterans' 
Association 



Several proposals have been 

Will Not recently made to the gov- 

Lease ernment to take over the 

Wharves new wharves and piers 

which are being constructed 

in the Paula district of Havana harbor. 

The company promises to make a two 

per cent reduction over the lowest ruling 

tariff rate and to be responsible for all 

goods going over the wharves. It reserves 

the right to sub-let its privileges. 

Prsident Gomez, in a statement on De- 
cember 29th answering these applications, 
declares that the wharves will not be 
rented to private parties. 




The Cuban Congress has 
For a appropriated $.50,000 for the 
Statute erection in Ilavana of a 
of Maceo monument to Major Gen- 
eral Antonio Maceo, the 
well-known hero of Cuba's war of inde- 
pendence. Sculptors all over the world can 
enter in competition. 

Competition ends January, 1913, when the 
best design will be accepted. 

Many artists in Spain have sent models, 
among them Sefior Don Jose Campeny, of 
Barcelona, whose model is approved and 
indorsed by the Marquis of Marianao, 
Alcalde of Barcelona, and many other 
prominent persons of that city. The illus- 
tration on this page shows Sehor Cam- 
jieny's model for the statue. 




Hon. Rafael Martinez Ortiz, secretary of agri- 
culture, commerce and labor, who resigned 
December 30th 



Design for a statue of Major General Antonio 

Maceo, submitted by a Spanish artist, Sefior Don 

Jose Campeny 



Sr. Fernando Vallin, Span- 
Spaiiisli ish minister to Cuba, has 
Claims sent a note to the State 
Unpaid Department demanding that 
a Spanish subject, who has 
been teaching school in a city of Cuba for 
fourteen years, be paid for his services for 
that time, as he has received no compensa- 
tion. The minister asks that there be no 
more delay. 

The Post says : "There are similar debts 
amounting to hundreds of thousands of 
dollars of which Spanish citizens are the 
creditors and the Cuban city governments 
the debtors. The subject has been diplo- 
matically called to the attention of the Cu- 
ban government by every Spanish diplo- 
mat who has been accredited there." 

The government has notified municipali- 
ties that such debts must be paid. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



President Gomez has sent 

Liiban to the Cuban Congress a 

C oiisulatc special message requesting 

Business an increase jf $11,920 in 

the appropriation for the 

Cuban consulate general in New York, 

making the entire appropriation for that 

office for the fiscal year $32,420. 

As justifying the increase requested, the 
president states that the work of the office 
has developed greatly ; that the consular 
fees collected during the years 1908, 1909 
and 1910 amounted to $103,118. $119,376 and 
$131,924, respectively. From this the presi- 
dent calculates that the collection during 
the present year will amount to $170,000 
and those for the year 1912 to $200,000. 



More 
Road 
Work 



The Provincial Council of 
JNIatanzas at its last meet- 
ing on December 22d au- 
thorized the following ex- 
penditures for road work 
in the province : 

Two thousand dollars for a cart road 
from Pedro Betancourt to Claudio, $700 
for another road from Lacret to the La 
Palma River, $2,500 for a road between 
Carlos Rojas and Olimpo, $3,900 for re- 
pairs to the highway from Maximo Gomez 
to Altamisae, $3000 for a cart road from 
Gonzalo to Bolondron. and $2500 for a 
road from Matanzas to Amarioca. 



On December 12th Presi- 
Cabinet dent Gomez appointed Chief 
Changes Engineer of the Bureau of 
Roads and Bridges, Jose ]M. 
Babe, to be secretary of the Department of 
Public Works, to succeed Sr. Joaquin Cha- 
lons, who resigned his office as secretary in 
the president's Cabinet because of the 
veteran question. 

The new secretary is but 36 years old, 
and a native of Havana. He graduated as 
bachelor of arts and sciences from Belen 
College of that city. Previously he^ had 
graduated at Troy University, N. Y., as 
civil engineer. He is a Liberal in politics. 
but is not active in party work. 

Secretary of the Treasury Martinez- 
Ortiz, resigned his office on December 30th. 
He gave as his reason dissatisfaction with 
the present trend of affairs and the impos- 
sibility of continuing to serve the ad- 
ministration under existing conditions. 

This is the third Cabinet position va- 
cated in response to the agitation of the 
Veterans' Association. Senor Chalons re- 
signed as Secretary of Public Works in 
November, and Senor Barraque handed his 
resignation as Secretary of Justice to Presi- 
dent Gomez on December 2Sth. 

Judge Juan I\L Menocal, of the Audien- 
cia. of Havana, was immediately appointed 



to succeed Senor Barraque. He is a promi- 
nent member in the Veterans' Association 
Councils and a wcll-kncwn lawyer. 

Colonel Manuel Maria Coronado, of La 
Disciisio)i, and Colonel Lopez Leiva are 
mentioned as new cabinet members. 



The National Convention of 
Political the Conservative Party has 
Talk been called for January 18th 

to nominate candidates for 
president and vice-president of Cuba. The 
narty is well organized without the dissen- 
sions and differences which have rent apart 
the Liberals. It can therefore immediately 
begin an active campaign as soon as its 
standard bearers are chosen. The delegates, 
of which there are twelve from each prov- 
ince, will, it is believed, be instructed to 
vote for General Menocal for president. 

General Demetrio Castillo Duanny, the 
warden of the state prison, may be the 
Liberal candidate for the presidency of 
Cuba, his friends believing he can unite 
the factions of the Liberal Party. 

Although the followers of Dr. Zayas have 
declared that they will not accept a com- 
promise candidate, many politicians believe 
they will do so rather than see the Con- 
servatives unite on one man and the 
Liberals compelled to go to the polls with 
their forces divided. 

Regarding the chances of Zayas for ob- 
taining the nomination, these look slim 
according to the view of La LitcJia, which 
says in a recent editorial : 

"In not one of the six provinces are to 
be found persons representing the most 
limited majority who even speak of him 
as a presidential possibility, and in those 
places where he imagines he has some 
followers are the very places where he 
\ ould, b}^ continuing his candidacy, serve 
to better aid his enemies." 



Haytians and Jamaicans 
Illegal have been secretly entering 
Entry the province of Oriente in 
large numbers for a year 
past, thereby breaking the immigration laws 
and the sanitary regulations and endanger- 
ing the health of the island, is the report 
of Governor Rafael Manduley of the 
province. He believed they were being 
brought by small sailing vessels and disem- 
barked at convenient landing places. 

Cuban revenue cutters have been in- 
structed for months to keep a sharp look- 
out for such vessels, but up to the present 
time only two unimportant captures have 
been made. 

The men work at the sugar mills, offer- 
ing their services at very low wages, and 
competing to the latter's disadvantage with 
the Cuban laborer. 



10 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




A/ MiitisUo Jc los E. U. A., Mr. Arthur M. Bcanprc, satiendu de palacio despues 

de presentar sus credenciales 
Hon. Arthur M. Eeaupre. United States minister to Cuba, leaving the palace at 
Havana after the presentation of his credentials to President Gomez. — Bohemia, Havana. 




Cities and towns of Cuba. — \'ie\v of Castillo de Jagua. on Cienfuegos Bay, soutli coast of Cuba 



T H E C U B A R E \- I E W 



11 



CUBAN-AMERICAN SUGAR COMPANY 



The annual report of the Cuban-Amer- 
ican Sugar Company for the twelve months 
ended September 30, 1911, was somewhat 
unfavorable. Xet proceeds amounted to 
only $273,477, a decrease of $1,503,705. in 
other words, the company earned 3.4 per 
cent on the $7,893,800 preferred stock out- 
standing. This compares with 7 per cent 
earned on the $(3,295,000 preferred stock 
the previous year, and an additional 20. G per 
cent on the $6, 49(5, 100 common stock then 
outstanding. 

The income account compares as follows : 
Sales and miscellaneous 1911 1910 

incomes $15,397,645 $15,817,667 

Prod, and rf. costs, sell. 

and gen'l expenses 13,854,820 12,971,235 

Gross profit $1,542,825 $2,846,431 

Int., disc, and depre 1,269.349 1,069,249 

Net profits $273,477 $1,777,182 

Dividends 524,587 550,812 

Deficit $251,110 *$1, 226,370 

Previous surplus 2,227,789 1,435,841 

Miscellaneous credits 11815,500 

Total surplus $2,792,179 $2,662,211 

Miscellaneo^is debits fl, 020,647 434,422 

Profit and loss surp. $1,771,532 $2,227,789 

* Surplus. t Includes common stock issued in 
respect of San ^Manuel property, $639,500; special 
reserve, $250,000; sinking fund. $131,147. 11 In- 
cludes surplus from San Manuel property, $639,- 
500; bonds cancelled, $176,000. 

The net profits in 1909 were $1,150,545. 

In his report to the stockhol'ders Presi- 
dent R. B. Hawle}^ says : "While the year's 
operations are disappointing, a recurrence 
of the unfavorable conditions during the 
coming year seems not impossible : on the 
contrary, the reversal of last season's situa- 
tion is practically assured. With normal 
weather conditions, our total output for 
1911-12 should exceed 1.225,000 bags of 
sugar, or an increase of 30 per cent. The 
outlook indicates better returns for our 
product than experienced in many years. 
and every guarantee of a successful future 
is offered." 

The report further says : 

"During the period when rains were most 
necessary for the growing crops, there pre- 
vailed a serious drouth throughout the is- 
land of Cuba, causing a reduction in the 
total crop of 18 per cent, and in the estates 
of this compan3^ excluding output of the 
San Manuel house, a reduction of 17 per 
cent is shown, as compared with the pre- 
vious year. With the factories operating 
practically the same number of days, but 
producing 17 per cent less raw sugar, and 
the low prices prevailing during the sum- 
mer months when the crop was being har- 



vested, the net profit amounted to but $27.3, - 
476, as compared with $1,777,182 for 1909-10. 

"In October, 1910, the company acquired 
the capital stock of the San Manuel Sugar 
Company, owning an estate located in the 
vicinity of Puerto Padre, Cuba, adjoining 
the Chaparra estate, comprising about 
92,000 acres of land, sugar factory, rail- 
road lines, wharves and other accessories, 
as well as the greater part of the town of 
Puerto Padre. 

"The Chaparra Railroad Company was 
organized October 14, 1910, with a nominal 
capital stock of $10,000 to take over the 
railroad properties of the Chaparra and 
San ]Manuel Sugar Companies. Subse- 
quently the authorized capital stock of the 
railroad company was increased to $2,000,- 
000 to conform with the laws of Cuba, of 
which $224,000 is owned liy the Cuban- 
American Sugar Company, the balance re- 
maining unissued. 

"To provide funds for the purchase and 
development of these properties, erecting 
a modern sugar factory, extending the rail- 
road and constructing a deep water ship- 
ping terminal, the stockholders at their 1910 
annual meeting authorized the directors to 
issue for cash 15,988 shares of preferred 
stock and to deliver to the subscribers 40 
ner cent of the amount of their subscrip- 
tions — the equivalent of 6.395 shares — in 
full paid common stock. In addition to 
the capital acquired in this manner, $1,800,- 
000 ten-year 6 per cent collateral trust 
Iionds have also been sold. 

"As the full effect of the drouth cannot 
!)e ascertained until the current crop is har- 
vested, a fund of $250,000 has been set 
aside as a special reserve." 

-A.t a recent meeting George E. Bush was 
elected controller of the company, and 
James H. Post, treasurer, w^is made a 
vice-president. 



CUBA S PROSPERITY 

Commercial signs point to increasing 
prosperity in Cuba. The population, which 
in 1908 was 2,048,980, is now 2.220.278, the 
increase over last year being 58,612. Im- 
ports in 1910-11 were $108,090,000, against 
$103,446,000 the previous year. Exports 
were $129,179,000, against $144,139,000 the 
previous year. This is regarded as a 
"favorable balance of trade." 

Since the establishment of the republic 
in 1902 the railways have been doubled in 
length. The Spaniards left about 600 
miles of railway : these have since grown 
to about 1,200 miles. — Jl'al! Street Journal. 



12 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



ALL AROUND CUBA 



INTERESTING NEWS NOTES REGARDING VARIOUS MATTERS PERTAINING 

TO THE ISLAND 



United States navy aviators have been 
ordered to Cuba to conduct tests during 
the winter months. Santiago will be the 
scene of the flights of Uncle Sam's bird- 
men. For some months past tlie navy flyers 
have been engaged in a series of tests of 
difi^erent types of machines at Annapolis, 
and they will return to that place in the 
spring. 

The newly appointed American Minister 
to Cuba, Arthur M. Beaupre, presented his 
credentials to President Gomez December 
18th. The minister was escorted to the 
palace by a squadron of cavalry and two 
companies of artillery. 

The customary courtesies were exchanged 
between the president and the minister. 

His residence in the city will be that 
formerly occupied by Minister Jackson, 
which is the old Baro Palace on Belen 
Square. 

Governor Manduley of Oricnte Province 
on December 13th notifled the administra- 
tion that a filibustering expedition against 
San Domingo was being fitted out near 
Antilla. 

The secretary of the interior imme- 
diately ordered gunboats to intercept the 
filibusters. 

It is stated that there are some 30,000 
rounds of ammunition and a quantity of 
arms hidden in Santiago for transportation 
to Santo Domingo, for the use of rebels 
against the Dominion government. 

Orders have been issued from Havana 
to take every precaution to see that the 
neutrality laws are not violated. 

Workmen engaged in tearing down a 
wall in the City of Cardenas several weeks 
aeo found 1,000 Spanish gold ounces, 
amounting altogether to $17,000, says the 
local newspaper. The workmen imme- 
diately decamped. 

The treasure is supposed to have been 
hoarded by a miser who lived in the build- 
ing and died suddenly several years ago. 
His relatives have turned up and the police 
are looking for the men who found the 
money. 

Dr. Carlos Meyer, who several months 
ago received thirteen bullet wounds when 
escaping from the bandit Solis, asks 
damages from the Cuban government. 

Dr. Meyer is a German citizen and has 
a claim pending with the German minister. 
He has lost the use of his right arm on 
account of the wounds he received. 



I lu' L'lntud States will have a new site 
for its legation in Havana situated at the 
Malecon and Lealtad. 

The new structure is nearly as large as 
the present legation building in Com- 
postela Street fronting Belen Park. It will 
be used by Mr. Beaupre both for offices 
and as a residence. The rooms are large 
and commodious and admirably adapted for 
entertaining. 

The City Council of Havana is planning 
an annual subsidy of $15,000 to assure the 
presence of an opera company each winter. 

By doing away with a number of offices, 
Havana's Provincial Council hopes to re- 
duce the appropriation for the provincial 
budget by $200,000. 

The law which prohibits the use of the 
public calzadas by the Cuban two-wheeled 
carreta has been suspended by Congress 
until May 31st. Its enforcement at this 
time would be injurious to the sugar cane 
harvest, as the cart is practically the only 
vehicle used for carrying cane from the 
fields to the mills or railroads. 

Carlos Rodriguez, a wealthy planter of 
Rodas, Santa Clara Province, was shot 
and mortally wounded by Carlos Montero, 
his nephew, on December 12th. No reason 
for the shooting is known. 

Mr. E. Johnson, an officer under General 
Booch, of the Salvation Army, was in Ha- 
vana recently to begin the preliminary 
work of establishing a branch of the Army 
in Havana and other parts of the island. 
Services will be in Spanish and English. 

A new credit of $300,000 has been allowed 
by the government for the dredging work 
at Sagua. 

In the December baseball series the re- 
ceipts at Almendares Park were $28,481. 
The nine games with the Philadelphia Na- 
tionals brought in $17,876. The club play- 
ing to the highest receipts in Havana, how- 
ever, has been the Detroit club, which the 
first year they came, in 1909, played to 
$36,375. The second year the Detroits 
played to $31,944. 

The local players have profited by this 
large patronage, for they have played on 
the percentage basis. 

Dr. and Mrs. Manuel Mencia, son-in-law 
and daughter of the President and Mrs. 
Gomez, received congratulations on the 
birth of a daughter in the last days of 
December. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



At a recent meeting of tlie board of di- 
rectors of the Krejewsky-Pesant Company 
of Havana, Mr. Adolfo B. Horn was 
elected president. This company operates 
a large foundry and machine shops as well 
as the Havana Dry Docks Company. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ramon O. Williams, the 
latter now 85 years of age, celebrated on 
December 23d at their home in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., the fiftieth anniversary of their 
wedding. 

Mr. Williams is well known in Cuba, 
having been the vice-consul for ten years 
and consul-general for twelve years more. 

Fred Morris Dearing, former secretary 
of the American legation in Havana, and 
later secretary at the American embassy in 
London, was appointed assistant chief of 
the Latin America divison of the State De- 
partment in Washington. 

A counterfeiting plant was recently dis- 
covered on the Prado of Havana, with a 
complete output of dies for making Amer- 
ican dollar gold pieces, of which there 
had been many in circulation during the 
last few months. 

The siun of $8,000 was voted by Havana's 
City Council on December ISth to Mr. 
George M. Bradt for the publication of a 
special edition to attract tourists. 

A resolution involving the appointment 
of twenty-eight secretaries, one for each 
of the city fathers, was killed at the same 
meeting. 

Captain Frank Parker, Eleventh Cavalry, 
United States army, and instructor to the 
rural guard of Cuba, has bought a com- 
plete regulation American pack train, he 
having received orders from Major General 
Monteagudo to organize this service along 
the lines of the United States army. He 
brought back with him a pack master who 
was in the United States government serv- 
ice at Fort Riley. 

The resolutions recently passed by the Na- 
tional Coimcil of Veterans, which were sent 
in the form of a circular letter to all the 
delegations, orders all veterans to join with 
the bandits which have been troubling some 
sections of Camaguey Province. 

The editor and printer of a newspa])er 
of Cienfuegos were recently fined $100 each 
for printing an alleged immoral article. 
Not content with this, the court also fined 
the owner of the premises where the publi- 
cation was printed, $50.00, although he 
had no other connection with it. 

On January 1st nearly 11,000 poor chil- 
dren, counting among them 4,000 from the 
public schools of Havana, received toys and 
books of fairy stories, as a present from 
the well-known publication "Bohemia," 
which arranged this feast to celebrate the 
New Year. 



United States Senator Jonathan Bourne, 
Jr., of Oregon, buys each year the entire 
supply of a certain brand of tobacco in 
Cuba and has the cigars made up accord- 
ing to his own plans and specifications. 

After the year's yield at the Cuban 
plantation has been made into Bourne's 
Favorites, the cigars are all shipped to 
New York, where an expert tobacconist 
keeps them in cold storage, with just the 
right amount of moisture, and from New 
York they are sent to Senator Bourne, a 
few boxes at a time. 

The Cuba Athletic Club went down to 
its first defeat in football on December 
31st at Havana, before the visiting eleven 
of the Mississippi College of Agriculture 
and Mechanics. The event was much one- 
sided to have any interest in the first hall, 
the locals having made a better effort in the 
other half, but it was then too late, the 
score resulting to 11 to in favor of the 
visitors. 

An auto fire engine is now part of the 
fire department equipment of the enter- 
prising city of Santa Clara. It is an up- 
to-date machine with all improvements. 
At its public inspection, it was named 
"America Arias," in honor of the wife of 
President Gomez. 

At a dinner given January 1st to its 
employees by the Cuban Telephone Com- 
pany, the statement was made that the 
company has now 8,325 telephones in 
operation and that long distance 'phones 
are working from Cienfuegos to Santo 
Domingo and Sagua all in Santa Clara 
Province and that communication will soon 
be established between the cities of Santa 
Clara and Havana. 

The first woman to fly in Cuba was Miss 
Delphine Bradt,, daughter of Mr. George 
M. Bradt, the Havana Post publisher, who 
went up twice on January 1st, in the ma- 
chine piloted by Aviator Walsh at Camp 
Columbia, her second trip being entirely 
successful. 

The petition of Frederick M. Van der 
Woort, the manager of the trolley line in 
Camaguey, to construct new lines in that 
city has been granted. 

Indiana manufacturers to the number of 
130 will make a business trip through the 
South and to Cuba, leaving Indianapolis 
towards the end of February. 

President Gomez has appointed Sr. 
Manuel Gutierrez Quiros, of Sagua la 
Grande, to be the new secretary of the 
treasury, to succeed Dr. Rafael Martinez 
Ortiz, who resigned recently. The new 
secretary is president of the Carahatas 
Sugar Company, owning several sugar 
mills in Santa Clara. 



14 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



PRESS AND INDIVIDUAL COMMENT ON CUBAN 

MATTERS 



Apparently the new Cu1)an '"crisis" is 
only a recurrence of an old story — that of 
a superabundance of office seekers and an 
insufficiency of offices, says the Galveston 
Neivs. These outbreaks are recrudescent, 
and usually they expend themselves in the 
cafes of Havana. The novel feature of 
this latest story seems to be that the civil 
service law, which we imposed on the Cu- 
bans before turning over the control of 
their political affairs, is given as the par- 
ticularly provoking circumstance. The 
existence of a civil service law evidences 
rather an advanced state of political de- 
velopment, and it may well be questioned, 
on purely philosophical grounds, whether 
it was altogether wise to impose such a law 
on a people so little tutored in the art of 
self-government. But it is also to be ques- 
tioned if the repeal of this law, as is now 
being attempted, will have the placating 
consequences which President Gomez is 
said to hope for. Such of the malcontents 
as get in as a result will doubtless become 
very conservative citizens, but the larger 
number who must inevitably have their 
hopes disappointed will probably feel that 
the civil service law was not the occasion 
of their grievance, after all. 

"It is impossible to understand just how 
attractive Havana is without visiting it," 
said Mr. J. L. Meek, passenger agent of 
the Southern Railway, recently. "Every 
visitor who goes over is sure to return an 
active booster. 

"It is hard to realize that in such a 
short and convenient journey it is possible 
to reach a city thoroughly foreign and 
with all the attraction which this means. 
Despite the foreign atmosphere, Havana 
affords all the conveniences to which the 
American tourist is accustomed, and no 
trouble is encountered in finding one's way 
about the city and to the hundreds of 
places of interest which surround it." 

The suggestion that the wreck of the 
"Maine" be sold at auction and carved into 
bits for sale as souvenirs was about the 
most ghoulish idea that ever found utter- 
ance in Congress, is the editorial opinion 
of the New York Sun. We can all be 
thankful that the proposal received the 
stinging rebuke it deserved and that a sea 
burial for the old ship is now assured. 
Certain portions of the hull will be dis- 
tributed throughout the country as public 
memorials. The rest will be towed to sea 
and sunk with fitting ceremonies. 

The bleaching bones in Havana harbor. 
the Sun says further, have been a monu- 
ment to that peculiar heartlessness which 



has come to be regarded as an attribute 
of a republic. Apparently the finer emo- 
tions of the people are as slow to develop 
as the coarser are swift to overwhelm. 
We must make the most of the belief that 
our national emotions are deep and abid- 
ing, for all their slow, dumb beginnings. 
Let us hope that when the guns of our 
fleet boom over the "Maine," falling into 
her deep grave, there will be a nation- 
wide ceremonial proceeding from lips and 
li arts. 

A recent statement by General Emilio 
Nunez, president of the National Council 
of Veterans, has caused much surprise. He 
said : "I am not speaking now as the presi- 
dent of the veterans, but I will say that we, 
the veterans, will not permit any party 
to get into power which will be hostile to 
the veterans. The spirit of self-protection 
would not permit us to allow the reins of 
government to get into the hands of those 
who were our obstinate enemies ; we would 
go further by not even permitting that the 
government should be in the hands of those 
who make pacts with the 'guerrilleros' and 
traitors." 

The Cleveland Plain Dealer says that 
the attitude of the veterans is bigotry, and 
must be a tremendous draw-back to the 
nation. It says : 

"Men who honestly sympathized with 
Spain when the Spanish government was 
struggling to subdue colonial insurrection, 
but who have since been loyal to the re- 
public and proved themselves good public 
servants, should not be punished for the 
rest of their lives." 

The Superior (Wis.) Telegram believes 
the action of the veterans, who have fought 
the wars of Cuba, to permit only friends 
of free Cuba to get into office, will receive 
plenty of applause from the free men of 
the United States. 

On this same subject the Cincinnati 
Times-Star says : 

"It is very well to tell the Cubans that 
they are not pursuing the course of wisdom 
and to lecture them accordingly. Yet their 
course is one that has been followed in 
other countries which have gone through 
periods of revolution. It may not be wise, 
it may not be right, but it is very natural. 
'To the victors belong the spoils' is a very 
old and very widely accepted theory. The 
remarkable thing about its present appli- 
cation in Cuba is that it should be put 
into effect thirteen years after the revolu- 
tion achieved success." 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



15 



There seems to be no reason why the 
prospect of a treaty of commerce between 
Cuba and Spain should not be regarded 
ill this country with approval and even 
with gratitication, says the Xczt.' ]'ork 
Tribune editorially. It is said that the 
proposed convention does not in any way 
clash with the existing relations between 
CuIki and America. That should be a 
matter of course, since it is obvious that 
any such interference would be a violation 
of Cuba's obligations, of which we could 
not suspect that country of being guilty, 
and an invasion of our indisputable rights 
which we could not tolerate. The relation- 
ship of this country to Cuba which was 
foreshadowed in 1823, which was made 
explicit in 1840 and which since 1S9S has 
been reaffirmed and specialized in the most 
formal and explicit manner, is not to be 
abrogated or impaired. 

Outside of the limits thus indicated, 
however, it is not only proper, but highly 
desirable for Cuba to enter into suitable 
and profitable treaty relations with other 
nations, and particularly with Spain. It 
must be remembered that Cuba is in race, 
speech and spirit, and in the closest of 
social and personal ties, a Spanish country. 
It will never return to Spanish allegiance, 
but it may and it should cultivate social 
and commercial intimacy with what is to 
it the mother country, for the direct benefit 
of both. Cuba's need of immigration may 
advantageously be supplied from Spain 
with such fine specimens of intelligent 
physical efficiency as have served this coun- 
try so well at Panama. Spain has no 
colonies of her own which offer "attractive 
fields for settlement, and in the lack of 
them she may better direct her surplus 
population to Cuba than to some less favor- 
able and less friendly land. 

The negotiation of the treaty will also 
serve to mark the healing" of the wounds 
of 1898 and the complete acceptance by 
Spain of the accomplished and irrevocable 
facts. 

Acording to La Luclia of Flavana there 
will be no treaty. It said recently: 

"Those W'ho know state that they can 
guarantee that nothing will be done in the 
end, because on one hand there is the lack 
of a fixed purpose and decision on the 
part of the Madrid government, and on 
the other hand the lack of willingness on 
the part of the Cuban government which 
is fearful of hurting interests which are of 
more importance." 

Negotiations have been going on for 
three years in the interests of this treaty. 

On December 24th last a cable from 
Madrid to the Nezv York American said 
that the Spanish government has finally 
settled upon the basis for a provisional com- 
mercial convention with Cuba, which would 
not clash with United States interests. 



Cuba has done pretty well in its dozen 
years of self-government. Every year of 
peaceful progress has strengthened the 
new repubic in its power to make further 
progress and in the respect and confidence 
of other nations, says the Springfield 
(Mass.) Republican. It would be a pity, 
it says, if Uncle Sam should feel called to 
take hold a third time to untangle a po- 
litical snarl and help the country to a fresh 
start. 

• It is not to be believed, however, it says 
further, without further evidence, that Cu- 
ban patriotism, which underwent so much 
for liberty, will lightly risk putting aside 
its real fruits for temporary and doubtful 
advantage. 

The senators having asked for secretaries 
to attend them and save them from arduous 
routine work. La Liicha is inclined to look 
upon the demand in a spirit of compassion. 
It says : "We understand that there are 
senators who write 'hojo' for 'ojo,' on 
the principle that the 'h' is silent in the 
Spanish language, and when they strike 
the word 'hilo,' which has the 'h,' they 
drop it and write 'ilo.' So the private 
secretaries may be indispensable, in order 
to modify the' Spanish as it is written by 
the senators." 

The- Philadelplna Ledger comes to the 
defence of Cuba and says: 

"If half the stories that are brougiit 
from Cuba are true, the moral state of the 
government does not differ greatly from 
that of our own country a few generations 
ago, w'hen legislative and executive corrup- 
tion flourished with a far more flagr;int 
disregard of decency and right than any- 
thing of which the present has cognizance. 
The Cubans are now in an elemental stage 
of self-government. It is, perhaps, too 
much to expect of them that they should 
attain at the beginning of their experiment 
to a stage of efficiency and honesty to 
wdiich many older self-governing commu- 
nities with more than a century of experi- 
ence and training have not reached." 



The Cuban peasant lives from hand to 
mouth, working intermittently, and loafing 
when his means permit, says Forbes Lind- 
say in Lippincott's Magazine : 

"It is well enough to say that the peasant 
might be much better off if he were con- 
stantly industrious and thrifty. The 
simple fact is, he has never had any in- 
ducement to accumulate in a country where 
property had no protection, and pros- 
perity prompted persecution. The habit, 
inherited by him and created in his fore- 
fathers by environment and compelling 
circumstances, is not to be eradicated in a 
generation." 



16 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



THE MAKING OF AN HAVANA CIGAR 



HOW THE LEAF IS HANDLED THE GREAT SKILL OF THE TABAQUEROS- 

HANDWORK ONLY EMPLOYED 



The story ot' the making of Havana 
cigars is crowded with curious and inter- 
esting information. Yet not one in a 
thousand of the men who smoke, or think 
they are smoking, a "pure Havana," really 
knows anything about it. 

From an interesting article in the A'eiv 
York Su)i, the following details, showing 
the extraordinary care and skill exercised 
in the making of the world-famous Havana 
product, are taken. 

"The plants are cut in dry weather and 
hung up in the sun or in ventilated sheds. 
When this has gone on long enough, a 
moist, showery day is selected and the to- 
bacco is stacked up in a pile to sweat and 
ferment. It is watched carefully, the 
separate leaves being examined and with- 
drawn when in just the right condition. 

"Next the tobacco is sorted and baled. 
But even yet its quality is not definite!} 
determined. It isn't even known which 
leaves are wrappers and which fillers. 

"The bales are stored in the vaults of the 
factory which has bought them, and months, 
sometimes even years, may pass while they 
slowly cure. The bales are wrapped in 
palm leaves and are protected from light, 
from dust and from any extremes of tem- 
perature. 

"When at last the leaf is pronounced 
ripe, the bundles are taken out, separated, 
snrayed with clean water and spread on 
racks to dry in the dark. The wrappers 
go to the selector or blender : filler leaves 
are packed in barrels, so that the air can 
circulate through them, and remain there 
a few weeks or even a year, until all the 
leaves become of an average richness. They 
are carefully inspected every day. 

"After the blender has performed his 
most important and delicate task of select- 
ing the leaves which are to make up each 
vitola, or shape, the tabaquero, or actual 
maker, begins his work. No machinery is 
used in a Havana cigar factory. But the 
skill of these experienced tabaqueros, some 
of whom have been making a single brand 
for twenty or thirty years, is so extraordi- 
nary that the finished cigars conform abso- 
lutely to the gauge for that vitola. 

"The tabaquero first takes thirty or more 
filler leaves from a pile at his right hand 
and lays them one by one in a bundle in 
his left hand. Each leaf is laid in a cer- 
tain way, with a certain side up and the 
veins running in a certain direction. Yet 
the result seems to be a loose handful of 
leaves carelessly put together. He gives 



it a roll and a twist on a maple block be- 
fore him and then chooses a wrapper from 
a small-covered pile at his left hand. 

" 'Spreading this leaf out carefully,' says 
one visitor to a Havana factory, 'the rough 
handful of filler is laid on. Caressingly 
and with infinite attention the whole is 
rapidly rolled into the finished cigar. Here 
the yielding wrapper is coaxed, there 
modelled, so that it may not only lie smooth 
in spite of possibly rough handling, but 
also so that its edge will form a true, al- 
most imperceptible spiral from end to end. 

" 'When the tip is reached, something is 
done which distinguishes a fine Havana 
cigar from any other. Cigars made in a 
mould or with a binder as well as a wrap- 
per or of scrap tobacco or even by a care- 
less Cuban workman are pretty apt to have 
a hard little plug of tobacco at their tips 
obstructing the draught. A skilled Cuban 
workman, when his creation is apparently 
complete, cunningly splits the wrapper at 
the tip. lays it back and clips oflf this com- 
pact little plug. The tip is then covered 
again and modelled to a fine point. The 
smoker may now merely puncture the tip 
and it will draw perfectly. 

" 'The cigar that is built up by the 
skilled tabaquero contains no dust or small 
scraps of leaf. Every bit of tobacco left 
over is swept into a pocket below the table 
to be sent to the cigarette factories. The 
next cigar is made of entirely fresh ma- 
terial. 

" 'In the rolling of eight cigars enough 
expensive material is discarded to make a 
ninth. But the ninth is never made, not 
even for the cheapest markets. Only one 
kind of seconds is known in the great Ha- 
vana factories. These are the cigars re- 
jected by the packers, and they are con- 
sumed by employees, never leaving the 
premises.' 

"In a perfectly made cigar the leaves 
Iiave been laid so that the ash clings in 
a peculiar way, characteristic of the l)est 
product. The ash, by the way, of a fine 
Havana cigar is about one-fourth the 
weight of the cigar, showing how greedily 
the growing plant has absorbed the mineral 
elements of the soil. 

"In regard to the drawing qualities ex- 
perts declare that the blunt tipped shape, 
known as the marble end, with its straight 
sides, gives a much more even draught than 
the shape with exaggerated curves. They 
say that it is inevitable that the leaves 
which are loosely rolled in the thick centre 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



of the cigar must be packed tightly into the 
narrow shoulder and that such a cigar does 
not smoke evenly, nor does the draught 
reach all its layers alike. That is the 
reason for the growing popularity of 
straight sided, blunt tipped cigars. 

"The skillful tabaquero has no mold, no 
binder, not even a pattern. Yet when he 
has finished fifty cigars of one vitola they 
are absolutely the same in measurement. 
The modelling must all be done in the 
rolling; for if he tried to pinch or pull it 
into shape after it was finished, the to- 
bacco would not be evenly distributed and 



the cigar wouldn't burn. Nothing can be 
used to hold the leaves in place except 
a touch of gum tragacanth, mixed fresh 
twice a day, at the tip, where, as a rule, 
it is bitten off by the smoker. 

"In this country girls can learn to make 
cigars with a mold and a binder in a few 
months. In Cuba the simplest shapes re- 
quire two or three years apprenticeship, 
and a tabaquero will sometimes be ten years 
in perfecting his making of a difficult shape. 

He is well paid and well treated, however. 
Some of them receive $C or $7 a day for 
making only twenty-five or thirty cigars. 




Tobacco plant grown under clieesecloth. showing fine size 



T H I-. CUBA R E V 1 E W 



Few Havana workmen make move than" 
100 perfectos a day. Most of them work 
bv the piece and keep their own hours, 
except that they never work by artilicial 
light. Sometimes they begin at daylight, 
stopping at 10 A. M. for the Spanisli 
breakfast followed by a nap. At ]!.:;() 
everybody gets busy again, but by 3 or 4 
o'clock they begin to knock ofT. 

"It is and has always been a tabaquero's 
privilege to smoke as much as he wishes. 
The factories serve each workman with 
live wrappers daily of a quality put into 
bf teen-cent brands, and he rolls his own 
cigars, using a tiller of choice blends. If 
he asks for more wrappers he gets them. 
A tabaquero who turns out 100 cigars a 
day smokes enough more material to have 
added another ten to his output. This is 
regarded as part of his wages. 

"It is said that no matter M^hat unsanitary 
conditions may be found elsewhere in Cuba, 
the leading tobacco factories are scrupu- 
lously careful. There are plenty of smaller 
factories that are not. But the famous 
brands are made under careful hygienic 
regulations. Thoroughly cured Vuelta 
Abajo leaf contains about 7 per cent of 
resins and oils, which take up odors as 
milk or ,[:iytter does. If an onion should 
be slipped iqlo a bale of leaf or a bundle 
of cigars, it woidd,be impossible to destroy 
the resulting taint in'^'tlie tobacco. 

"Havana cigars are kept in cupboards of 
Spanish cedars and packed in boxes of 
the same wood. It i,s said that if ,t,hey were 
packed in pine boxes their quality would 
be destroyed. Accordmg to' law no two 
persons working in a Havana factor}^ may 
sit facing each other unless ^separated by 
at least fifteen feet of space. So the 
tobacco workers of all kinds sit back to 
back. By another law, whicli forbids the 
adulteration of tobacco in any form, per- 
fume may not even be added to the paper 
used for cigarettes. 

"In other countries lighter tobaccos are 
sometimes 'seasoned' with a syrup made 
from Cuban tobacco stems. ' Even if it 
were necessary in Cuba.' the law would 
forbid it ; for the law permits the use of 
only one foreign substance in manufactur- 
ing cigars, and that is pure water. Fortu- 
nately Havana has that in abundance. Cu- 
ban tobacco is protected by stringent laws 
and by a heavy import duty that keeps 
out foreign leaf." 

Sleeping car rates in Cuba are as fol- 
lows : From Havana to 

Santa Clara $3.00 $10.00 

Ciego de Avila 3.00 10.00 

Camaguey 3.50 12.00 

Las Tunas 4.50 15.00 

Alto Cedro 5.00 18.00 

Santiago de Cuba 5.00 IS.OO 



TOBACCO DURING THE YEAR 

During 1911 Cuban manufacturers scored 
a series of victories for the protection of 
their products both in the United States 
and in J'"ngland. In London a sweeping 
verdict was gained in a libel suit tried in 
the Kings Bench Court, which completely 
vindicated the honor- of the Havana 
manufacturers. In Xew York City a cam- 
paign was waged against bo.x-stuffers, who 
were dumping immense quantities of 
counterfeit "imported" cigars in the metro- 
politan and adjacent markets, and over a 
score of convictions were secured. Other 
malefactors in the liusiness of refilling do- 
mestic brand containers were also brought 
to book as an outcome of this concerted 
movement against the brand pirate and 
revenue tax defaulter. 

The following table shows the imports 
of leaf and cigars from Havana at the 
i)ort of New York, during 1911, classified 
by monthly returns and compiled by the 
United States Tobacco Journal: 

Tobacco Cigars 

Bales Cases 

January 17,271 1,888 

February 14,252 2,111 

i\Iarch 13,457 2,208 

April 13,408 2,612 

May 7,754 2,265 

June 6,312 2,000 

Julv S,279 2,744 

August 9,937 2,362 

September 9,511 2,593 

October 9,819 2,543 

November 11,553 2,833 

December 17,177 2,964 

Total 138,630 29,123 

1910 importations .... 1."j5,157 24,836 

Decrease 13,527 

Increase 4,287 



The Canadian and West Indian League 
have arranged to run a Canadian Business 
Man's Tour to the West Indies this winter. 
The ship is the "Laurentic"' of the White 
Star Dominion Line, and the tour will 
leave New Y^ork late this month, being 
away for thirty-one days. 

Cuba is the first country to be visited. 
Some imports in 1910 of the republic of 
interest to manufacturers are — manufac- 
tured articles : Iron and steel, and manu- 
factures, $6,164,000; colors and paints, 
$673,000; chemical products, $2,781,000; 
essences, oils, etc., $1,897,000; paper and 
pasteboard, $1,498,000; wood (lumber and 
manufactures of), $2,506,000; machinery, 
$s, 382,000; apparatus, $2,822,000. Various: 
Animal products, $4,453,000; meats, $11,- 
477,000; fish, $1,310,000; breadstuffs (flour, 
etc.), $13,358,000: dairy products, $2,524,- 
Oi:0: vegetables, $4,522,000. 



THE C U B A R E \- 1 F. W 



19 



HAVANA'S SEWERAGE AND PAVING CONTRACT 



THE LARGEST CONTRACT FOR SANITARY WORK E\ER MADE — -SECTIONS 
BENEFITTED CUBAN LABOR VALUABLE 



The Havana sewerage and paving con- 
tract is the largest sewer contract ever ex- 
ecuted, and the system will be, when com- 
pleted by the Cuban Engineering and Con- 
tracting Company, who have the work in 
hand, one of the most comprehensive in 
existence. It meets the present requirements 
of the City of Havana and its future 
needs, though the population double that 
of to-day. It is, says a well-known en- 
gineering authorit}', up to the present time 
the record job. "To describe this great sys- 
tem one must have recourse to a typo- 
graphical map of the cit}-," says the En- 
giiieeriiig Record. "From such a map it 
will be seen that the main Citj^ of Havana 
lies on a point of land formed by the 
gulf, the entrance to the harbor and the 
harbor itself, and east of Belascoain Street, 
which was at one time the miHtary barrier 
of the town, and that this peninsula is 
practically level. There is some high 
ground, however, just back of the Villa- 
nueva Station. The sewage of this area 
is taken care of by what is known as the 
North Side marginal intercepting sewer 
into which the branch sewers of the north- 
ern half of the city proper empty, and the 
East Side marginal interceptible sewer, 
running along the harbor front,. into which 
the branch sewers of the southern half of 
the city proper are connected. These two 
7-feet diameter marginal trunk line sewers 
crossing the Plaza in front of the presi- 
dential palace unite in a horseshoe-shaped 
approach to a siphon under the harbor. 

"The districts southwest of Havana, west 
of the harbor, namely, Jesus del Monte 
and Cerro, are on high ground and are 
made easily tributar}- of the East Side 
marginal intercepting sewer. The Vadado 
district lying along the gulf to the west 
of Havana is served by a marginal trunk 
line which, by means of two electric drive 
sublifts operated from the main pumping 
station or by current purchased commer- 
cially, discharges into the Xorth Side mar- 
ginal system. 

"By the original arrangement of the sys- 
tem, the Alatadero and Luyano districts, 
lying but little above the level of the harbor, 
were taken care of by a substation which 
lifted the sewage into a tunnel passing 
under Principe Hill and made tributary 
to the North Side marginal trunk line 
sewer, but by the relocation of the siphon 
under the harbor and the power plant the 
South Side pumping station was eliminated 
and these districts were made tril)utarv to 



the liast Side marginal trunk line sewer. 
Labor in Havana is generally good. The 
best comes from Spain and the best of the 
Spanish labor comes from the Province of 
GaHcia and are known as Gallegos. The 
native Cuban labor is not quite so hardy, 
but for the operation of drills, hoists, 
telphers, steam rollers and similar machi- 
n ry the Cubans are particularly valuable. 
They take a great interest in their machines, 
keep them clean and bright and in good 
condition, and feel great pride in the 
responsibilities of their w^ork. They are 
quick to learn, ingenious and skillful." 

The directors of the Cuban Engineering 
and Contracting Co. are Messrs. Samuel 
Bettle, chairman, Charles K. Beekman, Wm. 
C. Klark, Erskine Hewitt and Captain D. 
L. Hough, the latter with :Major James 
Francis Case being in active charge of the 
work. For the Cuban government David 
E. McComb is chief engineer. Ground 
was broken for the work on September 12, 
1908. and up to the present time some 200 
miles of sewers and drains have been com- 
pleted out of the 300 miles required. Pav- 
ing over completed streets is also rapidly 
going forward. 

"The sewage thus assembled in the horse- 
shoe-shaped approach to the siphon flows 
under General Ena Street into the siphon, 
passing under the harbor, and reaches the 
screen chamber at the main pumping plant, 
situated close to the harbor front, under 
the brow of Cabana Fortress in the lo- 
cality known as Casa Blanca. 

"The sewage of Casa Blanca and of the 
district south of the harbor, known as 
Regla, is collected and emptied directly into 
the pump chamber. 

"Originally, the siphon crossed from La 
Punta to the power house directly under 
Morro Castle. There was objection to this 
location of the power house in that it was 
a ready target for war vessels in the event 
of hostilities and putting it further inland 
made a better arrangement of the sewer 
system, eliminating, as above mentioned, 
the necessity for the South Side sublift. 

"The sewage flows by- gravity into the 
pump chamber of the power house. Here 
it is lifted 24 feet, so that it may flow by- 
gravity through a 7-foot concrete-lined 
tunnel piercing Cabana Hill, just south of 
the fortress, above the water line and 
thence onward through a subaqueous out- 
fall of cast-iron pipe laid in concrete, ex- 
tending to a point 550 feet ofi" shore, where 
it is emptied in the Gulf Stream. 



20 



T H K C U B A R ]•: \- I !•: W 



"The outlet of the outfall lies about three 
quarters of a mile east of the enlranco 
to the harbor, and within the current of the 
Gulf Stream, that passes this point at the 
average rate of four miles per hour. The 
sewage is thus carried away from the 
harbor and out to the sea. 

"The siphon under the harbor is a 7-foot 
internal diameter, concrete-lined, shield- 
driven tunnel. The tunnel through Cabatia 
Hill is generally in rock. The outfall lies 
in a trench cut into the exposed coral 
rock that here forms the shore line." 

Chief Engineer McComb, the govern- 
ment's supervisor of the sewering of the 
city, resigned January 3d, because, he says, 
of the endless obstacles and annoyances 
from which he has suffered. President 
Gomez appointed an official of the Depart- 
ment of Public Works to fill the vacancy 
temporarily. 

Mr. McComb was appointed under the 
terms of the decree issued by provisional 
Governor Magoon authorizing the sewer 
contract. 



TO BE SUNK AT SEA 

February 15, 1912, that is to say, the 
fourteenth anniversary of the day the bat- 
tleship "Maine" was blown up in the harbor 
of Havana, is the day selected to float the 
after part of the wreck, by means of the 
construction of a bulkhead forward and 
the flooding of the caisson. The section of 
the hull will then be towed out into the 
Atlantic and sunk with appropriate cere- 
monies. A battleship convoy will be pro- 
vided. When the historic vessel, the de- 
struction of which precipitated a modern 
war, sinks beneath the waves for the sec- 
ond and last time naval funeral salvos 
will be fired. 

The shattered forward part of the 
"Maine" will have to be cut to pieces bit 
by bit. 

Requests for cannon from the wreck 
from a dozen Ohio towns have been re- 
fused by the officials at Washington. The 
urgent deficiency bill recently passed by 
the United States Senate forbids the sale 
of any part of the "Maine," and provides 
for its burial at sea. The bill also author- 
izes the secretary of war to give "some 
portion of the wreck" to the Republic of 
Cuba, for incorporation in a public monu- 
ment, to be erected in Havana. 

In accordance with the action of the 
United States Congress in giving to the 
Cuban government a portion of the wreck 
of the battleship "Maine" for a monument 
to be erected in Havana, the Cuban secre- 
tary of public works selected the after 
turret and the guns in it. The topmast 
of the battleship is to go to Pittsburgh by 
request of the citizens. 



■ DO NOT PLAY BRAINY BASEBALL 

"Cubans," said Mr. John McGraw, mana- 
g r of the New York Giants, on his return 
from Cuba, "are only fair ball players. 
They are as fast as lightning on the bases 
and they can throw to beat the band. They 
have picked up all the knacks of fielding, 
but they cannot bat. 

"Not only that, Init they do not play 
what we call brainy baseball. Very little 
attention is given to brainwork on the dia- 
mond. They perform the manual part of 
the game very well, but the keen, crafty 
headwork we see in the game here is 
missing. They know nothing about 'in- 
side ball,' and we were able to out-trick 
them most of the time. In an opposing 
pitcher they look for speed, and, usually, 
they hit a fast ball, but when they try to 
solve the mysteries of a curve they churn 
the air very aggressively. 'Matty's' fade- 
away was a great puzzle to them and they 
were at a loss to find the ball when he 
sent over the slow drop. 

"But I must say a good word," said Mr. 
McGraw, "about Mendez, the Cuban 
pitcher. He is a fine pitcher, sure enough, 
with as fast a ball as you'd see anywhere. 
He burns it over like a rifle ball and de- 
pends entirely on his great speed. We 
found it, however, even if it was traveling 
at a fast clip." 

The Giants made the most successful in- 
vasion that has yet been made against the 
Cuban teams. Detroit managed to finish 
ahead in a series with the islanders last 
year, but their victory was far from being 
as decisive as that scored by the New 
Yorkers. Twelve games were played, six 
against the Havana team and six against 
the Almendares. The Giants won nine of 
the twelve games, taking five from the Ha- 
vanas and four from the Almendares. 

This record has earned them a great 
deal of popularity, and they are generally 
considered the greatest aggregation of ball- 
players in the world. Their efforts to play 
hard and win have been appreciated by the 
Cubans. 

A peculiar Cuban trend is that Monday 
is one of the big baseball days of the week. 
Games in Havana are played only upon 
Sunday and Monday, when from 10,000 to 
15,000 shell out the price at the ticket win- 
dow and then bet their socks off upon 
every turn of the game, says the Chicago 
luterocean. 

It finds also that the tempermental and 
peppery islander doesn't stop at betting 
upon the score. His coin goes up on every 
hit and put-out made, covering each play 
from the first base hit to the final out in 
the ninth. 

The first colored religious organization 
in Cuba was that of the Paptist denomina- 
tion in Havana January 7th. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



21 



RAILROAD AND COMMERCIAL NEWS 



THE CUBAN CENTRAL RAILWAY 
Weekly receipts : 

October 7th £5,509 Increase.. £2,919 

October 14th 5,567 Increase.. 3,935 

October 21st 4,999 Increase.. 4,004 

October 2Sth 5,071 Increase.. 3,365 

November 4th .. . 5,580 Increase.. 4,203 

November 11th . . 5,678 Increase.. 4,067 

November 18th . . 5,684 Increase.. 3,832 

November 25th . . 5,296 Increase.. 3,153 

December 2d . . . 4,794 Increase.. 2,020 

December 9th .. 5,145 Increase.. 1,464 



THE WESTERN RAILWAY OF HAVANA 
Weekly receipts : 



October 7th . . . 


. £4,323 


Increase. . 


£3,276 


October 14th .. 


. 4,493 


Increase. . 


4,420 


October 21st . . 


. 4,770 


Increase. . 


5,937 


October 28th . . 


. 4,845 


Increase. . 


4,657 


November 4th . 


. 4,359 


Increase. . 


4,135 


November 11th. 


. 4,952 


Increase. . 


3,839 


November 18th. 


. 4,550 


Increase. . 


3,303 


November 25th. 


. 3,075 


Incerase. . 


867 


December 2d . . 


. 3,249 


Decrease. 


. 1,710 


December 9th . 


. 4,073 


Decrease. 


. 3,457 



CANADA AND CUBA 

The Canada West India Company, Ltd., 
Dr. E. S. Kirkpatrick, the promoter, says, 
starts with a capitalization oi $1,000,000. 
It has recently been given a federal charter 
by the Canadian government, and is formed 
to develop trade between Canada and the 
West Indies. 

The company, he says, will even- 
tually buy large tracts of land in Cuba 
and other islands, and seek to develop the 
fruit trade with Canada. He said that the 
West India fruit sent to the United States 
market had to compete with free importa- 
tions from Porto Rico and Hawaii and the 
home market of the Southern States, and 
that the native growers were able to se- 
cure only a small price for their products. 
He instanced the case of pineapples which 
are bought in Cuba for three cents apiece, 
much larger and juicier than those sold 
in Canada for 15 to 30 cents. He believes 
that tropical fruit can be made cheap and 
popular in Canada and that there is a 
great opportunity in developing the trade. 

The head offices will be in St. John. 



The railroad commission has authorized 
the Niquero Sugar Company in Oriente 
Province to cross with a plantation rail- 
way the highways in the neighborhood of 
Seibado and at Real Vicana. 



First class passenger fares between Ha- 
vana and the folio ing principal places, 

reaching to Santiago via the United Rail- 
ways of Havana, are as follows : 

Alto Cedro $21.88 

Caibarien, via Santo Domingo 10.59 

Caibarian, via Placetas del Sur 11. 00 

Camaguey 15.41 

Cardenas 5.37 

Ciego de Avila 12.63 

Cienfuegos, via Santo Domingo 9.10 

Cienfuegos, via Santa Clara 10.29 

Colon 5.48 

Jaruco 1.47 

Jovellanos 4.61 

Las Tunas 18.67 

Matanzas 3.11 

Sagua la Grande, via Santo Domingo 8.36 

San Luis 23.18 

Sancti Spiritus 11.11 

Santa Clara 8.44 

Santiago de Cuba 24.03 

Santo Domingo 7.46 



THE DEMANDS OF LABOR 

The waiters and bartenders of Havana 
are threatening to go on a strike if they 
are not given better quarters to live in. 
At present they are obliged to sleep in the 
attics of the cafes where they are employed, 
and there quarters not permitting of a cir- 
culation of fresh air are deemed unhealthy. 

They hope by their agitation of the mat- 
ter to interest the sanitary authorities and 
thus bring about a betterment, as happened 
when the bakers went out on strike. They 
did not get much improvement in wages, 
but the authorities being called in saw the 
need of more hygienic surroundings in the 
shops and enforced many reforms. 

A strike has been declared by the cane 
cutters of the central Jagueyal Camaguey 
Province because the manager has refused 
to raise their wages. 

The central is new and began grinding 
in 1909. The output has steadily risen from 
66,749 bags in 1909 to 125,000 in 1911, the 
latter estimated. 



NEW BRANCH ESTABLISHED 

The board of directors of the National 
Bank of Cuba declared a semi-annual 
dividend of $200,000, which was payable 
to its shareholders January 2d, at the rate 
of 8 per cent per annum. 

The bank has opened a branch in Santo 
Domingo. Santa Clara Province. The town 
is a progressive one and bank facilities 
have long been needed. 



22 THECUBAREVIEW 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD, THE HAVANA ELECTRIC, ETC. 
The Cuba Railroad Company's Earnings 



The report of the Cuba Railroad, for the month of Xovember and live months ended 
November r:iOth, compares as follows : 

November gross $251,022 $202,i):!4 $166,448 $117,209 $142,034 

Expenses 156,538 126,!)00 110,960 83,733 101,289' 

November net $94,484 $76,034 $55,488 $33,476 $40,745 

Chaige« 60,125 36,666 36,666 32,496 28,329 

Novemlier net $34,359 $39,368 $18,821 $980 $12,410 

Five months' gross $1,288,980 $1,024,817 $807,682 $673,261 $719,608 

Net profits 546,359 422,489 252,083 248.429 200,327 

Fixed charges 300,625 183,333 178,543 161,777 ' 141,646 

Five months' surplus $245,743 $239,155 $73,540 $86,658 $58 



Earnings of the United Railways of Havana 



Weekly Receipts: 1911 1910 1909 1908 

Week ending December 2d £17,691 il7.689 il6.6it:! il5,076 

Week ending December 9th 20,416 19.814 18,809 16,999 

Week ending December 16th 20,887 20,476 22,311 18,060 



1910 


1909 


1908 


$43,546 


$40,896 


$35,687 


42,454 


39,264 


36,598 


43,603 


40,291 


37,508 


43.247 


37,680 


36,035 



Earnings of the Havana Electric Railway 

Weekly Receipts: 1911 

Week ending December 10th $48,096 

Week ending December 17th 46,333 

Week ending December 24th 48,291 

Week ending December 31st 46,265 

From January 1st to December 31st ..$2,387,376 $2,167,258 

December Quotations for Cuban Securities 

Supplied by Lawrence Turnure & Co., New York 

Bid Asked 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds ( interior ) 99 99^4 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (exterior) 102 !!> 103 

Havana City First Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 106 108 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 103 106 

Cuba Railroad First Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds 102^/4 103 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 88 92 

Cuba Company 6 per cent Debentures 95 100 

Havana Electric Railway Consolidated Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds 98% 99^/i 

Havana Electric Railway Preferred Stock 98 

Havana Electric Railway Common Stock 93 

Matanzas City Market Place 8 per cent Bonds-Certificates 103 105 

Cuban-American Sugar Co. Coll. Trust 6 per cent. Gold Bonds of 1918 96% 97 

Central Vannina 8 per cent Mortgage Bonds 100 102 V2 

All prices of bonds quoted on an "and interest" basis. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



RAILROAD AND COMMERCIAL NEWS 



(Contiiuu'dy 



RATES ON WATERPROOF FOOTWEAR 

During the preparation of Tariff Series 
No. 27, Customs Tariff of Cuba, the ques- 
tion arose whether waterproof fabrics, 
when originating- in the United States, 
were entitled, by virtue of the reciprocity 
treaty of December 11, 1902, to the reduction 
provided for manufactures of the component 
fibers (.30 per cent in the case of cotton and 
40 per cent in the case of sill-c and wool), or 
to the general reduction of 20 per cent 
provided for articles not specifically named 
in the treaty. An inquiry whs accordingly 
instituted, through diplomatic channels, as 
to which treatment was actually applied. 

In reply, it is pointed out by the Treasury 
Department of Cuba, under date of Xo 
vember 23, 1911, that heretofore, by virtue 
of a precedent established in the custom- 
house of Havana, a reduction of 20 per cent 
was applied, but that in the future a re- 
duction of 30 per cent will be accorded to 
waterproof fabrics of cotton, and of 40 per 
cent to waterproof fabrics of wool or silk. 
The reduction applies to all articles coated 
with rubber on one or both sides, as well 
a3 to those with an interior lining of rubber. 



MORE SPANISH FOOTWEAR IMPORTED 

Francisco Pons, of Pons & Co., well- 
known shoe wholesalers, of Havana, re- 
cently made his annual visit to Boston. 

In the course of a statement made to 
the secretary of the New England Shoe 
and Leather Association, says a Boston 
contemporary, Mr. Pons said that business 
conditions in Cuba are somewhat unsettled 
just at present on account of the approach- 
ing elections next year, but that the plant- 
ers have been quite encouraged over the 
size of the sugar crop this season and the 
relatively high prices obtained for their 
product. 

He said that American boots and shoes 
are about holding their own in Cuba, but 
that there is a noticeable increase in the 
importations of hand-made Spanish foot- 
wear. There has been no recent revival of 
the talk of changing the tariff on shoes or 
the establishment of additional shoe fac- 
tories in the island. 



The Royal Bank of Canada has opened 
a new branch at Ciego de Avila, Camaguey 
Province. 



ALL AFTER CUBAN TRADE 

Richmond, \'a., proposes to reach out for 
trade beyond the waters. For the past two 
years or more business people have been 
watching the development of Cuba. 

The Richmond Chamber of Commerce 
for at least two years has been looking for 
an outlet for Riclimond to this rich tropical 
region. 

Urging Memphis, Tenn.. merchants to 
establish closer trade relations with Cuba, 
Antonio M. Rivero, Cuban envoy to the 
United States, has written a letter to James 
S. Warren, industrial commissioner, on the 
matter. 

Sehor Rivero wrote that owing to the 
fact that river navigation would naturally 
increase and facilities for shipping by 
water be improved when the Panama Canal 
was opened, it was now time for Mem- 
phis business men to investigate trade con- 
ditions in Cuba with a view of establish- 
ing closer relations. 

The Chattanooga (Tenn.) Manufac- 
turers' Association will send about 200 
representatives on January 27th to Cuba 
on the invitation of the president and vice- 
president of Cuba, Governor of Havana 
Province and Mayor of Havana. 

There are about twenty-five firms in the 
Manufacturers' Association which do an 
export business. The exact volume is not 
known, but Chairman J. W. Rawlings, 
Cuban consul, of the export committee, is 
of the opinion that it amounts to three- 
quarters of a milHon dollars yearly. Many 
thousands of dollars in Chattanooga 
go to Cuba every month. 

Indiana manufacturers, numbering 130, 
will include Havana in the trade extension 
trip to be made through the Southern 
States under the auspices of the Indiana- 
polis Trade Association next February. 

Three days will be spent in Cuba investi- 
gating trade conditions and developing ex- 
port isusiness. D. A. Skinner, a representa- 
tive of the Bureau of Manufacturers of the 
Department of Commerce and Labor at 
Washington may accompany the Indiana 
party to Cuba. 



The Cuba Railroad Company has declared 
an annual dividend of 2 per cent on its 
non-cumulative 6 per cent preferred stock. 
This is the same as a vear ago. 



WILL USE THE NEW STATION 

All of the railroads entering Havana are 
to come into the magnificent new Union 
Station, which is being built by the United 
Railways of Havana. This has been made 
possible by the purchase in London of the 
Western Railway of Havana by the LTnited 
Railways of Havana. 



24 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



GENERAL NOTES 



AMERICANS BUY BIG TRACT 

It was generally believed that some nego- 
tiation, which has been going on for some 
months for lands adjacent to the govern- 
ment naval station at Cuantanamo, Oriente 
Province, were instigated largely by those 
representing the United States, that coun- 
try, it was stated, being desirous of adding 
to its territory at Guantanamo. The fol- 
lowing story, however, taken from the 
Nezv York Tribune, of December 22d, 
shows that a private Amercian syndicate 
has taken the lands. United States navy 
officials deny positively any interest in any 
land proposition. 

The Tribune story is as follows : 

"Through a deal just completed in this 
city about seventy square miles of land 
immediately adjacent to the United States 
Naval Station at Guantanamo, Cuba, has 
been purchased by a syndicate of Amer- 
icans. The purchase price is put at about 
$2,000,000. Included in the sale is Porto 
Escondido — the Hidden Harbor — capable 
of receiving vessels of the largest draft. 

"The property was owned by Colonel J. 
Nicholas Jane, of the Cuban army, and 
Miguel Cuevas, rich landowners, living at 
Guantanamo. Colonel Jane has been in 
this city for the last two weeks. Senor 
Cuevas was represented by his brother, 
Carlos, who had power of attorney to 
complete the sale. Accompanying them 
was a well-known Cuban attorney. 

"An international banking house will act 
as fiscal agent for the transaction. A 
well-known local firm of attorneys repre- 
sented the American syndicate in the nego- 
tiations. It is suggested that possibly the 
tract might be desired by the United States 
to extend its naval base, as apart from the 
harbor it would give access to the potable 
water of the Yateras River. 

"At the Navy Department, however, it 
was said no such purchase was in the re- 
motest contemplation. For the United 
States to acquire the land it would be neces- 
sary for the Cuban government to make a 
formal purchase of the property and then 
cede it to this country." 



Mr. William Jennings Bryan, on his way 
to the United States from Jamaica, stopped 
in Havana on January 1st for a few hours. 
He later in the day visited President 
Gomez. 

There is a movement being made in San- 
tiago de Cuba to have the name changed 
to that of "Ciudad Maceo," in honor of 
Antonio Maceo. The matter is to be pro- 
posed in the provincial council. 



TAXES IN CUBA 

^ There is no tax on uncultivated lands in 
Cuba, and it is a very common thing to find 
private landed estates, undeveloped, aggre- 
gating as much as a quarter of a million 
acres. There is a small tax on lands that 
are cultivated and producing anything. 
There is also a guild tax levied on any line 
or trade of commercial business, propor- 
tional to the amount of business done. The 
government has received from the National 
Lottery, which started business in Septem- 
ber, 1909, revenue amounting to $4,087,- 
165.68. There is another not inconsequen- 
tial source of revenue which is derived 
from a license on cock-fighting, as much 
a national sport in Cuba as is the bull-fight 
in Mexico. "In every precinct," says an 
American long resident on the island, "there 
is a cock-pit, which on every Saturday and 
Sunday is filled to overflowing by the 
lower classes. The admission fee is 10 
to 25 cents, and the stakes sometimes as 
high as $1,000 on each side. Ten per cent 
of the whole, from the pot and entrance 
fee, goes to the government, or to govern- 
ment officials." 



THE NEW PALACE 

The contract for the building of the new 
presidential palace on the site of the pres- 
ent Villanueva railway station has been let 
to a Mr. Eugenio Reinery for $1,117,000, 
who promises to complete it within two 
years. 

The other bidders were : Purdy & Hen- 
derson. $1,321,865 ; Claudio Gonzalez & Co., 
$980,000: General Contracting Co., $1,110,- 
000; and Joaquin Chalons, $1,096,200. 

Work will begin at once. Gonzalez & Co. 
want to know why their bid was turned 
down, theirs being the lowest. They also 
want to know why the contract was given 
for over $1,000,000 when the bill providing 
for the palace expressly states that it shall 
cost less than this amount. 



The central portion of the Matanzas 
Terminal Company's wharves at Dubrocq 
collapsed January 2d, and 13 cars carry- 
ing 1,800 bags of sugar went down in the 
bay with the wrecked wharf, entailing a 
loss of $20,000 for the sugar. No lives 
were lost, although there were 38 men 
working on the pier at the time. 



Oscar Hopkins, for ten years a member 
of the American colony at Guayabal, Ha- 
vana Province, where he owned an orange 
grove, died on January 1st. 



THE CUBA RE\'IEW 



HOW MISS BARTON TOOK SANTIAGO 



On Christmas day Clara Barton was 90 
years old. The present generation know 
her chiefly as the mother of the American 
Red Cross, the international branches of 
which now extend to all civilized lands. 

During the more than 20 years that Miss 
Barton sustained the Red Cross in x\mer- 
ica, she visited between 20 and 30 fields. 
At the age of 77 she visited Cuba and 
headed the Red Cross movements during 
the term of the war with Spain. She did 
the work of several men, often riding sixty 
miles in a day, on a wagon without springs 
\ hich had to pass over a road extremely 
rough and hazardous. George Kennan, the 
writer and lecturer, who was with Miss 
Barton in Cuba, says that though but a 
little more than fifty years of age at the 
time, he could not, with all his experience 
have done 20 miles of the 60 that this 
delicate woman of 70 did on many days 
in pursuing her great undertaking of dis- 
tributing food supplies and clothing to the 
starving reconcentrados. 

It was Miss Barton who really took San- 
tiago, and the story is well told in the 
New York Sun. There was not much said 
in the newspapers about the exploit at the 
time, but the record is in the War Depart- 
ment at Washington. From Miss Barton's 
diary the following description is taken : 

"Between 3 and 4 o'clock in the after- 
noon a small Spanish steamer — which had 
been among the captures of Santiago — ran 
alongside and informed us that an officer 
wished to come aboard. It proved to be 
Lieutenant Capeheart, of the flagship, who 
brought word from Admiral Samson that 
if we could come alongside the "New 
York," he would put a pilot on board. 
This was done and we moved on through 
waters we had never traversed — past Morro 
Castle, long, low, silent and grim- — past 
the Spanish wrecks on the right — past the 



"Merrimac" in the channel, which Hobson 
had left. We began to realize that we 
were alone. Of all the ships about the 
harbor there was none with us. The still- 
ness of the Sabbath was over all. The 
gulls sailed and flapped and dipped about 
us. The lowering summer sun shot long 
golden rays athwart the green hills on either 
side and tinged the v/aters calm and still. 
The silence grew oppressive as we glided 
along with scarce a ripple. The thought 
suddenly burst upon me : Are we really go- 
ing into Santiago — and alone? Are we 
not to be run out and wait aside and 
salute with dipping colors while the great 
battleships come up with music and banners 
and lead the way ? As far as the eye 
could reach no ship was in sight. Was 
this to remain so? Could it be possible 
that the commander who had captured a 
city decline to be the first to enter — that 
he would hold back his flagship and him- 
self and send forward and first a cargo 
of food on a plain ship, under direction 
of a woman? Did our commands, military 
or naval, hold men great enough of soul 
for such action ? It must be true — for 
the spires of Santiago rise before us, and 
turning to the score of companions beside 
me I asked, 'Is there any one here who 
will lead the doxology?' In an instant the 
full, rich voice of Enola Gardner rang out : 
'Praise God, from Whom All Blessings 
Flow.' By that time the chorus was full, 
and the tears on many a face told more 
plainly than words how genuine was that 
praise, and when in response to a second 
suggestion, 'My Country, 'Tis of Thee' 
swelled out on the evening air, in the fare- 
well rays of the setting sun, the 'State of 
Texas' was nearing the dock, and quietly 
dropping her anchors she lay there in un- 
disputed possession of the City of San- 
tiago." 



Automobile Trade Growing 



■'In Cuba and the other West Indian 
Islands the Locomobile Company was one 
of the early pioneers in the export trade," 
said J. C. Hernandez, the export agent in 
New York. "We began selling the old 
four-cylinder cars in Cuba in 1904 and dis- 
posed of about twenty machines there each 
season until 1907, when our trade began 
to fall off owing to competition, and also 
to the campaign begun there by foreign 
manufacturers. 

"With the advent of our six-cylinder car. 
however, our Cuban trade is picking up 
again, proving that the sugar and tobacco 



planters are willing to pay a high price 
for a higher grade article than that which 
we previously had to offer them, -for it 
must be remembered that a duty of twenty- 
five per cent has to be paid on automobiles 
shipped into Cuba. We have contracts 
now for twelve of the six-cylinder cars to 
go to Cuba, and expect to sell not less 
than twenty-five before the close of the 
season. 

"Cuban buyers take a large number of 
second-hand machines for use in the rough 
roads of the interior, at points located far 
from the centres of supply." 



THE CUB A R E \M I". W 



HAVANA S OLDEST A:MERICAN DEAD 

^^'illiam H. Redding, the oldest Amer- 
ican resident in Cuba and a multi-mil- 
lionaire real estate holder in Havana, died 
suddenly in his apartments in the Hotel 
Inglaterra, Havana, on Dec. 29th. He was 
born in Waterford, Ireland, in 1S41, and emi- 
grated in his boyhood to the United States. 

Eifty-seven years ago the late Archbishop 
Hughes of New York came to Havana on 
a diocesan visit. He brought with him 
William Redding, who was a poor boy of 
ten. The boy remained there and in time 
became the richest and foremost American 
in Cuba. 

Mr. Redding was intimate with the 
Terrys, the Cuban bankers, and was re- 
markable for his benefactions to the Cath- 
olic Church, which were so generous, that 
Pope Pius made him a Knight of the Or- 
der of St. Gregory and later on raised 
him to the dignity of a papal count. He 
was in New York in November, when he 
dined with Father Nicholas Murray, the 
Right Rev. William Jones, Bishop of 
Puerto Rico, and his cousin, John F. W. 
Meagher, M. D., of New York. He was 
then suffering from arterio-sclerosis. Mr. 
Redding was also an intimate friend of 
Governor Magoon and of President Taft, 
and participated with them in the sale of 
friar lands in the Philippines, he being the 
official representative of the Roman Pontiff. 
President Gomez, the late General Garcia, 
General Meural and \'ice-President Zayas 
were Mr. Redding's intimate associates. 

He was buried on January 6th in Cal- 
varv Cemeterv, Brooklvn, N. Y. 



CHESS MATCH IN DOUBT 

Capablanca, the Cuban chess champion, 
completed the draft of his reply to the 
conditions made by Dr. Emanuel Lasker 
for a world's championship chess match, 
and forwarded it on December 20th to his 
opponent. 

Capablanca declines to play at the rate 
of twelve moves an hour, which he de- 
clares to be unprecedented. The short play 
sessions of two and a half hours each also 
are objectionable to him. He urges that 
the winner of the match shall be the one 
who scores the majority of points, whereas 
Dr. Lasker stipulates that the match should 
be drawn in case the score stood at 1 to 0, 
2 to 1 or 3 to 2. With regard to the 
financial end of the contest, Capablanca 
wishes to share equally with Dr. Lasker 
all the proceeds, or he will consent to an 
arrangement whereby the winner takes all 
— title, stakes and income. 

Capablanca concedes Dr. Lasker the 
right to determine the beginning of the 
match and the locality of play, but insists 
ui)on at least four weeks' notice. 



WORK IN CUBA S PORTS 

The Bowers Southern Dredging Com- 
pany of Galveston, Texas, has secured a 
number of contracts for the improvement 
of harbors in Cuba. R. P. Clarke, presi- 
dent of the company, has returned from 
the island, and announced that the com- 
pany is ready to inaugurate work at once. 

The contracts represent a minimum of 
over $3,000,000, and the work will extend 
over a period of six years. With the ex- 
ception of one contract, which is with the 
Cuban government, all are with the Ports 
Company, which holds large harbor con- 
cessions on the island. 

The contracts cover improvements in the 
following ports: Isabella de Sagua and 
Caibarien, in the province of Santa Clara ; 
Xuevitas, in the province of Camaguey ; 
Guantanamo and Santiago de Cuba, in the 
province of Oriente ; Cienfuegos, in the 
province of Santa Clara, and Havana. 

The Isabella de Sagua contract is with 
the Cuban government. This contract, as 
well as all the others, with the exception 
of that of Havana harbor, is for dredging. 
The Havana harbor contract is for the re- 
moval of rock. 

Work was started December 15th on the 
Isabella de Sagua contract. Within a short 
time work will begin on the Havana con- 
tract, and other contracts. 




Capablanca welcomed by relatives and friends 

upon his arrival at Havana. — Bohemia of Havana. 

LI egad a dc Capablaiira 

Havana's custom house collections for 
December compare as follows. 

1911 $l.r523,514 

1910 ],.J97,255 

1909 1,.:.06,085 

190S 1.409.794 

1907 1,658.207 

For the year the city's collections were : 

1911 $19,509,130 

1910 17,734,290 

1909 17.646.778 

1908 16,820,802 

1907 19,328,046 

190(; 17.897,672 



28 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



AGRICULTURAL MATTERS 



THE AVOCADO, AGUACATE OR 
ALLIGATOR PEAR 

There is no new fruit that is coining 
into prominence more rapidly or with 
greater assurance of becoming the basis of 
a profitable industry than the avocado. To 
many this delicious fruit is still unknown, 
but its reputation is being more widely 
established each year and it is not im- 
probable that in a few years it will become 
as well known in the fresh-fruit market 
as the grapefruit or the pineapple. Its 
unique character reduces to a minimum its 
competition with other fruits, while its 
rich, not-like flavor is almost universally 
enjoyed among those who have known it 
long enough to become familiar with its 
peculiar charm. It is a fruit and yet so 
unlike other fruits as to suggest a class 
of its own, and for this reason it has been 
called a "salad fruit." But this term seems 
too limiting, because it is used in so many 
other ways. 

The demand for the avocado has always 
kept in advance of the supply in the few 
American cities where this fruit has been 



placed, as evidenced by the high prices 
paid for it, ranging usually from 20 to .50 
cents each at retail. Although the markets 
are at present limited, there does not seem 
to be any immediate danger of overpro- 
duction. 

Tile fruit has many names, such as mid- 
shipman's butter, butter pear, vegetable 
marrow, palta, aguacate and alligator pear. 
The name "avocado" has now been adopted 
and has the sanction of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, the American 
Pomological Society and other horticul- 
tural organizations. 

It is not a dry land plant and its cul- 
tivation should not be attempted for profit 
on any lands which are not supplied with 
a generous rainfall or which cannot be 
brought under irrigation. 

High winds are decidedly inimical to 
the tree. The wood is brittle and is liable 
to be broken by winds. The flowers also 
are destroyed by severe winds, and the 
fruit, which hangs from pendulous branches 
and fruit stems, is easily blown about, 
bruised, or broken from the tree. For this 
reason, commercial culture should not be 



Hardy, Productive — All that a 
Commercial Orange Should be 

The Lue Gini Gong Orange is Ijolli hardy and piodiu- 
tive. liut it is much more than that; it is hitc, a splendid 
shipper and keeper, commanding high prices in all markets. 

It is the best all-the-year-round orange we know; 
i7 will hang on the trees for nionllis or even years after 
ripening, retaining its fine qualili/ all the while. We are 
aljsolutely convinced that it is the Le.^t late orange ever 
introdviced in Florida, and have purchased all selling rights. 

Lue Gim Gong trees continue lilooming and hcaiing 
even when the ripe fruit is allowed to hang. On account 
of its splendid shipping and keeping qualities, and its 
lateness, it brings a higher price — 50 to 80 per cent, more 
than others. Yon should start growing 

THE LUE GIM GONG ORANGE 

this year. We are setting out extensive groves of our own 
to it, and advise our friends to do the same. We have 
done the experimenting — we have jiroved Luc Gim Gong 
a highly worthy orange. 

NEW CATALOGUE FREE 

C.iti-us fruits, deciduous fruits, nuts, shade trees :ind 
evergreens, shrubs, vines and rose.s — things that we have 
proved valuable in our own trial grounds. We are 
nnrserymen and fruit growers exclnsivelg. If you are 
going to do some planting this year, we will send you 
this fine new book free. 

GLEN SAINT MARY NURSERIES CO. 
Rambler Avenue, Glen St. Mary, Florida 




THE CUBA REVIEW 



29 




'he- Atriiacatr. a \alualile native fniit. known also as avocado and alligator pear (see article 
on this next page). Immense quantities of this fruit are handled through the Havana markets 
in the season, which is July and August. The fruit is picked green and can be shipped to ad- 
vantage if directions are followed. Tt is a salad fruit and the demand is rapidly growing. 



attempted in localities of high winds unless 
it is possible to provide protection by 
windbreaks. 

One characteristic in soil is demanded — 
good drainage. The tree is very impatient 
of standing water about its roots. Soil 
that is underlain by an impervious layer 
should not be chosen for the orchard. Re- 
garding propagation from the seed, it is 
a well-known fact that this is a wholly 
unreliable means of reproducing the variety. 
It is a very common experience to plant 
seeds of a green-colored fruit and get 
the purple fruit in progeny, or to plant 
the seeds from a fruit of excellent texture 
and get a progeny full of fiber. Other 
characteristics, such as flavor, are repro- 
duced with equal uncertainty. 

Budding is therefore recommended as 
the most practical method of propagation. 
The method of budding usually followed 
is that known as shield-budding with the 
"T" incision or an inverted "T," and the 
investigations which have been involved in 
making this successful have consisted 
largely in devising adaptions to overcome 
difficulties. On vigorous stock, budded near 
the ground, from 75 per cent to 90 per cent 
will grow. Great difficulty, however, has 
been experienced in getting tne buds to grow. 

It is a well-established practice to lop 
citrus stock and many other kinds of fruit 



trees a few inches above the bud after the 
latter has united, thus forcing the sap into 
the new bud. Lapping the young avocado 
is very difficult and sometimes iinpossible. 
If cut part way off the brittle tissue breaks 
completely. This is likely to be followed 
by a dying back of the stock and the killing 
of the bud before it has developed into 
leaves. To force bud into growth a process 
of incomplete girdling has been adopted. 
A portion of the bark, about one-half to 
three-quarters of an inch wide, is removed 
a few inches above the bud throughout the 
circumference of the stock, with the ex- 
ception of about a quarter of an inch or 
less on the side opposite the bud. This 
conveys a portion of the sap upward and 
forces a large part of it into the bud. 
When the bud has opened, the stock may 
be cut off where girdled. Cutting back 
close to the bud should not be done until 
the latter has made a growth of several 
inches. When cut, the wounded surface 
should be carefully covered with grafting 
wax, or some antiseptic medium, which 
will keep out the air and rain. 

As to the time for budding, it may be 
said that we have budded successfully in 
every month of the year, but prefer the 
winter months or early spring. — Bulletin 
No. 25, Hawaii Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 



30 



THE C U P. A R E \' 



1-: w 



CO-OPERATION IN FRUIT HANDLING 



I'rom an article published in pamphlet 
form, on "Co-operation in the iiandling 
and Marketing of Fruit" by G. Harold 
Powell, former pomologist antl acting chief 
of the Bureau of Plant Industry, and now 
secretary of the Citrus Protective League 
of Southern California, a few excerpts are 
given, space not permitting the printing 
of the entire contribution. The advantages 
of co-operation among the fruit and vege- 
table growers of Cuba has long been ad- 
mitted and desired, and in fact an organiza- 
tion for handling fruit — the Cuba Fruit 
Exchange — is now in working order in 
Havana, prepared to market the crops of 
its members, of which there are 175. Mr. 
Powell says that in protecting the orchards 
from insect pests or diseases, in picking 
the fruit, preparing it for shipment, direct- 
inp- its distribution, storage and marketing, 
in advertising the products extensively and 
in handling the legislative questions which 
affect the industry, the co-operative organi- 
zation is of unlimited assistance and value 
to the fruit grower. 

■'A non-profit association represents the 
ideal type of co-operation, and in this the 
members usually have an equal voice in its 
management and share proportionately in 
its benefits and risks. Such an organization 
is a voluntary industrial democracy in 
which the fruit growers manage and con- 



No. and Size 



No. »jid Slie 28; Di 


I. 5'A in. 


La.vers :j. 


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^ 


JK 


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J 



trol the distribution and marketing of their 
own products. Every member of the asso- 
ciation is a bona fide producer and his 
fruit is handled exclusively i)y the asso- 
ciation. All of the operations are carried 
on at cost and after operating expenses, 
depreciation and a reasonable interest on 
the capital invested in the equipment of 
the association are deducted, the profits 
are distributed to the members in propor- 
tion to the amount of bu.siness each has 
transacted through the organization. The 
powers of the association are vested in a 
board of directors selected by the growers, 
who manage and control its affairs and 
business through officers or agents ap- 
pointed by it and subject to its advice and 
direction." 

"Several factors have been contributed 
to the downfall of fruit grow'ers' associa- 
tion. Alany of them have been formed by 
impractical, often unsuccessful enthusiasts 
with high motives, but with no business 
experience and little standing in their com- 
munities. The successful handling of a 
co-operative association requires a manager 
who is competent to assume the general 
direction of the affairs and business of the 
association. He must have a high order 
of business ability, sterling integrity, un- 
usual tact and judgment in handling men, 
and unlimited energy. An association un- 

Dia. 5 in.; La.vers :i. .Vo. and Size 4'). Uia. i\ in.. Layers •... 




err: 


'ttr 



■La.vers 1 asd u — o; 'jayer 2- 



Layers 1 and 3 — 6; Layer ?■ 



Layers 1 and 3 — 5; Layer 2—7. 



No. and Size 54: Dia. 4"^ in.. Layers 3. No. and Size 64, Dia. 4Viin., Layers 4. No. and Size TJ , D 



4>» m., Layers 4. 




ICDCDCD 




J ^^ _v 



ocqpoo 

OCDCXDO 



Layers 1 and Z—'^. Layer t—'i Layers \ and 3 — 8; Layers Z and 4 — S Layers 1 .ind Z — S, 



Layers Z and 4 — 9. 




Layers 1 and 3—1", Layers J and 4—10. Layers 1 and 3 — 1-; Layers ;; and 4— J-' 

Diagram for packing grape fruit. By H. Harold Hume.— From tlie Bulletin of the 
Florida Experiment Station. 



THE CUBA R E V I E \Y 



31 



der any other kind of management is not 
a serious business undertaking." 

"In ever}' co-operative association there 
should be a division for the purchase, sale 
or maufacture of supplies of every kind 
used in the production, packing, handling, 
shipping and marketing of the crop. The 
association should be prepared to purchase 
fertilizers, materials and equipment for 
spraying and fumigation, pruning or har- 
vesting, orchard machinery, or any other 
equipment on which a saving can be made 
by co-operative purchase. It should be pre- 
pared to purchase the supplies for fruit 
handling and marketing, such as box shooks 
or packages, picking boxes, nails, wrapping 
paper, and all kinds of packing house 
equipment." 

"The condition in which fruit reaches the 
consumer depends largely on the care with 
which it is handled. The most common 
rots of citrus fruits are directly related to 
the mechanical bruising of the fruit, most 
of the diseases not having the power of 
penetrating a healthy, uninjured skin. The 
association must therefore provide rigid 
rules for picking. It must either super- 
vise the harvesting, grading and packing 
of the fruit and provide for the most rigid 



inspection of every lot before it is accepted 
by the association for shipment, or else 
the harvesting, grading and packing" must 
be done by the association." 

"One plan is to grade and pack the fruit 
at a central packing house owned and con- 
trolled by the association. The growers 
pick the fruit, haul it to the packing house 
and there it is graded and packed by the as- 
sociation. The objection to this plan is that 
no two growers handle the fruit with equal 
care, and the different lots of fruit there- 
fore var_v in physical condition and in 
susceptibility to decay. Under this system 
there is a wide variation in the percentage 
of decay that develops in the fruit of 
different members while in transit to 
market." 

"The most satisfactory plan in the citrus 
fruit industry is to have the association 
train gangs of laborers who shall pick the 
fruit of all the members. The laborers 
should be paid by the day, as contract or 
piece-work places a premium on rapid, 
careless work. In this way the picking can 
be standardized, the quantity of fruit that 
passes through the packing house can be 
controlled, and the grading and packing 
can be uniformly done." 



DYNAMITE IN THE ORCHARD 

The United States government has used 
dynamite successfully in ditching opera- 
tion as was mentioned in the December 
Cuba Review, but in California it has long 
been used in breaking up hard clayey soils 
preparatory to planting fruit trees. 

Trees planted in spaded holes must fight 
their waj' into the compact subsoil which 
has never been disturbed, whereas expe- 
rience has shown that when planted in a 
dynamited hole the ground, being thoroughly 
broken up under the surface soil, makes 
an easy path for the roots, so that they 
spread out and have a large area from 
which to draw water and plant food. 

One grower advising this method of 
opening the ground adds also that trees 
be set in wet weather, as this insures a 
storage of moisture under the tree. This, 
it is said, is the chief reason why planting 
trees with dynamite is beneficial. 

Another claim is that trees planted with 
dynamite come into bearing much sooner 
than when planted by the old way. A 
Georgia orchardist reported that he had 
been using dynamite for tree planting for 
eighteen or twenty years and that in the 
planting of peach trees by this method he 
gained two years in six as compared with 
the old method. In other words, he got 
as much fruit from a tree planted with 
dynamite at four years of age as he got 
at six years by the old method. 

It was also found in one orchard that of 



two trees planted at the same time, the one 
in a spade-made hole and the other when 
dynamite had been used, the former had a 
fine bushy and vigorous tassel of roots 
about a foot long, while the latter had two 
roots going down some three feet or more, 
and it had a great quantity of medium and 
short growth roots. — California Fruit 
GroTver. 



COMING EXHIBITS OF PRODUCTS 

Growers of citrus fruit in Eastern Cuba 
will form a new society holding an exposi- 
tion at Camaguey from February 3rd to 
10th. The city has offered yearly cash pre- 
miums, ample grounds and buildings for a 
fair and this offer has been accepted. In 
addition to this exhibition of Cuba's val- 
uable products there will be others at 
Havana. Isle of Pines and at La Gloria, 
^lost of these sections will also send ex- 
hibits to the Havana exposition. 

The Cuba Railroad Company, helping 
along the work, has agreed to make a half 
rate to all exhibitors, and will haul all ex- 
hibits by express free, to and from Cama- 
guey. _ 

A circular will soon be issued to all 
owners of boarding houses in Havana by 
the Health Department instructing them 
not to allow dogs to be kept in those 
places. Fines will follow the violation of 
this order. 



32 



THE CUBA REVIEW 









! 


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J 


^ " ... 






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■'ii 


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^^ 


'^gsaggnpH 


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bl& 




^^ 



A cane-hoist in British Guiana 



BRITISH GUIANA CANE HOISTS 

On the sugar estates in British Guiana 
canals take the place of the light railways 
which are used in connection with the 
central sugar factories in the islands (see 
illustration). How to transfer the sugar 
canes economically from the large iron 
punts used on the canals to the cane-carrier 
of the factory has for long been a problem. 
This, it is hoped, has been solved by a 
cane-hoist, which has lately been erected 
at Port Mourant Estate, in British Guiana, 
for Major-General J. N. C. Galloway and 
Lieutenant-Colonel F. Galloway. The hoist 
was made by the American Hoist and 
Derrick Company, of St. Paul, Minnesota, 
and it is used in the following manner : 
Chain slings are laid across each punt be- 
fore it is sent to the cane fields. When 
the punt load of canes is to be transferred 
to the cane carrier of the mill, the slings 
are simply hooked on to a bar attached 
to the cane hoist ; the latter then lifts 
the cane bvmdle and deposits it on a feed 
board at the cane carrier. Or, if occa- 
sion requires, the cane bundle is laid down 
at the side of the canal to be subsequently 
picked up by the hoist and taken to the 
cane-carrier. The chains around the 
bundles are locked tight by means of patent 
clips. 

British Guiana exported sugar to the ex- 
tent of 108,000 tons in 1909-10 and 100,000 
tons in 1910-11. 



A NEW CABLE SERVICE 

The Western Union has made the neces- 
sary arrangements and extended to the 
island of Cuba a new deferred cable serv- 
ice, which began on January 1st. 

This new service is applicable between 
Cuba, Great Britain, Germany, France, 
including Algeria and Tunis, Portugal, 
Sierre Leons, southern Rhodesia, Trinidad, 
Aden in Arabia, Ascension Island, Bath- 
urst in British Africa, British North 
Borneo, Ceylon, Cocos Islands, Cyprus 
East Africa, Uganda Gold Coast, India 
and Burma, Labaun Island, New Zealand, 
Northern Nigeria, Perim Island, St. 
Helena, Somaliland, South Africa Union, 
Straits settlements, and Malay States and 
Zanzibar. 

The rate charged for deferred cables is 
one-half the rate charged for full paid 
cables between the same terminals. 



ALCOHOL FROM HENEOUEN 

An invention which will be of great in- 
terest to the planters of henequen, or sisal 
hemp, in particular, has lately been 
patented by a Air. Ernesto D. Castro, a 
native of Tabasco, but resident for some 
years in Yucatan, for utilizing the residue 
of the plant, after the fiber has been taken, 
for the manufacture of alcohol. 

By this process he produces merchant- 
able alcohol as high as 40 degree cartier. 



T H E C U B A R E V I E W 33 

SUGAR REVIEW 

Specially Written for The Cuba Review by Willett & Gray, of New York 



Our last review for this magazine was dated December 12, 1911. 

At that time centrifugals of 96 degree test were quoted at 4.S75c. per lb. at New 
York, duty paid, and are now 4.42c. per lb., showing a decline of 0.455c., nearly Vjc.. 
per lb. This decline was due partly to the inevitable downward trend from the ex- 
tremely high prices caused by short supplies in October to December last and partly 
to the increase of the European beet crop estimate to 6,250,000 tons against previous 
estimate of 6,050,000 tons sugar, as well as to the iinproved prospects of the Cuba crop. 

The general expectation now is that Cuba will give this season an outturn of 1,800,000 
tons sugar, Mess. Guma-Mejer's estimate being 1,812,100 tons; central factories were 
rather late in starting up. but there are now 105 of them grinding against 107 at the 
same time last year, and it will not be long before the full number will be at work. 

Stocks here are low, but as the demand for refined sugar is light, the refiners 
are not disposed to buy heavily and, with the constantly increasing output of Cuba, 
it is probable that there will be more sellers than buyers until the early production is 
disposed of. 

Sales of centrifugals of 96 degree test for prompt shipment have been made at 
3 l-16c. c. & f.. equal to 4.42c. landed duty paid, while second half January and first 
half February shipments have been sold at 2.97c. c. & f., equal to 4.33c.; at the 
close, buyers' views for January shipment are basis of 2.94c. c. & f., equal to 4.30c. 
landed, with sellers at 3c. c. & f. 

England, being well supplied for the present, has recently shown very little interest 
in Cuba sugars, but now seems to be attracted by the low prices current and is bidding 
2.80c. f. o. b. Cuba, which is equal to 2.94c. c. & f. New York, and is practically 
the figure which is bid by our refiners. 



El unico colector del agua de condensacion con una 

vdlvula exterior que carece de prensaestopas que tengan 

escape, se adhieran 6 hayan de empaquetarse 



^4 



COLECTOR DEL AGUA DE CONDEN- 
SACION "LYTTON" PARA TACHOS 
AL VACiO que de seguro aumenta el 
rendimiento de los tachos 

LOS COLECTORES "LYTTON" PARA TACHOS 
AL VACIO extraen rapidamente el agua de la condensa- 
cion y hacen mucho mayor la eficacia evaporadora de 
los tachos al vacio. Cuando se empleen distintas pre- 
siones del vapor, los serpentines calentadores pueden 
mantenerse e.xentos de agua y obtenerse un extraordinario 
mayor rendimiento asignando un colector separado a cada 
serpentin. (Vease el grabado.) 

La superioridad de los COLECTORES "LYTTON" 
PARA TACHOS AL VACIO esta en la seguridad y 
eficacia de su funcionamiento y a la poco atencion que 
requieren para mantenerlos en buen estado. Estan con- 
sistentemente construidos y tienen solo una pieza mo- 
vible: el flotador en su interior. El detalle que mas 
los distingue, sin embargo, es que no tienen prensaestopas 
que se escapen, se adhieran 6 hayan de empaquetarse. 
Extraen TODA EL AGUA CONSTANTEMENTE de la 
mejor manera y del modo menos molesto. 
, Fabricado por la LYTTON M'F'G CORPORATION, 
FRANKLIN, VIRGINIA, E. U- A. 

Escritorio en Nueva York; 1159 Hudson Terminal 

Escribase 6 vease a nuestro agente en la Habana para 
obtener detalles completes. 

Agente en la Habana: J. E. HERNANDEZ, Aguacate, 

No. 56 



34 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



A little later England may bid more freely for Ciibas and check the decline here, 
but the extent of her need for Cuba sugars will depend largely upon whether or not 
Russia will be permitted to largely increase her exports this season, the decision of this 
question having been postponed until the next meeting of the Brussels Convention 
to be held on January 2yth. 

European markets have ruled easier for several weeks with decline from 15s. 11 %d. 
to 14s. 6d. and closing at 14s. 7^-.'d,. which is on a parity of 0.79c. per lb. above 
Cuba centrifugals at 3c. c. & f., with a scarcity of sugar in Europe and abundant 
prospective supplies over here; the difference in parity formerly has been as much 
as 0.93c. per lb. 

Refined sugars have declined with raws and are now quoted basis of fine granulated 
at 5.50c. less 2 per cent f. o. b. New York. 

The consumption of sugar in the United vStates during the year 1911 showed 
practically no increase over the year 1910. 

New York, January 11, 1912. 



CHINESE IN CUBA 

There are close to 13,000 Chinese in 
Cuba, says the Haz'aiia Post, and the census 
of 1907 recorded the fact that 40 Chinese 
women were inhabitants of Cuba. Before 
Cuba became a republic it cost every 
Chinaman who entered $2 to get his en- 
trance ticket. Xow Cuba bids him wel- 
come with little expense. He has to fur- 
nish a photograph of himself and stand 
inspection much as a man entering a penal 
institutiim. 



A careful record is made of any blemish 
on the face of the immigrant. His height, 
weight and age are taken, in fact, any- 
thing that serves as positive identification 
is noted. 

The system employed by Chief Menocal 
is similar to the one used at all United 
States ports. 

The Chinese legation is always repre- 
sented at the immigration office when 
Chinese come and go, so as a double check 
is placed on the travelers from the Far 
East. 




Bombas de Marsh 



Del mas alto grade 
de eficacia para el 
servicio de Ingenios. 



Bomba de Vacio Seco de Marsh 



Garantizamos menor 
consumo de vapor que 
cualquier otro fabri- 
cante de bombas de 
accion directa. 
Pidase un catdlogo. 

AMERICAN STEAM PUMP GO. 

BATTLE CREEK, MICH. 



METAL AGUILA BABBITT 



EL METAL BAB- 
BITT "AGUILA" se 
ha preparado espe- 
cialmente para que 
satisfaga la de- 
manda de un metal 
antifriccion para uso 
general de precio 
modico. 




Se garantiza que 
da resultado satis- 
factorio en la maqui- 
naria de nioler 
caiia de aziicar. 



Precio, 15 cts la 
libra. 



HOYT METAL COMPANY - - NUEVA YORK 



THE CUBA R E V I i: \V 



35 



COMING CROP ESTIMATES 

The estimate of H. A. Hunely of Havana 
bears out the prediction of a big crop. 
He bases his figures on the product of 172 
estates, but there may be more, materially 
increasing his figures, which are as follows : 

Sacks 

Cienfuegos 1,952,000 

Matanzas 1,756,000 

Cardenas 1,625,000 

Havana 1,430,000 

Caibarien 901,000 

Sagua 804,000 

Puerto Padre . 860,000 

Antilla and Xipe Bay 755,000 

Manzanillo 648.000 

Guantanamo 600,000 

Banes 4:10,000 

Jucaro 380,000 

Santiago de Cuba 225,000 

Nuevitas 220,000 

Santa Cruz del Sur 220,000 

Gibara 210,000 

Trinidad 85,000 

Zaza ■. 22,000 

Total 13,123,000 

Equivalent to 1,874,714 tons. 

Guma and Mejer, other Havana sugar 
authorities, allow 173 centrals grinding, 
and estimate the total crop at 1,812,120 
tons. 



SANTIAGO S OLD CANNON 

General Leonard Wood, U. S. A., is 
averse to Cuba's selling of the old cannon 
on the island. Especially is he opposed to 
the disposal of the old relics in Santiago 
de Cuba. In a recent letter to Mr. Jennings 
S. Cox of the latter city, he says : 

"I hope that the people of Santiago de 




Jeffrey Conveyor handling Bagasse 
from mill storage floor and boiler 
house, at the Sugar Refinery of 
Fajardo Sugar Company, Fajardo, 
Porto Rico. 

Complete Conveying equipment in- 
stalled bj' the Jeff"rey Company at 
this plant. 

Let us figure with you on a labor- 
saving and practical equipment for 
handling your sugar-cane and 
bagasse. Write for Folder 

JEFFREY MFG. COMPANY, 

Columbus, Ohio 
agent: p. d. de pool, p. o. b. 297 

Havan.\, Cuba 20-1-12 



Cuba will not under any circumstances 
allow the old cannon to be taken from 
the city. I left them especially for the 
city of Santiago and it cost me no little 
trouble to prevent them from being taken 
to the United States. They were left in 
Santiago on the strict condition that they 
were the private property of the city to 
be used for decorative purposes." 



ELECTRIC APPLIANCE COMPANY 

C. ROBERT CHURCHILL, President and General Manager 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTfor SUGAR FACTORIES 

205-7-9 Chartres Street NEW ORLEANS, U. S. A. 



Posici6n como superintendente asistante 6 quimico jefe 

de un ingenio. Experiencia comprehensiva obtenida en Louisiana y los tropics. Referencias de clase 
mas aha acerca caracter y abilidad. 

Dirigirse a E. LUDWIG, Godchaux's Central, Raceland, La., E. U. de A. 



El senor J. E. Hernandez, Aguacate company" de Virginia. Vease el anun- 

56, Habana, Cuba, ha side nombrado cie que inserta dicha compania en otra 

agente en la isla de Cuba, isla de Pines pagina de este numero referente a colec- 

y Jamaica para la venta de los aparatos tores del agua de condensacion para_^ 

fabricados por la "Lytton Manufacturing chos al vacio. 



36 T H E C U B A R E V I E \V 

REVISTA AZUCARERA 

Escrila cxiirf^aLiiriUr iiara la CiKA Kkvikw iku' Wim.i-.t iS: (iK.\^, ilc Nucva Ncirk 



Xuestra ultima revista para esta publicacion tenia fecha 12 de Diciembrc de 1911. 
Entonces los azucares centrifugas de polarizacion 96 grades, se cotizaban a 4.87.J cents, 
la libra en Nueva York, inclusos los derechos, y ahora se cotizan a 4.42 cents, la libra, 
acusando una baja de 0.455 de centavo, 6 sea cerca de V:> centavo en libra. Esta baja 
se debio en parte a la inevitable tendencia liacia la baja en los precios extremadamente 
subidos a que dio lugar la escasez de abastos durante Octubre a Diciembre ultimos, y en 
parte al aumento en el calculo dc la produccion de remolacha europea que se fija en 
6,250,000 toneladas en lugar de las 6,050,000 toneladas de azucar que se calcularon 
primeramente, asi como tambien a mejores indicios con relacion a la zafra de Cuba. 

La expectacion general ahora es que Cuba produzca en esta zafra 1,800,000 toneladas 
de azucar; siendo lo calculado por los Sres. Guma-ATejer 1,812,100 toneladas. Los 
centrales se retrasaron bastante en comenzar la molienda, pero al presente hay ya 105 
centrales moliendo contra 107 en la misnia fecha el ano pasado, y no pasara mucho 
tiempo antes de que todos los ingenios esten en actividad. 

Las existencias aqui son escasas, pero como la demanda de azucar refinado es poca, 
los refinadores no estan dispuestos a comprar grandes partidas, y dado que cada dia 
aumenta la produccion en Cuba, lo probable es que haya mas vendedores que compradores 
hasta tanto se consuma el azucar procedente de los primeros arribos. 

Se ban verificado ventas de azucar centrifuga polarizacion 96 grades, para eniliarque 
inmediato, a 3 1-16 cents., costo y flete, equivalente a 4.42 cents, puesta en el muelle 
e inclusos los derechos, niientras que para embarque en la segunda quincena de Enero 
y primera quincena de P'ebrero, se ha vendido a 2.97 cents., costo y flete, equivalente 
a 4.33 cents.; a ultima hora, los compradores ofrecen para embarque en Ehero 3.94 
cents., costo y flete, equivalente a 4.30 cents, puesta en el muelle, y los vendedores i)iden 
3 centavos, costo y flete. 

Inglaterra, por hallarse bien abastecida al presente, no ha demostrado recientcnu-nte 
mucho interes en la adquisicion de aztxcar de Cuba, pero ahora parece interesarse por 
los bajos precios que predominan, y esta ofreciendo 2.80 cents. 1. a b. en Cuba, lo que 
equivale a 2.94 cents, costo y flete en Xueva ^'ork, y es, en realidad, el precio que 
ofrecen nuestros refinadores. 

Es probable que la demanda por parte de Inglaterra sea algo mayor dentro de poce 
tiempo y ponga coto a la baja aqui, pero la cantitad de azucar de Cuba que haya de 
necesitar depende por mucho de que se le permita 6 no a Rusia aumentar considerable- 
mente sus exportaciones este aiio, habiendose pospuesto la decision de esta cuestion 
hasta que vuelva a reunirse la Convencion de Bruselas que sera el 29 de Enero. 

Los mercados europeos ban tendido a la baja por varias semanas, habiendo fluctuado 
las cotizaciones de 15s 11 ^/4d a 14s 6d. y cerrando a 14s 7^i!d, que es equivalente a 0.79 
de centavo en libra sobre los centrifugas de Cuba a 3 cents., costo y flete, con una 
escasez de azucar en Europa e indicaciones de un abundante abasto aqui. La diferencia 
en la equivalencia anteriormente ha sido tanta como 0.93 de centavo en libra. 

Los azucares refinados han bajado con los mascabados, y ahora se cotizan a razon 
de 5.50 cents, menos 2 por ciento las granuladas finas, libre a bordo en Nueva York. 

El consume de azucar en los Estados Unidos durante el aiio de 1911, no acuso un 
aumento notable sobre el de 1910. 

Nueva York, Enero 11 de 1912. 



MINISTER ASKS FOR RECALL an interview published by the newspaper 

Ultima Hora. 
Secretary of State Sanguilly announced The minister subsequently stated that he 

January 11th that the Spanish Minister, had been partly misquoted, but reiterated 

Sr. Vallin, had asked to be recalled. The the statement that the continuance of the 

minister's action is the result of much re- veteran movement would result in making 

sentment which has been caused by adverse it impossible for Spaniards to live in Cuba, 
criticisms of the Cuban government, and Sr. Sanguilly said that the government 

the veteran movement attributed to him in has not asked for the minister's recall. 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



37 



CABLE ADDRESS: Tuknurk 



NEW Y O K K 
64-66 Wall St«eit 



LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

BANKERS 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of Collection and Remittance 
of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale 
of Letters of Exchange. Collecfion of Drafts, Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Payment* 
by Cable and Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, Spain, 
Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo. Central and South America. 



CORRESPONDENTS: 



HAVANA— N. Gelats y Ca. 
MEXICO— Banco Central Mexicano. 



LONDON — The London Joint Stock Bank, Ltd. 
Paris — Heine et Cie. 



ORENSTEIIV-ARTHUR KOPPEL COMPANY 



30 CHURCH St. 

CANE-CARS 

LOCOMOTIVES 

PLATFORMS 




New York 



RAILJ5 AND 

SWITCHES 

PORTABLE 

RAILWAYS 

DUMP-CARS 



Agents for Cuba Schwab ^ Tillmann, San Ignacio 76, Habana 



SUGAR TESTING APPARATUS 



FUN DAD A EN 1851 




Hace una cspeciali- 

dad de surtir 
Todos los Instru- 
tnentos para la 
Prueba de Azucar 
y Habilitacidn dt 
Laboratorio. 
Unicos Agentes en 
los Estados Unidoi 
y Canada para loi 

STANDARD 
POLARISCOPIOS 

Su triple 6 doble 
campo de vision ha 
sido adoptado por 
el Gobierno de loi 
Estados Unidos co- 
mo norma. 

Toda la maquina- 
ria experimental y 
los aparatos descri- 
tos en ((Agricultural 
Analysis,)) del Prof. 
H. W. Wiley. Se 
suministran con 



POLARISCOPIO SOBRE "BOCKSTATIV" LA FORMA MAS MODERNA formes*°Ded-d°s *"' 
Con caja a prueba de polvo, parte de prism a, y engranaje prolongado. '' 



EIMER & AMEND, 



205=211 Third Avenue, New York Precios llustradas. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




The United Railways of Havana 



in conjunction with the Cuba Railroad, maintain a service of 
two trains daily between Havana and the growing Eastern 
city of CAMAGUEY, and one Express Train daily between 
Havana and SANTIAGO DE CUBA, the "Dream City of the 
West Indies." Buffet lunch is served on these trains. 

FOUR TRAINS DAILY 

in both directions between Havana and MATANZAS, which latter city because of its picturesque 
situation and tne charm of its principal attractions (Yumuri's famous valley and the wonderful 
caves of Bellamar) has long enjoyed distinction as the great "Mecca" of the tourists, and it 
continues to gain in populaiity. EXCELLENT TRAIN SERVICE is maintained to many other 
places of great interest to tourists, all of which are fully described in "Cuba — A Winter 
Paradise," a profusely illustrated 80-page booklet with six complete maps and 72 views illustrative 
of this wonderful island, sent postpaid on receipt of 3 cents in stamps. 

Frank Roberts, General Passenger Agent 
United Railways of Havana ng, Prado, Havana, Cuba 



FRED WOLFE 



151 CALZADA DE VIVES, HAVANA 

Cable, "Wolfe" 

Negociante en Todas Clases Dealer in all Classes of 
de Ganado Live Stock 

Especialmente en Mulos Especially in Mules 

Always on hand Large Stock of All Classes of Mutes — All Mutes Sold Are 
Guaranteed as Represented — Can Furnish Any Number Desired on Short Notice 



'te 



Charge cl'Affaires Hugh S. Gibson, 
American Legation, Havana, reports that 
a bill has been introduced in the Cuban 
House of Representatives authorizing a 
subvention of $12,000 per kilometer (0.62 
mile) for a railway to connect Fernandez 
with Placetas del Sur in Santa Clara 
Province. A subvention of $6,000 was 
authorized in 1910, but the government was 



not able to find anyone to do the work 
under this subvention. 



The board of directors of The Trust 
Company of Cuba recently declared a 
semi-annual dividend of three per cent 
upon the capital stock of the coinpany, 
which was paid on the 10th day of January. 



^sIand'' of^Suba'^of the LIVERPOOL & LONDON & GLOBE INSURANCE CO. 

This Company will issue Binders on risks in the Island of Cuba 
at theii New York office, 45 William Street. Tel., 3097 John. 

LOSS OF INCOME BOILER EXPLOSION 

FOLLOWING FIRE ENGINE BREAKDOWN 



FIRE 
BOILER 



EXPLOSION 

Havana Office: 



106 Cuba Street 



P. RUIZ ® BROS. 

ENGRAVERS 

FINE STATIONERY 

Obispo 22 P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA, CUBA 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 
Sugar Brokers 

Established 1836, at 105 Wall St. 

Cable Address, "Tide, New York" 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



HAVANA 



CUBA 

National Bank of Cuba 

Government Depositary 



CAPITAL, SURPLUS AND 
UNDIVIDED PROFITS 

$6,250,000.00 



Head Office — Havana 

20 BRANCHES IN CUBA 

N ew York A gene]) 
J WALL STREET 



COLLECTIONS 



THE 



TRUST COMPANY OF CUBA 

HAVANA 



SURPLUS $580,000 

TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRJST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT 

EXAMINES TITLES COLLECTS RENTS 

NEGOTIATES LOANS ON MORTGAGES 

Correspondence Solicited from 
Intending Investors 



OFFICERS 

Norman H. Davis President 

O. A. Hornsby - Vice-President and Treas. 
Claudio G. Mendoza - - Vice-President 

Rogelio Carbajal Secretary 

J. M. Hopgood - - - Assistant Treasurer 

Offices: Cuba, 31, Havana 



The Royal Bank of Canada 

INCORPORATED 1869 

Fiscal Agent of the Government of the Republic of 
Cuba for the Payment of the Army of Liberation 

Paid=up Capital 

and Reserve $13,100,000.00 

Total Assets $95,000,000.00 

Head Office MONTREAL 

New York Agency 
68 William Street 

Branches in Havana: Obrapia 33, Galiano 92; 

Matanzas, Cardenas, Manzanillo, Cienfuegos, 

Camaguey, Santiago de Cuba, Mayari, Sagua, 

Caibarien 



Established 1844 

H. UPMANN & CO. 

BANKERS 

TRANSACT A GENERAL BANKING BUSINESS 
Correspondent! at All Principal Places cf the Island 

5a/e Deposit Vaults 

Manufacturers of the Famous H. Upmann 
Brand of Cigars 

OFFICE: 
Amargura 1-3 



FACTORY: 
Paseo da Tacon 159-163 



Established 1876 

N. GELATS & COMPANY 

BANKERS 



Transact a general banking business 
Correspondents at all the principal 
places of the world 

Safe Deposit Vaults 
Office: Aguiar 108 



PORTUGAL S IMPORTS OF TOBACCO 

Portugal's imports of leaf tobacco from 
Cuba are not large, having totaled 429 
bales in 1909, and 669 bales in 1910. 

The quantity of cigars iiTiported are also 
comparatively small. They amounted to 
312,959 in 1909, and 365,092 cigars in 1910. 



Plkass uiNTiON THE CUBA REVIEW whbm wsttimg to asvektiibk^ 



40 THECUBAREVIEW 

"The sanitation system of Havana is any nation on tlie earth," he say,, "and 
ahiiost perfect," says l^r. W. F. Snow, Havana now holds place among the clean- 
secretary of the California Board of est towns in America. 
Health. "The authorities enforce strict "The detention station at Triscornia 
sanitary regulations and as a consequence proved exceptionally interesting. Being 
Havana is one of the cleanest cities I have organized for the protection and aid of 
ever seen. the immigrant to Cuba from the moment 

"The way they handle their garbage and the vessel on which he arrives drops anchor 

the way they have eliminated the house fly in the bay until he is safe with friends, 

would be valuable pointers for many Cali- relatives or employer, the station exists 

fornia cities." solely for his convenience, as the republic 

Another visiting physician to the meeting makes no profit in the maintenance — 20c. 

of the American Health Association, held per day per person is all that is charged 

last month in Havana, bears witness to the for food and lodging, 

city's fine sanitary condition. The various splendid hospitals were also 

"Without a doubt the general sanitary praised for their thoroughly up-to-date 

conditions of Cuba are as far advanced as completeness. 



V\fll.l.EITT St GRAY, BroRers and Agents 

FOREIGN AND ^^XT^^^ TV ^K^ ^1 ^^^ ^^^ 

DOMESTIC '^^ -^^ KjmrJr^JLl^'^^ REFINED 

82 W^ALL STREET. NEMr YORK 

'ublishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal — ■ the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED. 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

Eng^ines, Boilers ^ndMacHinery 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass 
Castings. Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

St«amalfcip IVorfe a Spscialty 

A.. KIvING. Prop. VfORfff IT At ▲ 

JAS. S. BOGUC Supt. I»lWFl>ll^r*, J\.M^J%.» 



"Sugar News from Cuba" 

is the title of the interesting correspondence from the tropical island 
appearing in every issue of the 

AMERICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY 

The latest and most reliable sugar news from every part of the 
World is gathered by our own Special Correspondents, and appears ex- 
clusively in this paper. 

PRINTED IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH 

A Spanish Section has been recently added for the benefit of our 
readers in Cuba, Porto Rico and other Spanish speaking countries. 

Monthly, $2.00 per year in the United States, Cuba, and Mexico. In 
foreign countries, $2.50 per year. Subscribe for it if you want to keep 
posted. 

SAMPLE COPY FREE. SEND FOR ADVERTISING RATES. 

Address: BEET SUGAR GAZETTE COMPANY 

222 North Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 140 Nassau St. New York 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when whiting to advertisees 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



41 



Telephone, 83 Hamilton 
Night Call. 411 Hamilton 



Cable Addr«s»: 
"Abiworki." New York 



Atlantic Basin Iron Works 

Engineers and Boiler Mof^^rs 

M^hiniata, Plumbers, Tinsmiths, Pipe Fitters, Blacksmiths, Coppersmiths, 
Pattern Makers, Sheet Iron Workers. Iron and Brass Castings. Steamship 
Repairs a Specialty. 

Cor. Imlas; and Summit Streets Brooklyn, J^. Y. 



John Munro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

7?2 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address : Kunomale, New York 

Telephone, 2492 South 



Telephone 
215 Hamilton 



Box 186 

Maritime Exchanga 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

Caulkers, Spar Makers 

Boat Builders, Etc* 

No. 9 SUMMIT STREET 
Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 



J^ 


^^1 . 














^^^H 


^^I^B. "^^ 


^t 


y|g^^ 


^ 




ft 






'^''^^^IH^^^^^^^H 


51^ 





Guanabana or sour sop. — Flavor acid without being sweet. Highly esteemed 
for making summer beverages. 



42 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HENRY E. BROWN Shipping and Ex- 
port Chemist and 
Pharmacist Druggist. 

Ships' Medicine Chests furnished and re- 
plenished. Prescriptions compounded by a 
Graduate in Pharmacy. 

Trusses, Surgical Appliances, etc. 

Office and Laboratory, Room 36 

116 BROAD STREET, NEW YORK 



Bottled at the Brewery 




For Sale at all Dealers 
and on the Munson Line 



Sobrinos De Bea & Co. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 
Importacion directa de todas los 
centros manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, 
New York and Mobile; James E. Ward & 
Co., New York; Serra Steamship Company, 
Liverpool; N'apores Transatlanticos de A. 
I'^olch & Co. de Barcelona, Kspafia Indepen- 
dencia Street 17/21. 

MATANZAS. CUBA 



JOHN w. McDonald 

COAL. WOOD. LUMBER 
AND TIMBER 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 



York 



112 Wall Street, New 

Near South Street 

Yard; 56-58 Beard Street, Erie Basin 

Telephones: 

Office, 1905 John Yard, 316 Hamilton 



Dr. Ramon Meza, ex-secretary of public 
instruction in the cabinet of President 
Gomez, and a professor in Havana Uni- 
ver.sitv, died on December 1.1th in Havana. 



The trade of Bremen, Germany, with 
Cuba in 1910 was as follows : 

Imports E.xports 

$1,029,943 $2,708,590 



The authorities in Washington are of the 
ojiinidu that things in Cuba will move along 
in reasonably good form until next year's 
clectidu, says the .hiaco>ida (Mont.) 
.S7(;;;(/(//-(/. 

Several congressmen are determined to 
push a bill through congress providing for 
xoting machines. The bill was introduced 
last year, but was shelved. 

M. J. CABANA C^^R^^irN^T^ 

P. O. Box 3, Camaguey 
Handle! all 'inei of merchandise either on a commiiiiou 
basis or una."! ageno arrangements. Also furnishes all 
desired information about lands In eastern Cuba. 

Journal d' Agriculture Tropicale 

Founded by J. VILBOUCHEVITCH 
164 Rue Jeanne d'Arc Prolongee, Paris 

Subscription, One Yea« - • • - 20 Fbancs 



Deals with the leading questions of the hour, 
agricultural and commercial, of interest to tropical 
countries. International in character. Illustrated. 
Monthly. Descriptions of machines for tropical 
crops a specialty. Complete review of new agri- 
cultural publications. Commercial part intelligible 
for every one and always interesting 150 con- 
tributors in West and East Africa, East and West 
Indies, Java, Mauritus, Central and South Amcr 
ica, and throughout the tropical world. 



REMARKABLE EXCESS OF BIRTHS 

Whatever other dangers may threaten 
the Republic of Culia, race suicide is not 
among them, says the Boston (Mass.) 
Traiiscrift. The Cuban government has 
recently issued a pamphlet report on the 
general conditions of the republic, in which 
it is stated that, while there were 3:>,194 
deaths in Culja last year, there were 74,286 
births. This is indeed a remarkable excess 
of births over deaths, and points to a won- 
derful natural increase of Cuba's popula- 
tion if the rate is sustained. 

THE SNARE AND TRIES! COMPANY 

CONTRACTING ENGINEERS 



STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Uridges, Railroads and Buildings 



We are prepared to furnish plans and estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 



New York Office 

143 Liberty St. 



Havana Office 
La Leal Building 



W. H. Bennett 



F. W. HVOSLEP 



Bennett, Hvoslef & Co. 
Steamship Agents and Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY. NEW YORK 



Cable: "Benwalsh' 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



THE CUBA R E V 1 E \V 



MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE 

GENERAL OFFICES 

82 BEAVER STREET, NEW YORK 
NEW YORK-CUBA SERVICE 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT SERVICE BETWEEN NEW YORK 
AND ANTILLA.NIPE BAY, NUEVITAS, PUERTO PADRE, GIBARA 

Special Through Rates to Camague^ via Nuevitas 



PROPOSED SOUTHBOUND SAILINGS 

S.S. CuRiTYBA - - February 2 1 st 

Steamers sail from Pier 9, East River, at 1 2 o'clock noon 



PROPOSED NORTHBOUND SAILINGS 

S.S. CURITYBA ------ NUEVITAS, FEBRUARY 9tH 

Xote : Steamers do not call at Xipe northliouiid. 

The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 



NEVi/ YORK—CUBA SERVICE 

freight only 
New York to Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua and Caibarien 



MOBILE— CUBA SERVICE 

freight only 
Regular Sailings Mobile to Havana; Mobile to North Side 
AND South Side Cuban Ports 



BALTIMORE— COLON SERVICE 

freight only 

Regular Sailings Baltimore to Colon 



Please uemtion THE CUBA REVIEW when writin 



r, TO ADVERTISEBS 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Lrillie Multiple Evaporators 



Model of 1904-1Q05 (Patented' 




"One of three Lillie quad- 
ruple effects installed in 
1907, in sugar factories in 
Formosa, belonging to tke 
Taiwan Seito Kabushiki 
Kwaisha, of Tokio, Japan. 
1 wo more quadruple effects, 
one to handle 550,000 galloni 
oi cane juice per twenty-fou. 
hours, and the other to 
handle 325,000 gallons in the 
same period, are now (July 
ist, 1909) being built for 
the same Japanese Company, 
also for St vice in Formes*. 
These quadruple effects ar« 
arranged for reversing the 
course of the vapors and 
heat at will, a mode of op- 
eration peculiar to the Lillie 
and which has proven of 
great value for solutions de- 
positing incrustations on the 
evaporating tubes." 



The Sugar Apparatus Manufacturing Co. 

328 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



MORRIS LILLIE, President. 



LEWIS C. LILLIE, Secretary and Treaiurv 



THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS 



BROAD AND 
NARROW GAUGE 



SINGLE EXPANSION 
AND COMPOUND 



Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A. 

LOCOMOTIVES 




OF T R A C 



k'^^' plantation locomotives d'°t,onsof'sern 



specifications Furnished on Application 



American Trading Company, Calle de Cuba 78a, Havana, Cuba 

Cable Address: "BaldvAn, Philadelphia" 



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The 




THE CUBA REVIEW 



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THL CUBA REVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 
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•« 

Vol. X FEBRUARY, 1912 No. 3 

Contents of This Number 



The cover page shows a group of palms which grow freely in Cuba. The scientific name 
is Copernicia Wrightii. 

Political and Government matters of Cuba are treated on pages 7, 8 and 9. President 
Taft's warning to Cuba and his note have had a good effect and tranquility is again 
evident. Germany, France and England have combined to collect the sum of $6,000,000 
due their subjects for damages incurred during the war with Spain. The Cuban 
opinion seems to be that the Republic is not responsible. The matter will be submitted 
to arbitration. There is much discussion over the new Reciprocity Treaty with Cuba 
which President Taft is negotiating, and some views on the matter, both from Cuban 
and United States sources, are given on page 8. Presidential matters naturally occupy 
the center of the stage at present and there are plenty of candidates who aspire to 
the office. These matters are on page 9. 

Some interesting cartoons from prominent Cuban and United States newspapers show the 
trend of thought that has been awakeried by President Taft's letter of warning. These 
will be found on pages 10. 11, 12 and V. The views expressed seem to point to a 
third intervention. 

Some interesting news notes of activities all over the island will be found on pages 
14 and 15. 

How to bring your automobile into Cuba and the regulations are described on page 16. 
The Cuban Central Railroad's annual report showing the earnings of the fiscal years 
1909-10: and 1910-11 is given on page 17. 

Cuba's tobacco consumption and exportations are given on page 18. 

Railroad and commercial news is on page 19. 

Traffic receipts of Cuban railroads are on page 20. 

Further financial and railroad notes are on page 21. 

A very interesting photograph of the new government piers now being built under the 

Scovel concession is on page 22. A description of the piers with another illustration 

is given on pages 23 and 24. 

Customs' tariff of Cuba showing the unique treaty relations established with the United 

States is on page 25. 
Other important construction work is pictured on page 26. It is tlie new coal-carrying 

plant of the Regla Coal Company. 

The last rites over the Battleship "Maine" are on page 27. 
Other interesting notes on page 28. 

Illustrations of the Havana Terminal Station and of the New Paula Wharves are on 

page 29. 
Helpful hints for colonists with illustrations are on page 30. 
I>ee keeping in Cuba is described on page 31. 
The trade of the United States with Cuba from the official figures of the United States 

Department of Commerce and Labor will be found on pages 32 and 33. 
The monthly sugar review of prices and an analysis of the market written specially for the 

Review by Messrs. Willett and Gray will be found on pages 34 and 35. The same^ 

article in Spanish is on pages 36 and 37. J0 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED THROUGHOUT 



THE 
CUBA RLVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, 1912, by the Munson Steamship Line 



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NEW Y 
BOTANJ 



Volume X 



FEBRUARY, 1912 



Number 3 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 



The warning, sent to Presi- 
The dent Gomez tlirough United 

Warning to States Secretary Knox, that 
Cuba the United States expects 

Cuba to live np to its treaty 
obligations and maintain a republican form 
of government, had a most salutary effect 
and the utterances of the veterans became 
immediately less turbulent. 

The text of the note presented follows : 

"The situation in Cuba as now reported 
causes grave concern to the government of 
the United States. 

"That the laws intended to safeguard 
free republican government shall be en- 
forced and not dehed is obviously essential 
to the maintenance of the law, order and 
stability indispensable to the status of the 
republic of Cuba, in the continued well 
being of which the United States has al- 
ways evinced and cannot escape a vital 
interest. 

"The president of the United States, 
therefore, looks to the president and gov- 
ernment of Cuba to prevent a threatened 
situation which would compel the govern- 
ment of the United States, much against 
its desires, to consider what measures it 
must take in pursuance of the obligations 
of its relations to Cuba." 

The Cuban newspapers urged all Cubans 
to forget differences and unite in obeying 
the laws and preserving order. 

The Stock Exchange was strong on the 
news of possible intervention, and in the 
Board of Trade there was great relief at 
the probable revival of business. 

A series of interesting cartoons from 
prominent United States and Cuban news- 
papers shows the trend of thought regard- 
ing the prospects of another intervention. 



1 William Jennings Bryan has sent two 
books containing his speeches to President 
Gomez. Mr. Bryan visited the president 

3C during his recent visit to Havana, promis- 

2 in? him the books at that time. 



Germany, France and Eng- 
Clainis land, through their respect- 
of Three ive representation, have 
N'atioiis made claims on Cuba, de- 
manding the payment of a 
sum over $6,000,000 to indemnify subjects 
of those countries for damages suffered 
during the war of independence. These 
claims, it is stated, were made separately 
about nine years ago and that payment has 
always been deferred until the nations in- 
terested began a common action and three 
months ago presented a joint note demand- 
ing immediate attention to the matter. 

The American government suggested 
arbitration, to which the Cuban government 
agreed, naming President Taft as arbi- 
trator. This was not approved of by the' 
nations interested, who in th'ir turn sug- 
gested The Hague Tribunal, and there the 
matter stands. 

Sr. Bustamente, chairman of the Senate 
Committee on Foreign Relations, an emi- 
nent authority on international law, and at 
one time legal adviser of the United States 
Consulate in Havana, says that the de- 
mands made on Cuba by Great Britain, 
France and Germany are absurd. 

Two ex-secretaries of foreign affairs, 
Zaido and Garcia Velez. in communications 
to the press, claim to have examined the 
tripartite claims and to have refused to 
recognize them years ago and to have ad- 
vised the legations pressing the claims that 
they were unjust and would never be paid 
by Cuba. 

Secretary Sanguilly, acting according to 
the suggestion of the Washington govern- 
ment, it is believed, has replied to the three 
European countries, which are pressing 
their claims jointly, that President Gomez 
will bring the matter of the claims before 
Congress, which will probably appoint a 
committee to sift them and authorize the 
executive to recognize them, refuse them, 
entertain them, or refer them to The Hague 
Tribunal. 

Speaker Ferrera of the Lower House 



THE CUB A R E \' 1 E W 



says tli.Tt if there are any financial re- 
sponsil)ilitios they helong h> Spain, ami not 
t<i C"nl)a. 



Neio 

Rccifi'ority 

Treaty 



On February 12th Wash- 
ington despatches said that 
President Taft had begun 
the negotiation of a reci- 
procity treaty with Cuba. 
Secretary Knox has held a number of con- 
ferences with Sr. Rivera, the Cuban min- 
ister, as to the drafting of .' new conven- 
tion, especially in connection with duties on 
sugar. The Cuban minister declined to 
discuss his activity in this regard, but it is 
understood that Cuba, e.xpecting present 
sugar duties to be diminished, feels there 
may be a necessity for a readjustment of 
the preferential rates given to the republic. 

On the sul)ject of the treaty Cuban Secre- 
tary of State Sanguily is quoted as express- 
ing the following opinion : 

"The Cuban government for several 
months, in harmony v.ith the Chamber of 
Commerce and Planter's League, has been 
trying to tind a way to extend the present 
reciprocity treaty for another five years. 
The idea has been to guard against any 
new economic policy that might be started 
in the United States. 

"In the meanwhile we have sought a 
favorable opportunity for negotiating a new 
treaty which will sufficiently protect Cuban 
sugar and also favor as much as possible 
our tobacco, but without success." 

Despatches from Washington on Feb- 
ruary i4th were of the follov/ing tenor: 

Of the nature of the ne^v treaty little 
can be stated at this time, but it is under- 
stood that the Cubans will be expected to 
relinquish some of the advantages they en- 
joy under the article which now admits all 
of their sugar, tobacco and other products 
into the United States at a reduction of 
20 per cent from the rates paid by other 
countries. Although certain classes of 
American products are given reductions of 
duty when imported into Cuba amounting 
to from 20 to 40 per cent, it is asserted that 
the advantage has been shown to be largely 
in favor of Cuba. 

The United States Tobacco Journal says 
the negotiations for a new treaty lirings in 
an opportunity for the Havana importing 
interests. It says : 

"If ever, now is the chance for our Ha- 
vana importing interests to make a drive 
for having a uniform duty rate inserted in 
the new treaty under preparation liy our 
State Department." 



Some time ago there was a report that 
Germany was endeavoring to obtain a 
coaling station in Cuban waters. An ex- 
change of telegrams between the United 
States and the Cuban government failed to 
disclose such purpose. 



Shi]) captains may now 
May emplii^v their own crew, 

I'sc 1/ieir including stevedores to do 
Crci^s the stowing away and un- 

loading of cargo on board, 
and may import them for that purpose, 
and shippers of sugar may employ the em- 
ployees of sugar mills to handle their car- 
goes on shore, according to a resolution 
by the Cuban Treasury Department to the 
collector of customs at Alanzanillo. It 
therefore becomes a general law to be en- 
forced at all Cuban ports. 

What brought about this important rul- 
ing was the action of the stevedores of 
Alanzanillo, who complained to the gov- 
ernment that their occupation had been 
taken from them by just such proceedings 
of captains of sugar-carrying vessels as is 
now allowed under the ruling. The ques- 
tion was referred to the Department of 
Agriculture. Commerce and Labor, which 
decided as follows : 

"There is no law in existence which can 
be cited to prohibit masters of vessels 
from loading and unloading their vessels 
with their own crews, or even to import 
workmen to work on board the vessels; 
neither is there a law to prohibit owners 
of mills from using their own employees 
to load their products on the vessels." 




I'romineiit men of affairs in f'nha.— Hon. Jose 
Manuel Rabe, the recently appointed secretary of 
public works. He is a thoroughly trained engineer, 
a graduate of Troy University and well equipped 
for his post. He speaks English well. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



General Mdnteagudo is tlie 

For tl'.c latest candidate for the 

Presidency presidential nomination with 

General Emilio Xunez. the 

president of the Veterans' Association, as 

his running mate. The Post of Havana 

said that General ]\Ionteagudo would have 

the support of the followers of General 

Xuiiez, w'ho seems to be satisfied with 

second place. 

General Ernesto Asbert, the governor 
of Havana Province, is anotler candidate 
for first place, and it is said again that he 
will be supported by Pre.' i dent Gomez. 
The measure of his political strength out- 
side of Havana Province is not so full as 
when his name was first mentioned. 

General Eusebio Hernandez is another 
Liberal Party candidate for vice-president, 
wath Alfredo Zayas, the present vice- 
l)residcnt heading the ticket. In Havana 
the general idea seems to be that the lat- 
ter's chances for securing a party nomina- 
tion are slim, if not altogether impossilile, 
and that seems to be the opinion in other 
parts of the island west of Camaguey. 

General Gerardo Alachado, the present 
secretary of government, though discussed 
as a vice-presidential possibility by his 
friends, has announced that under no cir- 
cumstances will he accept a nomination. 

La Liicha of January riTth said that 
Governor ^landuley of Oriente Province 
had been offered the second place on the 
liberal ticket with Governor .\sbert of Ha- 
vana Province at the head. " Governor 
Manduley later declined the honor. 

Another ticket put forward was that of 
Zayas and Machado, and a -Toalition as be- 
fore of the opposing factions of the Hberals 
was promised, but the refusal of General 
Machado to accept any nouiination effec- 
tually ended the chances of the proposed 
combination. 

General Alenocal and^ Governor Asbert 
are also talked of as a' team, and if this 
could be effected naturally it would win, as 
the only opposition vote would be that of 
the followers and supporters of Zayas. 

Vice-President Zayas is quoted as saying 
that he was convinced that the Hberals as 
a party were united, despite the fact that 
there are six candidates for ijresident. 

General Eusebio Hernandez, presidential 
candidate of one of the functions of the 
Liberal Party, takes a different view, un- 
hesitatingly declaring that any attempt to 
unite the party is doomed to failure. He 
will only consider the first place on any 
ticket. 

Sr. ]\landuley, the governor of Oriente 
Province, said in an interview February 
7th with a Nezv York i)un representative, 
tliat the liberals must heal their differences 
or the conservatives will w'n the coming 
presidential election. 



According to the Post, 

General General Menocal will ac- 

Mcnoeal cept the nomination of the 

11 'ill Run Conservative Party for 

president of Cuba, although 
he has made no public utterance of his 
change of opinion. This, it is said, will 
lie made at the end of the present sugar 
liarvest. To enter politics and forego his 
business association w'ith the Chaparra 
Sugar Company will mean a great financial 
loss to General Menocal, as his income 
from this source alone is estimated at some- 
thing like $100,000 yearly. He had but 
recently renewed his contract with the 
sugar company for several years. The 
general seems to be the only available can- 
didate of the Conservative Party, as others 
equally prominent in the organization had 
drawl)acks which General Menocal did not 
have. 



Sr. Cristob.'il Fernandez 
Spanish N'allin, the Spanish minister 
Minister to Cuba, was severely taken 
//( Trouble to task by La Prensa of 
Havana for some anti- 
Cuban utterances recently, and the paper 
demanded his recall. Sr. Vallin in an in- 
terview had said that there was no fra- 
ternal feeling between the Cubans and the 
Spaniards, that in fact there was real an- 
tagonism shown and that recent events, 
especially the veterans" agitation, would, 
if continued, make it impossible ' for 
Spaniards to live in Cuba. 

The minister published a letter shortly 
afterward modifying some of his utter- 
ances, but still insisting that his views as 
given above were correct. He also asked 
his government to recall him. 

On Januar}' :U)th he made an official call 
on Secretary of State Sanguily and de- 
clared that his government had given him 
a two months' leave of absence. He left 
Havana on February od and it was then 
semi-officially stated that he would not 
return. 

Sagua la Grande wants public improve- 
ments in the shape of new highways, better 
custom house wharves and deeper water 
in the port. 

Franco-German interests have made an 
offer to underwrite the Cuba national loan 
and cancel the advances made by the 
Speyers to the repubHc. 

The treaty for the cession of the Guaii- 
tanamo additional lands required -.by the 
United States naval statioa was delivered 
February 10th to Minister Baupre for 
transmission to Washington for con- 
sideration and acceptance by the United 
States. 

The matter is now being discussed in 
the Senate and an early settlement is 
looked for satisfactory to the United States. 



10 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



CUBAN NEWSPAPER OPINION AND CARTOONISTS' 
VIEWS OF CUBAN MATTERS 




The Politico Comica calls the demand of the three nations for damages a "hold up." President Gomez 
does not appear very much interested, being engaged in fishing, but Uncle Sam is watching events closely. 

El bandolerismo en Cuba. Liborio tSeis millones! Caballeros, me estdn tistedes saqiieando. \Me 

asaltan los extranjeros, y el Presidente pcscando! — La Politico Comica. 



The Seattle Post-IiitcUigeiicer says that 
"Jefferson favored the annexation of Cuba 
to this country ; he was shrewd enough to 
foresee the irritations and dangers which 
from time to time would grow out of 
poHtical upheavals on the island, and it 
still seems to be a question whether we 
will not finally be compelled to adopt the 
policy recommended by Jefferson." 








The action of the president and Secre- 
tary Knox in calling the Gomez govern- 
ment so sharply to a recognition of its 
duties may seem premature ; but if taking 
time by the forelock will save the island 
from any renewal of its internal dissen- 
sions,, the vigorous phraseology of the 
American warning may well be pardoned. 
— Boston Herald. 




Order ThtrtX—W-aslmngion (D. C.) Star 



He is in danger of that American Rule again. 
Houston (Te.vas) Post 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



11 




El Disco del Tio. "Oxcndo la voz del amo." — La Politica Coinica. 



I 



There are three records of Uncle Sam which have been used on the phonograph. One of the 

first intervention (primera) ; another of the second intervention (segnnda), and very recently 

the warning of Uncle Sam through Secretary Knox. 



Just after Congress convened January 
17th, Chairman Sulzer, of the Foreign 
Affairs Committee of the House, issued 
a statement in which he declared that 
American intervention in Cuba is not 
needed at this time. There is, says the 
Hutchinson (Kans.) Gazette's Washington 
despatch, a marked sentiment in Congress 
if the United States is forced to take a 
hand in Cuban affairs for tlie third time 
that annexation of the troublesome re- 
public is the best course to pursue. 



There seems to be very little douI)t in 
army circles, says the Philadelphia Times, 
that before the year is out, unless very 
radical changes take place in the meantime, 
we shall be sending troops to Cuba. 



The Cuban Supreme Court on February 
23d decided that the law passed last De- 
cember, suspending the operation of the 
civil service law, and also the presidential 
decree, directing the enforcement of the 
same, are unconstitutional. This will have 
a serious effect on the movement begun 
by the Veterans' Association, as well as 
far-reaching results, involving manj' com- 
plications and apparently entailing the rein- 
statement of hundreds of officeholders 
ousted in consequence of charges by the 
veterans, and the dismissal of those ap- 
pointed in their places. 



The Carthage (Mo.) Press wants to 
know, "what became of that threatened 
Svar' with Cuba? Haven't seen much 
about it in the papers lately." 




El caballo liberal. Asbert. Debajo de la albarda le pongo el guisaso Como cl cttiiio lo monte, no 

da un paso. 

Vice-President Zavas expects to ride to the office of President of Cuba on the Liberal Party horse. Gov- 
ernor Asbert, however, who is also in line for the office, is seen placing a burr under the saddle, with 
what effect, when Dr. Zayas mounts the animal, may be imagined. 



12 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 




o^-*- 



4 J:«^^" 






SCHOOL 01 




Now, will you be good? — A''^^' York Evening Sun. 



There are elements in the Cuban popula- 
tion that desire annexation, but the mass 
of the people do not want even another 
pacific intervention. Their present con- 
duct in what they regard as the shadow 
of a third intervention is exemplary, and 




if the politicians of the \'eterans" Associa- 
tion are amenable to public sentiment, the 
danger of an outbreak is indefinitely post- 
poned. — Nei<' )'ork Sun. 



The Cubans, like other Latin Americans, 
cordially dislike us, and they would not 
willingly accept our form of government. 
Although unable to make any substantial 
resistance to intervention, thev could make 
the government of the island by aliens 
extremely costly and uncomfortable, says 
the A'cii' Orleans Picaynnc. 

U.NCLt S HAD ills TROUBLES WITH THAT KIND OF ■ GOVERSMtNT ■ 




Tlie probable remedy.— 5/. Louis (Mo.) Globc- 
Detnocrat 



Uncle Sam had his troubles with that kind of 
"government."— Chicago (111.) Record-Herald. 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



13 



PRESS AND INDIVIDUAL COMMENT ON CUBAN 

MATTERS 




"Snuff it out" says the PhilaJclphia (Pa.) Inquirer. 



Little Cuba is now busi!3- engaged in Little Cuba seems to have cried itself to 

trying to pull the tail feathers from the sleep again, says the Omaha (Xeb. ) Bee. 
Dove of Peace, says the Sail Francisco 
(Cal.) Xczi's Letter. 





Cuba is warned by the Pittsburg {Pa.) Suu to 
"Look out for Uncle Samuel's aeroplane." 



I.as Reclamaciones E.vtranjeras. Cuba — Tengo 

con que pagar pero veremos si estdn Oien 

esas cucntas! La Luclta. 

Cuba is willing to pay her debts and the cartoon- 
ist shows that she has the money, but slie wants 
the governments of France, England and Ciermany 
to sati.sfy her that their claims are just. 



14 



THE CUBA R E V I E W 



ALL AROUND CUBA 



INTERESTING^ NEWS NOTES REGARDING VARIOUS MATTERS PERTAINING 

TO THE ISLAND 



Telephone connection with Santa Clara, 
distant from Havana 184 miles, was estab- 
lished on January 22d, several prominent 
officials making the test at the Cuban Tele- 
phone Company's offices in Havana. Ma- 
tanzas is also on the long-distance circuit. 

The sugar central "Santa Lucia" at 
Puerto Padre began grinding cane on 
January 22d. 

Sr. Justo Navarro has been named by 
the president as Cuban consul in Sevilla, 
Spain, and Sr. Cruz Crescencio de Varona 
for the same office in Chicago. 

Havana's lumber dealers are contem- 
plating a combination to prevent price 
cutting and to maintain a regular schedule 
of rates binding on all form.s in the or- 
ganization. 

The new officers of the Cuban Chamber 
of Commerce, elected at a meeting in Ha- 
vana in January, are as follows : Narciso 
Gelats, president, re-elected ; Manuel Vil- 
lar, vice-president ; and Elias Miro, a di- 
rector of the National Bank of Cuba, 
treasurer. 

A writer in the Havana Post advises 
and advances a plan for widening the con- 
gested business thoroughfares near Ha- 
vana's harbor front, and the city architect 
has a plan for the same improvement, 
which is a prime necessity for the city. 
The idea suggested is to cut away a portion 
of the first story of the buildings fronting 
on these streets and build supporting col- 
umns, thus enlarging the sidewalks. 

The Vedado Tennis Club will liave a new 
building. The corner stone was laid by 
Mavor Cardenas of Havana on January 
21st. 

The American Institute of Banking has 
made special recognition of Cuba in its 
work by appointing William M.- Morales, 
secretary of the National Bank of Cuba, 
as a member of the press and publicity 
committee of the association. 

The Cuban branch has grown consider- 
ably since its organization in Havana two 
years ago. 

Cigar operatives at a factory in Guana- 
bacoa near Havana, to the number of 400, 
went on strike February 3d as a protest 
against a reduction in the price of their 
work. The managers threaten to move the 
factory to Havana. 



General .Manager Frank Steinhart of 
the Havana Electric Railway has dis- 
covered that his cars are carrying free 
daily some SCO mail carriers and messen- 
gers, for w^hich he receives inadequate com- 
pensation and wants the matter adjusted. 
An order has been issued by the director 
of post prohibiting the use of the cars 
except when on duty. 

According to the Post, the post-office 
department plans to collect and deliver 
mail matter in Havana and the suburban 
districts by automobiles. 

Havana's Fire Department ordered the 
flags of all the city's fire stations at half 
mast in memory of the death of Deputy 
Fire Chief Walsh of New York City, who 
lost his life at the Equitable Building fire. 

La Lucha was right when it predicted a 
few weeks ago that there would be no new 
treaty between Spain and Cuba. The 
latest news is that all negotiations are off. 

Havana bakers will charge more for their 
bread, contending that recent sanitary im- 
provements ordered by the Health De- 
partment had so increased their expenses 
as to make a raise in prices necessary. 

L. L. Newsome of La Gloria has again 
been awarded for the fourth time the first 
prize by the Cuban National Exposition, 
now open in Havana, as having the best 
exhibit of citrus fruit. 

For manufacturing alcohol and selling it 
without paying the tax, thus violating the 
revenue laws, a firm at Bayamo was re- 
cently fined $28,000. What led to the in- 
vestigation were the statistics of the prod- 
uct which, while it showed a largely in- 
creased consumption, it also showed de- 
creasing collection of taxes. 

An offer has been made for the old 
cannon in Cuba of $2.96 per ton for those 
of English iron, and $136.40 for the bronze 
cannon. An attempt previously to sell 
tliese old weapons for a very small sum 
created such atagonism that the project 
was abandoned. It seems to have been 
resurrected and bids fair to be successful, 
although opposition from the press is 
present. 

It is urged that these old cannon are 
eloquent historical records which should 
not be taken away. As the president in 
response to popular clamor prohibited their 
sale, it is believed that he will disapprove 
the second sale. 



THE CUBA R E V I E W 



15 



Bills have been introduced in the Cuban 
Senate providing for the appropriation of 
the following sums : $5,000 for a highway 
from Artemisa to the cemetery of that 
town ; $8,000 to buy a fire engine for the 
town of Camajuani; $9,000 for a fire engine 
for the town of Banes, which a few weeks 
ago lost several blocks from fire, and $5,000 
for the building of an addition to the school 
at Santa Clara. 

A new hardware firm, in which two 
Americans and two Spaniards are inter- 
ested, has been organized in Havana with 
a capital of $100,000. Those forming the 
company are : Charles H. Thrall. Ralph 
Kingsbury, Felipe Gonzalez and Antonio 
Cantolla. 

All of the senators and representatives 
of Oriente have reached an agreement to 
push through the legislature, as quicklv as 
possible, the $2,000,000 which are required 
for the building of the aqueduct of the city 
of Santiago. 

The Cuban Congress has passed a law 
appropriating $30,000 for building a bridge 
over the Hondo River between Consolacion 
del Sur and Puerta del Golpe. 

The provincial council of Havana has 
offered a number of premiums to encour- 
age the growing of alfalfa ifi Cuba, and 
also of hay prepared from grasses now- 
growing in Cuba. Experiments in growing 
alfalfa in Cuba have not up to the present 
met with much success. There seems to 
be some element lacking in the soil which 
growers have not yet been able to supply. 
Experiments have been going on at the 
agricultural experimental station for years, 
and agriculturists are confident that sooner 
or later the efforts will meet with success. 

The plan of the Havana city council- 
men to make a $28,000,000 loan has not 
been lost sight of, despite the veto put 
on the project by General Asbert, governor 
of the province of Havana. The latest 
excuse for making the loan and one which, 
if carried out, would certainly necessitate 
it. is a plan of the city architect to enlarge 
several of Havana's principal business 
streets. 

A new industry which is to be established 
in Cuba is that of manufacturing metal 
boxes and the lithographing of metals. 
The company organized to start this busi- 
ness has been incorporated under the name 
of Sociedad Industrial de Cuba. Spanish 
and Cuban capital is back of the enter- 
prise. 

A house bill taxes theatre tickets one cent 
each, the money to go to a fund for pro- 
viding asylums for workingmen incapaci- 
tated for further labor and for the aged. 
All public shows issuing tickets are in- 
cluded in the provisions of the bill. 



The recent visit of 100 manufacturers 
from Chattanooga, Tenn., to Cuba resulted 
in many of the manufacturers establishing 
agents in Havana. The manufacturers 
besides having an extremely pleasant time 
left satisfied that the visit was of immense 
advantage to them in a business way. 
Mayor Cardenas, of the city of Havana, 
is planning to return the visit to the Chat- 
tanoogans within a short time. 

The city council of Havana has voted 
an appropriation of $40,000 to purchase 
a fireboat for Havana harbor. The occur- 
rence of a number of costly fires in the 
harbor during the last few years caused the 
city council to decide to buy the boat. 

A motion, signed by six aldermen, has 
been presented to the Havana city council 
to give an appropriation of $4,000 to be 
included in the next budget to assist Luis 
Alayolino in perfecting a perpetual motion 
motor, which he claims to have invented. 
Alayolino proposes to harness the motion 
of the sea, and he has so convinced the 
Havana city council that he has solved 
the perpetual motion problem that he seems 
likely to get the appropriation, which six 
of the aldermen have proposed. 

Richard Busewell, an American, has been 
appointed honorary consul of Cuba at Gulf 
Port, Miss. He takes the place of Joseph 
N. Cowley. Gulf Port is an important port 
in the commerce between the United States 
and Cuba on account of the large amount 
of lumber shipped from it to the island. 

The Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
of Havana is distributing throughout Ha- 
vana Province seed of the Para rubber 
tree (Hevea Brasiliensis). Instruction on 
planting and cultivating the tree is given 
those receiving the seed. Rubber trees of 
all kinds seem to do well in Cuba. In 
nearly all parts of the island can be found 
specimens growing wild. In some parts 
of Cuba there are a few specimens of the 
Artocarpace^e rubber tree, which grows 
three feet in diameter and gives every 
indication that it would grow as well in 
Cuba as anywhere else with proper cul- 
tivation. Experts agree that the Para tree 
should do as well in Cuba as on its native 
soil in Brazil, Guiana and Venezuela. It 
is a tree that grows 60 feet tall, branching 
from the base, and does best on the hot 
steaming lowlands along the river courses. 
Each tree is expected to render three 
ounces of milk in three days and then must 
be allowed to rest. 

Two registered packages containing $30,- 
000 consigned to the Spanish Bank at Ha- 
vana disappeared from the post-ofiice at 
Santiago de Cuba on February 9th. 

It is supposed they were stolen by two 
postal clerks, who embarked on a ship 
for Jamaica, where they were later cap- 
tured and the stolen money recovered. 



16 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



ENTRY OF AUTOMOBILES IN CUBA 



RULES THE PASSENGER MUST OBSERVE AND NECESSARY FEES FOR 
BRINGING HIS AUTO INTO THE REPUBLIC 



The original liill of lading and copy 
should be vised by the Cuban consul at 
port of shipment though the copy does not 
necessarily have to be vised. Shipment 
must appear as shipped by the passenger 
at port of embarcation and must be con- 
signed to himself at the port of entry. 

The consular invoice and duplicate iitiist 
not be made on blanks of the manufacturer 
of the auto. It would be better to make 
it on the letter heads of the tourist. The 
invoice must show the nam.e of maker, 
horse pow-er, marks, maker's number, color, 
weight, etc. It must also certify that the 
auto has been used, is the ptrsonal prop- 
erty of the passenger, and that it is brought 
to Cuba for the private use of the tourist 
who must appear on both the bill of lading 
and the invoice as shipper and consignee. 
Another important regulation is that the 
machine or auto must arrk'c on flic same 
steamer zcith the tourist. 

On making entry, a deposit must be made 
of duty plus 2.5 per cent, 50 per cent or 
100 per cent at the option of the collector 
of customs who decides the amount of de- 
posit. The full amount of the deposit will 
be refunded if the auto is exported from 
Cuba before the expiration of 60 days. If 
not returned in that time, the actual amount 
of duties will be assessed. This 60-day time 
limit cannot be extended under the law, 
but there have been instances where the 
time has been extended by special conces- 
sion. 

The tourist or traveller desiring to leave 
Cuba must notify the custom house several 



days previous to his departure in order 
that an inspector may have time to examine 
the machine and satisfy himself that it is 
the same machine which v;as imported. 
The full amount of the deposit will then 
be refunded to the passenger or his agent. 

In order to secure a license to run the 
auto in city and country, a declaration 
must be made before the Ayuntamiento or 
municipal council, certifying in writing that 
the auto is the tourist's machine, giving 
name of maker, maker's number, horse 
power, weight, color, etc., exactly as de- 
scribed in the invoice, and a deposit must 
also be made. The Ayuntamiento will then 
issue a special license and also furnish the 
tourist with a "chapa" for the machine. 
With these secured, the owner of the 
machine or the chauffeur are not required 
to obtain any further license for running 
the machine in Cuba during the 60 days 
time allowed. 

When the tourist leaves Cuba, he must 
return this "chapa" and license issued to 
him and secure its cancellation. His de- 
posit will then be refunded. 

The expense attached to all these pro- 
ceedings will amount to about $30.00, which 
covers broker's fee for entry in custom 
house and the securing of the license and 
chapa from the Ayuntamiento. A like 
amount must be paid when the machine is 
taken out of Cuba. 



Labor is restive in some parts of Cuba 
and friction has developed on sugar estates 
in Eastern Cuba. 




Molasses tanks of tlie Cuba Llistilling Company, Dubrocq, Matanzas Harbor 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



17 



CUBAN CENTRAL RAILWAYS, LIMITED 



RESULTS OF FISCAL YEARS 1910-11 AND 1909-1910 COMPARED, AND 
LOOKED UPON AS SATISFACTORY 

The results of the working of the rail- Ranch(.) Neloz was opened for public 

ways for the year, as compared with the service on the 21)th of June last. Other 

corresponding period in 1909-1910, were extensions in course of construction are : 

Cifuentes to Esperanza, approximately.... 18 miles 

1910-11 1909-10 ^^,^ j^^j^jj ,jg jgg Yeras to Cardoso, approx... 1.=; " 

(Jross receipts £460,086 £465,310 Malezas to Cumanayagua 11 

Working expeiii.es ....- 281.288 282,686 

,. ^ . ^ ^rT-T"^> ,,o, £,, Orders had been previously placed for 

Aet receipts £1/8, /98 £182,624 ^ c. ^ , r^ i ^- ' , 

/ standard Cuage Locomotives and one 

To the balance of... £178,798 Narrow Guage Locomotive, as well as for 

must he added — .,,, . Ci. i i r- i-i ^ /^ i 

balance from 1909-10 £10,986 -J-^ Standard Guage Hat Cars and M 

Registration fees 90 Standard Guagc Covered Cars, added to 

■Sundry earnings, exch. dift., etc.. . 1,743 ^_^ ^^^^ which 2r, Standard Guagc Flat Cars, 10 

"'' " Xarrow Guage Flat Cars and 10 Narrow 

£191,619 uage Covered Cars are being built in the 

Deduct— companv's shops. The whole of this 

Reserve for Texas (Cuba) £o,20/ rnllino- ofnrlc will bp ncpd fnr the- cpruirp 

Interest and amortization of roll- rolling Stock Will ue usetl tor tne service 

ing stock- bonds 6,960 ot the present Zafra. 

Rent charges payable in Cuba 9,927 The report of the General Manager, Mr. 

Interest and sinking fund on 4]/, tt TJcKpr sbnw"; -in inrrpac;.- nf £"> ■'■Q'? in 

per cent mortgage debentures....45.955 "• ^SDer, SHOWS an lUCreaSv. Ot_ta,o9.i in 

Interest on 6 per cent second de- passenger receipts over the previous year, 

benture stock 12,000 although the company has motor car com- 

lnL°r«^ai^d "discount":::::::::::::^ 666 petition at several points. Large consign- 

Proportion written off premium on - ments ot ice, hsh, aerated water and 

6 per cent debenture stock 1.000 small parcels generally increased the re- 

ceS'.4s^;;f^"^''L'""'..::;::;;;: IS ''t^' ^'■°'^] '^'' '°"'''? J^^'-^P'i 

96,655 ihe total tonnage ot freight for 1910-11 

^ was 2,090,04s tons, as against 2,350,:{40 

T „^^ ■„. ,- J- -1 ^ -T/ 1 ,■ :£5"*-'^63 ^Qj.j jj^ ^.j., previous year, a decrease of 

Less interim dividend on o'/i cumulative ' -' ' 

preference shares at Ss. 6d. per share. ^o0,2.)2 tons. 

paid April, 1911 33,000 Owing to the partial failure of the sugar 

J ■ , r ' ,, , ,,,, crop, there was a decrease recorded in 

Leaving a surplus of £61,963 ..mn n j: .i~o r.rv,, ^ 

^ 1910-11 of 2<S,00() tons in cane as com- 

Out of this amount the directors recommended nared with 1909- 10 
the rayment of the following dividends: 'ri i j- i r • i 

Dividend for the half-year to 30th ^ -l "« number of bags of sugar carried 

of Tune, 1911, on the 5;/ cumu- for 1910-11 was 2,010,1(58, as against 

lative preference shares £33,000 2 186 727 in 1909-1910 

Dividend of 2 per cent on the or- ' t^i ' 'i " i -1.^1 

dinary shares 18,000 1 here were Icss molasses earned, the 

'- £51.000 tonnage being 7.'),064 against 79,9.58 in 

. , , , — TrrTTT 1909-10. The decrease is attributable in 

Leaving a ba ance to be carriec forward.. £10,963 i i ii • i. 11 i' r j 

^ ^ ' some parts to the installation ot modern 

The year's gross receipts amounted to machinery on the sugar estates, resulting 
£4(50,086 which, compared with the previous in a higher extraction of sugar, and con- 
year's results, show-ed a decrease of £."),224 sequently less molasses, 
or 1.12 per cent. (3wing to the drought, l)ul ];i.295 tons 

The working expenses, which included of tobacco were received, as against 18,4.34 

the cost of one new locomotive and a tons in the previous year. Besides, there 

proportion of relaying the Main Line with is no irrigation in Santa Clara Province, 

SO-pound rails, were £281,288 or 61.14 per which makes the output of this crop always 

cent of the gross receipts. This amount uncertain. 

did not include any charge for renewal The territorj' served by the railway has 

fund as heretofore, a credit of £9,000 hav- shown much ))rosperity, and there was ac- 

ing been charged directly to the net revenue cordingly an increase in building materials 

account. carried, the amount lieing 9:). .561 tons, as 

The train mile receipts for the year were against 77,:!6.'! tons in the previous year. 

13s. 8^/4d., as against 14s. iVid. in 1909-10, Large quantities of stone were also cari;i^<i. 
and the cost of working, Ss. 4V>d., as Timber and firewood, fruits and vege-. 

against 8s. 6%d. in the pre\ious year. tables all showed increases. 

The total mileage of the main line now Live stock traffic fell off considerably, 

open for traffic is 255. an increase of 14 only 11.2.10 animals being carried, as against 

miles. The extension from Cagauguas to 21,946 in 1909-10. 



18 



THE CUBA RE V 1 E W' 



TOBACCO EXPORTATION AND CONSUMPTION IN CUBA 



Figures showing the exportation of to- 
bacco from Cuba and the amount con- 
sumed in the repubhc during the calendar 
year 1911 together with the value of the 
product are as follows : 



Quantity 



Value 



Cigars 188,129,188 $12,947,861 

Leaf tobacco. 308,479 bales 17,915,327 

Cigarettes . . . 14,172,412 pkgs. 392,006 

Cut tobacco.. 295,049 kilos 245,570 



Total value $31,500,764 

The home consumption in the island is 
very large and in the same period the fig- 
ures show the following amounts : 

Quantity Value 

Cigars 180,537,250 $8,124,176 

Cigarettes .. .231,386,209 pkgs. 5,090,496 

Cut tobacco.. 241,334 lbs. 120,677 

Total value $13,385,449 

The total value both of exportation and 
home consumption foots up $44,836,106. 

La Lucha of Havana in printing these 
figures, says that to this total must be 
added the value of the tobacco consumed 
in the cigar factories by the workmen who 
are allowed a quantity free. No exact 
figures of this consumption are obtainable, 
but it is estimated by experts as at $2,500.- 
000 which makes the tobacco industry of 
Cuba worth something over $47,000,000 for 
last year. 

The exportations for the fiscal years 
1910 and 1911, ending June 30th. are issued 
in the report for 1911 of the Cdinara de 
Coinercio, Industria and Navigation of 
Cuba, and are as follows : 

Fiscal Year of 1909-10 

Quantity Value 

Cigars 172,740,461 $11,922,853 

Cigarettes . . . 11,289,364 pkgs. 333.550 

Bales 362,915 17,231,211 

Cut tobacco.. 295,835 kilos 179.864 



Total value $29,667,478 

Fiscal Year 1910-11 

Quantity Value 

Cigars 177,636,072 $12,552,888 

Cigarettes ... 13,549,318 pkgs. 366,255 

■B-ales 321,528 16,585,725 

Cut tobacco.. 235,261 181,672 



Total value $29,686,540 



The tobacco crop in Cuba will be very 
late this year, but promises to be fairly 
plentiful, provided there is not an early 
spring. An early spring will serve to cut 
the crop down to a much smaller figure 
than last year, w-hen there was a falling 
off as compared with 1910. The tobacco 
which has been harvested up to the present 
is mostly that which was not ruined by 
the torrential rains which fell in October 
and destroyed all of the seed beds. This 
tobacco, judging from accounts received 
from all the different tobacco districts, 
promises to be of an extremely light color 
and almost strawlik6 in its nature. In the 
ooinions of some, the early tobacco on 
account of the heavy rains will be too 
light to be of good quality. Others declare 
that while the leaf will be light, there 
will be a good demand for it for mild 
cigars, and that the weed will not on ac- 
count of its lightness suffer in price. 
Planting throughout the Partido and Vuelta 
Abajo districts was still going on up to 
the end of the first week in February. 
Cutting and picking in those districts of 
the first plantings are also going on. 
Growers are sanguine that their tobaccos 
this year are certain to command good 
prices. 

The succession of short tobacco crops in 
Cuba has reduced the visible supply of Ha- 
vana leaf to a point where the shortage 
seems bound to be most .seriously felt, 
although, fortunately, for some manufac- 
turers, who have been far-sighted enough 
to accumulate reserve stocks, says Tobacco 
of New York. 



February 12th Havana correspondence 
of the United States Tobacco Journal 
(New York) says that from all accounts 
and indications there is every promise of 
a large though late crop from all districts. 
Those that planted again right after the 
big rain will have splendid tobacco, but 
those w^ho waited and are even planting 
yet in this late stage, will not have such 
good tobacco. 

Everybody agrees now that this will be 
a good year for the manufacturers with 
an abundant crop of tobacco and conse- 
quently lower prices and cheaper goods. 
There is said to be a lot of good wrappers 
in the new Partido crop. Remedios, too, 
shows signs of being very good. 

There is some complaint coming in from 
sections of the Vuelta Abajo about insects 
attacking the young tobacco plants. The 
Iiigh winds, too, did some damage to the 
larger plants. The crop, however, is said 
to be abundant, but in very good condition. 
The Remedios crop is a specially large one. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



19 



RAILROAD AND COMMERCIAL NEWS 



COST FOR CARRYING MAILS 

Cuba pa,vs to her railroads $299,093.36 
annually for carrying the mails. It is di- 
vided among the following railroads : Cuba 
Railroad (Van Home system). $120,000; 
Western Railway of Havana, $12,191 ; 
Cuban Central, $30,035.72; Ferrocarril de 
Guantanamo. $15,963 ; Guantanamo West- 
ern, $1,445.40 ; Ferrocarril de Gibara- 
Holugin, $3,950.76 ; Ferrocarril Rodas- 
Cartagena, $360; Ferrocarril Nuevitas y 
Puerto Principe, $760 ; Havana Central, 
$11,023: and the United Railways of Ha- 
vana, $127,568.12. On the amount appro- 
priated for the purpose of carrying the 
mails on Cuba's railroads there appears 
a deficit of $169,093.36, which, it is ex- 
pected, will be remedied by special legisla- 
tion of Congress on receipt of a message 
from the president soliciting it. 



NEW STATION PROJECTED 

The Havana Central Railroad has been 
authorized to dredge a channel and build 
a station at Casa Blanca on the side of 
Havana Bay opposite the city, so that 
large ships can be taken alongside and 
loaded and unloaded. The Havana Central 
was bought nearly a year ago by the 
United Railwavs of Havana. 



IMPORTS OF TASAJO 

There was over a pound of jerked beef 
imported in Cuba during the month of 
January for every inhabitant. The total 
importations were 2,382,500 pounds. Of 
this amount 2,100,000 pounds were imported 
through the port of Havana, 230,000 through 
Cienfuegos and 62,500 through the port of 
Matanzas. Jerked beef is practically the 
only meat consumed by the working man 
in the country districts. It it difficult for 
him to get fresh meat, and even if he 
could he would prefer the imported ar- 
ticle for a steady diet. It is also consumed 
to a large extent among the laboring 
elements in the cities. It is always to be 
found on the bill of fare of the cheaper 
restaurants, and occasionally it is served 
even by the better class. 



NEW BRANCH OPENED 

The Cuban Central Railways has been 
authorized to open to public freight and 
cane service the branch of the line from 
Rancho Veloz to Corralillo as fas as the 
estate known as Panchita. Much new cane 
has been planted along this new line and 
will be ground for the first time this vear. 



Charles L. Carpenter, who has for sev- 
eral years been "administrador" of the 
Guantanamo and Western Railroad in 
Cuba, has lately removed to Porto Rico, 
where he is associated with Loring N. 
Farnum, well known in the Andovers of 
Massachusetts, in the development of an 
immense cane-raising and sugar-making 
Dlant. comprising some 30,000 acres. 

The Havana Gas and Electric Light 
Company has declared a dividend of four 
dollars Spanish gold per share. The 
meeting was held in January. 



IMPORTS OF ORANGES 

The importation of oranges into the 
United States is steadily decreasing as 
official figures show. In 1900 the importa- 
tions were 68,0619,000 pounds, while in 1911 
they were only 7,561,000 pounds. 

This dwindling of imports is due not so 
much to fiscal reasons as to the superior 
excellence of the domestic product, and to 
the proximity of the consuming markets 
to the centers of cultivation. 

California produces about 960,000,000 
pounds annually. Florida, Texas, etc., are 
credited with 750,000,000 pounds, while 
Cuba, Porto Rico, etc., with. Mexico and 
Central and South America produce about 
420,000.000 pounds. 



HAWAIIAN CANNED PINEAPPLES 

How the Hawaiian canned pineapple in- 
dustry has grown since its beginning in 
1900 is well shown in the following output 
table. The cases are of two dozen cans 

each : 

Cases 

1900 1,200 

1901 2,000 

1902 6,000 

1903 9,800 

1904 25,500 

1905 51,300 

1906 84,300 

1907 186,700 

1908 412,000 

1909 510,000 

Cuba's pineapple growers could study 
this table with much profit. 



FRENCH CAPITALISTS INVESTING 

According to a cable to the New York 
Times French capitalists are in Havana 
seeking investments for capital which they 
wish to withdraw from Germany. 



20 T }I E C U B A R E \- I E W 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD, THE HAVANA ELECTRIC, ETC. 
The Cuba Railroad Company's Earnings 



The report of the Cuba Railroad for tlie montli of December and six months ended 
December 31st, compares as follows: 

1911 1910 1909 190S 1907 

December gross $293,684 $237,117 $211,:)S3 $174,348 $149,723 

Expenses i:):),732 139,404 116,562 100,144 104,034 

December net $137,9.i2 $97,713 $95,021 $74,204 $45,689 

Charges 60,125 3(>,666 36,666 32,502 31,160 

December surplus $77,827 $61,047 $5S,355 $41,702 $14,529 

.Six months' gross $1,582,665 $1,261,935 $1,019,260 $847,610 $869,332 

Net profits 684,312 520,202 347,104 322,633 246,016 

Fixed charges 360,750 220,000 215,210 194,273 172,805 

Six months' surplus $323,562 $300,202 $131,894 $128,36ii $73,211 



Earnings of the United Railways of Havana 



Weekly receipts : 1912 

Week ending January 6th £32,516 

Week ending January 13th 38,004 

Week ending January 20th 35,334 

Week ending January 27th 40,626 



1911 


1910 


1909 


£23,945 


£33,635 


£26.747 


28,823 


35,111 


30,842 


32,946 


39,040 


34,243 


35,350 


39,595 


34,316 



Earnings of the Havana Electric Railway 



Weekly receipts: 1912 

Week ending January 7th $50,210 

Week- ending January 14th 44,504 

Week ending January 21st 45,057 

Week ending January 28th 45,621 



1911 


1910 


1909 


$41,749 


$39,932 


$35,009 


43,208 


37,594 


36,753 


51,751 


37,408 


35,729 


43,523 


37,696 


40,059 



January Quotations for Cuban Securities 

Supi'lied by Lawrence Tunnire & Co., New York 

Bid Asked 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (interior) 98% 99% 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (exterior) 102% 103 

Havana City First Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 106 108 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 104 106^4 

Cuba Railroad First Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds 102 103 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 88 90 

Cuba Company 6 per cent Debentures 97 100 

Havana Electric Railway Consolidated Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds .... 99 99^/4 

Havana Electric Railway Preferred Stock 104 V. no 

Havana Electric Railway Common Stock 108 % 

Matanzas Market Place S per cent Bonds — Participation Certificates . . . 104 106 

Cuban-American Sugar Co. Coll. Trust 6 per cent. Gold Bonds of 1918 96% 97 

Central Vannina First Mortgage 8 per cent Bonds 100 104 

All prices of bonds quoted on an "and interest" basis. 



THE CUBA R E \" i E W 



:21 



NEW COAL HANDLING COMPANY 

The Regla Coal Company, organized 
under the laws of the State of Xew York, 
are building on leased land at Regla a 
modern $30(),0()() coaling plant, which will 
have a storage capacity of 60,000 tons. 
The plant will be connected with the lines 
of the United Railways, and steamers draw- 
ing 25 feet of water will be able to berth 
alongside of the coaling bridge, which is 
supposed to have a discharging capacity of 
1,000 tons a day. The president of the 
company is Mr. Manuel Rionda. The plant 
will be finished and in operation about the 
1st of April. See full page illustration of 
this new plant on opposite page. 



CUBAN TELEPHONE COMPANY 
RECEIPTS 

The report of receipts of this company 
for 1911 is given as follows: 

January $23,164 

F"ebruary 24,652 

March 26,370 

April 27,835 

:\Iay 28,289 

June 29,200 

July 30,014 

August ". 30,353 

September 30,850 

Octol)er 32,534 

Xovember 33,626 

December 34,248 

Total $351,125 

The last six months showed constantly 
increasing earnings, due doubltless to the 
extension of its lines. Telephone commu- 
nication is now possible between Havana, 
Santa Clara and Cienfuegos. 



Havana's city council men have the 
authority to change the tariff of taxes 
each year as may seem expedient. The 
new schedule imposes an increased tax on 
street annoyances, such as street organs, 
ticket scalpers, etc. Grocery stores will 
pay $30.00, an increase of $10.00. Lawyers, 
architects and surveyors will not be taxed. 
Engineers' and dentists' taxes are cut in 
half, as are the taxes of physicians and 
surgeons. Cock-fighting licenses are low- 
ered to $40.00 instead of $75.00. 



Lumber handlers at Regla, near Havana, 
employed by a company at that place, 
struck early in February for higher wages, 
demanding one cent more an hour and a 
nine-hour day. They now get 14 cents 
per hour. The officers of the company 
do not see how they can yield to the 
demands of the men except at serious loss 
to the company. 



UNITED RAILWAYS OF HAVANA 

[From our London Correspondent] 

London, January 10, 1912. 

British shareholders interested in Cuban 
securities have noticed that for some time 
past excellent traffics have been anticipated 
for the United Railways of Havana, on 
account of the magnificent sugar and other 
favorable conditions existing on this sys- 
tem. During the last two weeks the re- 
turns have shown increases of i4,051 and 
£6.017, respectively, and the return due to- 
day is expected to show a corresponding- 
improvement. In fact, before long, regu- 
lar increases of about £lO,000 per week on 
the average are anticipated. For the last 
two years the dividend upon this stock 
has been 4 per cent. Each additional 
1 per cent upon the ordinary, including the 
£1,000,000 of such stock issued to acquire 
the Western Railway of Havana, will take 
about £55,000 for the year. The purchase of 
the Western system was made as from the 
1st of July last, and, of course, the earn- 
ings of that system will belong to the 
United Railways of Havana, although 
hitherto the traffic returns have not been 
incorporated with those of the purchasing 
company. The United Railways system 
has been brought to a high state of effi- 
ciency, as pointed out by the chairman 
at the annual meeting in October, and there 
is no doubt that a large proportion of the 
increased earnings will be readily avail- 
able for distribution upon the ordinary 
capital, especially in view of the advantages 
anticipated from the amalgamation with 
the Western Company, which the manager 
estimated at not less than £25,000 per 
annum. 

For weekly receipts of this railroad see 
page 20. 



ROYAL BANK OF CANADA 

The forty-second annual statement of the 
Royal Bank of Canada shows deposits of 
$88,294,000, an increase of over $16,000,000 
over last year. Liquid assets total $47.- 
738,000, an increase of over $10,000,000. 
The total assets aggregate $1 10.52S,000, as 
against $92,510,346 on December 31, 1910. 
Xet profits for the year amounted to 
$1,395,480, as compared' with $1,152,249 in 
the previous year. 



Captain Walter Fletcher Smith, of the 
Hotel Plaza, opened his new hotel and 
restaurant in Havana on P^bruary 4th. 

The building now leased for an indefinite 
period is the old ]\Iiramar Hotel at the 
Malecon. The place has been thoroughly 
renovated and improved. It has a magnifi- 
cent location at the Malecon facing the 
gulf. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



23 



CONSTRUCTING REINFORCED CONCRETE PIERS 



THE FIRST PIER ALMOST READY THREE OTHERS PLANNED 

The Port of Havana Ducks Company, owners of the Scovel Concession granted by 
the government of Cuba, are at present constructing the first of four large reinforced 
concrete piers in the harbor of Havana. These piers are designed to furnish adequate 
facihties for the loading and unloading of ocean freight and its economical handling 
and distribution, as well as to facilitate the work of the custom house, which will have 
its offices on the pier. Storage and bonded warehouse service with absolute protection 
against fire will also be available for such merchants as may prefer to store their 
goods on the piers rather than to take it to warehouses of their own and redistribute 
from there at an additional expense for handling and cartage and added danger of 
loss from breakage. Each pier will be 160 feet in width, and will carry a two-story shed of 
absolutely fire-proof (reinforced concrete) construction. Along the water front at the 
shore end of the pier will be a reinforced concrete building of four stories, which 
will contain the oftices of the custom house, the Port of Havana Docks Company and 
much storage space, which will be rented to consignees for their shipments. Between 
each pier and the adjacent one is a sHp of 260 feet in width, which will allow ample 
space for two ocean-going ships to- He with lighter outside of them, and .still leave a 
lane for traffic between. The arrangement of openings in the pier sheds is such that 
a steamer can work all her hatches and ports at the same time. All freight will be 
delivered on the main floor of the piers, then it will be sorted and despatched from 
the custom house. After despatch, the owner may send his team for it at once or may 
leave it in storage in the space allotted for that business. For reshipment to interior 
points, railway facilities are provided on the second floor of the pier sheds, and elevators 
will raise the freight to this level, from where it will be handled directly into the cars. 

The actual work of construction is in the hands of MacArthur, Perks and Company, 
Ltd., contractors, and they are pushing the work with all possible speed. The photograph 
herewith No. 1 shows the first" pier in its present condition. In the background is the 
floating derrick, which places and drives the concrete piles. Close to the derrick may 
be seen the heads of the piles already driven, and inside of these may be seen in 
succession capping of the piles, the first, or main floor, partly completed, the erection 
of steel columns and the falsework for the second floor under way. Photograph No. 2 




Illustration No. 1, taken in January. A view of the concrete piers in Havana Harbor now being, 
built by the Port of Havana Docks Company. See details on this page. 



24 T H E C U B A R E \' I E W 



shows the same three weeks hiter, at which time ahiiost exactly halt the piles for the 
pier had been driven. There are at present emplo3ed on this work over three hundred 
workmen and a plant valued at nearly tv^ o hundred thousand dollars. The contractors 
are employing residents of Cuba as far as possible, and are using native materials of 
construction to the greatest possible extent. 

Later photographs and notes will show the various details of the construction, in- 
cluding the manufacture and driving of the concrete piles. These will be printed in 
the next number of The Cui?.^ Review. 

The layout of the contractors' plant, the method of manufacture design, and driving 
of the reinforced concrete piles and the methods of construction are almost wholly 
the work of Mr. Aklrich Durant, the engineer in charge of the work. 



CONSTRUCCION DE LOS MUELLES DE LA HABANA 

EL PRIMER MUELLE YA ESTA CASI TERMINADO, Y LAS OBRAS DE LOS 
OTROS MUELLES EMPEZAPAN MAS TARDE 

La Compahia de Muelles del Puerto de la Habana, propietarios de la concesion Scovel 
otorgada por el Gobierno de Cuba, esta al presente construyendo el primero de los 
cuatro grandes muelles de hormigon reforzado en el puerto de la Habana. Estos 
muelles se destinaran para proporcionar facilidades adecuadas para la carga y descarga 
de los vapores de flete y su economia en el manejo y distribucion, asi como para 
facilitar el trabajo de la Aduana, la cual tendra sus oficinas en uno de estos muelles. 
Igualmente tendran capacidad para el servicio de almacenaje y deposit©, absolutamente 
protegido contra incendio. para aciuellos comerciantes que prefieran almacenar sus mer- 
cancias en los muelles en vez de Uevarlas a sus propios almacenes y ser cHstribuidas 
desde alii a un costo adicional por manejo y acarreo, con el aumento de peligro por 
perdidas de rotura. Cada muelle tendra una anchura de 160 pies y contendra un 
cobertizo de dos pisos de construccion a prueba de incendio (hormig(')n reforzado). 
A lo largo de la margen del agua, al extreme costanero del muelle, habra un edi^icio 
de hormigon reforzado de cuatro pisos, que contendra las oficinas de la Aduana, las 
le la Compania de Muelles del Puerto de la Habana y gran espacio para almacenaje, 
que sera arrendado a los consignatarios para sus embarques. Entre cada muelle y el 
muelle contiguo hay un espacio de 2()0 pies de ancho, que proporcionara amplia cavida 
para que atraquen dos vapores con lanchon a la parte de afuera, quedando aim entre 
ellos un pasadizo para el trafico. El arreglo de las aberturas en los coliertizos del 
muelle es tal que iin vapor puede hacer uso de todas sus escotillas y portanolas a la 
vez. Todo el flete sera entregado en el piso principal de los muelles. y luego sera 
clasificado y despachado de la Aduana. Despues de ser pasado por la Aduana, el 
duefio puede llevarselo 6 puede dejarlo almacenado en el espacio concedido para tal 
objeto. Para.eLj'eembarque por ferrocarril a puntos del interior, se han provisto facili- 
dades en el segundo p.iso* de los cobertizos del muelle, y elevadores subiran la carga 
a este nivel, desde donde se colocara directamente en los vagones de ferrocarril. 

EI trabajo actual de construccion esta en manos de MacArthur, Peros y Compaiiia, Ltd., 
Contratistas, los cuales estan acelerando la obra con toda la urgencia posible. La 
fotografia adjunta Xo. 1 muestra el primer muelle en el estado actual. Al fondo se halla la 
grua flotante que coloca y clava los postes. Proximo a la grua pueden verse las 
cabezas de los postes ya clavados y dentro de estos pueden verse en sucesion las cimas 
de los postes, el primer 6 piso principal terminado en parte, la ereccion de las columnas 
de acero y la obra falsa del segundo piso en vias de construccion. La fotografia No. 2 
miiestra esto mismo tres semanas mas tarde, en cuya ocasion casi exactamente la 
mitad de los postes para el muelle habian sido clavados. Al presente hay empleados 
en este trabajo mas de tres mil trabajadores y una instalacion valuada en cerca de 
doscientos mil dolares. Los contratistas encargados de esta obra estan empleando 
obreros cubanos en cuanto es posible y estan usando materiales de construccion del 
pais en la mayor cantidad posible. 

Mas tarde mostraremos por medio de fotografias mas recientes y explicaciones los 
varios detalles de construccion, incluyendo la fabricacion y clavado de los postes de 
hormigon. 

EI equipo de la instalacion de los contratistas, el sistema de fabricacion, diseno y 
manera de colocar los postes de hormigon reforzado, y los metodos de construccion son 
casi enteramente obra de Mr. Aldrich Durant, el ingeniero encargado de la obra. 



THE CUBA RE V I E W" 



CUSTOMS TARIFF OF CUBA 



INFLUENCES WHICH CONTRIBUTED TO ITS FORMATION UNIQUE 

TREATY RELATIONS ESTABLISHED WITH THE UNITED STATES 



Details of this tariff has just been added 
to the scries of foreign tariffs, now 27 in 
number, pubHshed by the United States 
Bureau of Manufactures. The tariff with 
Cuba possesses pecuHar interest because 
of the close trade relation and the unique 
treat_v relations existing between the two 
countries. In no other foreign country, 
except to a limited extent in Brazil, are 
American products admitted at more fa- 
vorable rates of duty than the products 
of competing countries. 

The reciprocity treaty of 1!»02 between 
the United States and Cuba fixed no actual 
rates, but provided that the free list of each 
country, in so far as applicable to products 
of the other country, should remain un- 
changed during the life of the treaty. It 
also provided for a reduction of 20 per cent 
of the ordinary duties on products of Cuba 
imported into the United States, and for a 
similar reduction on United States products 
imported into Cuba, with the exception 
of tobacco, on which no concession was 
made, and a number of specified articles 
on which reductions varying from 25 to 
40 per cent were granted by Cuba. By 
Article 8 of the treaty it was expressly 
stipulated that the reductions in duty should 
be mutually preferential, and should not 
be extended to other countries. 

The competitive advantage of this ar- 
rangement is clearly reflected in the com- 
mercial statistics of Cuba,' which show an 
increase of 65 per cent in the imports ■ 
from the United States since the treaty' 
went into force, whil"t the imports from 
all other countries increased only :!0 per 
cent. 

Soon after the treaty became effective 
the rates of duty, with few exceptions, were 
raised 15 to 30 per cent above those pre- 
vioush' in force, and this percentage in- 
crease applies equally to rates enacted since 
1904. A computation is therefore required, 
when using the official Cuban edition, to 
ascertain the current rate of duty and a 
second computation to obtain the reduced 
rate accorded to the United States. 

Spanish, American and Cuban influences 
have all contributed to the formation of 
the present Cuban tariff. The measure 
now in force was promulgated durin? the 
American occupation of the island, but was 



based largely on previous tariff's of the 
Spanish regime, and has undergone con- 
siderable modification at the hands of the 
Cuban government since the island became 
independent. To the diversity of origin 
the intricacies of the present act are 
largely contributablc. 

For admission into Cuba at the reduced 
rates of duty, articles produced in the 
United States must be invoiced separately 
from those originating elsewhere, and a 
sworn declaration as to their origin, cer- 
tified to by a Cuban consul, must be in- 
corporated in the invoice. Direct shipment 
is not essential, but if the shipment is made 
through a third country proof must be 
furnished that the goods remained under 
the absolute jurisdiction of the customs 
while in the port of transhipment. 

Several questions have arisen as to what 
constitutes production or manufacture in 
the United States within the meaning of 
the treaty. In one decision (January 19, 
1905) the rule is laid down that to consti- 
tute manufacture there must be a trans- 
formation which changes the nature of the 
materials, resulting in an entirely distinct 
and different product, for example, furni- 
ture made from foreign lumber, cloth 
woven from foreign silk or wool, and 
drugs compounded from foreign salts 
would be enti.tled to the concessions, but 
not roasted coffee, when merely the roast- 
ing process was performed in the United 
States. By an earlier decision, fabrics 
woven elsewhere, but bleached, printed or 
embroidered in the United States, were 
recognized as manufactured in the United 
States. 

The Bureau of Manufactures' edition of 
the Cuban tariff' gives the cornplete text. 
l)rought down to date, and in separate 
columns the actual rates of duty applicable 
to imports from the United States and 
from other countries, the necessary com- 
putations having been made by the bureau. 
This new S9-pafie pamphlet contains, in 
addition, the reciprocity treaty and full in- 
formation concerning the procedure for 
obtaining the reductions granted to United 
States products. Customs regulations, de- 
cisions and notes are given freely through- 
out the work, with an introduction, pre- 
pared by the tariff expert of the bureau. 



Albert M. Brosius, a well known Amcr- struction in Havana. He succeeds David 

ican engineer from Baltimore, has been McComb, who recently resigned. The 

appointed inspector for the Cuban govern- salary attached to the place is $7,500 a 

ment of the sewerage work now under con- vear. 







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■i) K O J^i. 



THE CUBA R E Y I E W 



LAST RITES OVER BATTLESHIP "MAINE" 



The long-protracted task of raising the 
sunken battleship "Maine" has been 
crowned with success. The after section, 
which was not injured by the explosion 
anu which comprises approximately half 
the total length of the ill-fated vessel, was 
set afloat on February 11th. 

The actual freeing of the wreck from 
the walls of the cofferdam is a question 
which now rests with the Navy Department 
in Washington. Major Ferguson will 
have the "Maine" all ready for her exit 
as soon as he receives orders. 

The Spanish war veterans celebrated 
funeral ceremonies for the last time on 
Februar}^ loth over the victims of the 
"Maine," whose remains are lying in the 
Cabanas fortress guarded by a detachment 
of military. In previous years these cere- 
monies have been held on the wreck, from 
which all the bodies have now been re- 
covered. 

At sunrise, Major Ferguson, who has 
had charge of raising the vessel, hoisted 
the American flag on the wreck. It will 
fly over her until the burial of the vessel 
on March 4th, when it will go down with 
the ship. 

Official advices from Washington under 
date of February 16th give details of the 
last ceremonies over the old battleship. 

The Xavy Department has ordered the 
armored cruiser "Xorth Carolina" and the 
scout cruiser "Birmingham" to proceed to 
Havana and receive such relics and ma- 



terial from the wreck as may have been 
accumulated since the departure from Ha- 
vana of the collier "Leonidas." 

After this has been done the crews of 
the ships will go ashore and participate 
in a military funeral to be held by the 
Cuban government for the bodies of the 
remainder of the crew of the "Maine" 
which have been recovered since the cof- 
ferdam was emptied. 

The arrangements so far completed pro- 
vide that on the day the bodies are to be 
removed to the "North Carolina" the guns 
of Morro Castle will fire salutes at inter- 
vals of thirty minutes from, sunrise to 
sunset. 

The bodies will be transferred to tlie 
"North Carolina" in the ship's boats, and 
from the time of their arrival aboard the 
ship until their burial at ArHngton the 
flags of the ships of the navy will be flown 
at half mast. 

When the wreck has reached deep water 
it will be sunk under directions of the 
engineers in charge of the work of re- 
moval. As the wreck is submerged the of- 
ficers and crews of the "North CaroUna" 
and "Birmingham" will be at quarters, with 
guard paraded, while the band of the 
"North Carolina" will play a funeral 
dirge, after which three volleys from the 
big guns will be fired. As the water 
covers the wreck the bugler of the "North 
Carolina" will sound taps. 

The cofferdam will then be dismantled. 



CONDITION OF THE SUGAR CROP 

(From Deputy Consul General Henry P. Starrett, 
Habana, Feb. 2nd.) 

The cool weather of the last few days 
has strengthened the position of the opti- 
mistic estimates as to a large production 
of sugar from this year's crop. Until lately 
the continued warm weather and frequent 
rains had delayed the ripening of the cane 
and resulted in a low percentage of sugar 
in the early grindings. The present cool 
weather, however, whicli is generally felt 
over the whole island, has been welcomed 
by the planters as a most favorable cli- 
matic need, and if it continues for a few 
days longer the cane will have properly 
matured, and the consequent higher per- 
centage of sugar will be available.* 

The present estimates for the sugar pro- 
duction of 1912 run slightly higher than 
they did a few weeks ago. The more 
conservative still maintain their estimate 
of 1,600,000 to 1,700,000 tons, while the 
most prevalent and competent estimates 

* The cold weather continued well into the first 
half of February.— Editor The Cuba Review. 



run from 1,800,000 to nearly 1,900,000. 
The consensus of opinion is that the pro- 
duction will go well over 1,800,000. 



The Cuban Congress on February 10th 
authorized the abrogation oi the French 
parcels post. The trade has been as fol- 
lows: For 1909, $333,425; for 1910, $430,- 
.530; and for 1911, $664,405. It consists 
largely of a great deal of finery and ar- 
ticles of comfort and luxury and medicines 
from Paris to be delivered by mail. 

A second bill requires that all French 
medicines imported into Cuba shall bear 
a tag containing an analysis giving the 
contents of the packages of drugs. 

The imposition of a 50 per cent duty on 
all goods of French manufacture brought 
into Havana has been withdrawn. 



A fire in Banes, Oriente Province, on 
January 29th, destroyed twenty business 
houses" and two lives were lost. The fire 
started in the kitchen of the El Liceo So- 
cietv The loss is estimated at $200,000. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



PANAMA CANAL AND THE WEST INDIES 

While the commerce of Xorth and South 
America, of Europe and the Far East will 
be profoundly affected b}- the opening of 
the Panama Canal, the West Indies, lying 
in the track of so great a part of the 
world's future ocean traffic, will in a 
peculiar manner feel the effect of the 
numerous changes in ocean shipping routes. 
It may be taken for granted that as a 
result of these changes an impetus will 
be given to the development of the re- 
sources of these fertile islands, which will 
bring immigration of labor where most 
needed : the competition of various lines 
for the imjiort and export trade will bring 
lower freight rates ; the question of direct 
and more frequent European mails will be 
settled : and increased passenger traffic will 
make the advantages of the equable climate 
of these islands better known, especially 
in Europe, as a place of permanent resi- 
dence or of resort to escape the severe 
winters of northern countries. That a 
new era of prosperity will thus come to 
the West Indies seems to be assured. — 
I'liiicd States Consul Julius D. Drelier. 



HOW ONE MAY SEE HAVANA 

With a little comprehensive guide book 
in hand, it is quite possible to see Havana 
without a guide, without any knowledge 
of Spanish and without useless expendi- 
ture. One should have in his pocket two 
varieties of coinage, Spanish silver and 
American money ; while the silver is the 
general currency, American money is used 
to pay all street car and railway fares. 
A stranger, lost in Havana, has a choice 
of two simple procedures for reaching his 
temporary home. There is Central Park 
in the heart of the city, which nearly all 
street cars pass at some time in their 
course. Your guide book will teach you 
which cars follow the suburban routes, so, 
l)oarding any one of the other cars, you 
have only to "sit tight" and show the con- 
ductor a card on which is written Parque 
Central, having previously learned the lo- 
cation of your boarding place with refer- 
ence to the park : then, arriving at the 
celebrated square, you may easily make 
your way homeward. Or, if you prefer, 
you may step into a coche, show your hotel 

business card to the driver, and, for the ^ 

sum of twenty cents in Spanish silver, be " 
driven to your lodgings. Even if you ORE IN OPEN MARKET 
have wandered beyond the twenty-cent ,,-,,. , ,, 
limit, the additional' charges will be very The output of Cuban iron ore of the 
small, for the public carriage service in Ponupo Manganese Company operating m 
Havana is astonishingly reasonable.^L//r, Oriente Provmce on the south coast, which 
New York ^i^s heretofore been absorbed by the Penn- 
^ sylvania Steel and Maryland Steel Com- 
panies, will not be taken by them during 
GROWTH IN MINING CONCESSIONS 1912, and as a result, this tonnage, aggre- 
gating from l.-.CXOOO to 175,000 tons an- 
There were in existence at the termina- „uallv, is now being offered in the open 
tion of Spanish control in Cuba the fol- market to eastern furnaces, savs the Iron 
lowing mining concessions, covering as- j,.^^^ Revieiv of Cleveland. This, the 
phalt, copper, iron, manganese, coal, ^^.^,1^..^, further says, is the hrst time that 
marble, gold, silver, petroleum, precious q^^]^^^ ^re in large quantities have been 
stones and lead. offered freely to eastern buyers during the 

Pinar del Rio Province 22 past few years. This circumstance made 

Havana Province 9 Andrew Carnegie very sanguine of the 

Matanzas Province 18 possibilities of the Cuban ore fields as 

S:^gv^^pr^r"":::::::;:;:::::::::::::::::::;:::::::::::: 28 enlarging their usefulness. He made this 

Oriente Province 120 Statement on January 12th. while testifying 

before the Stanlev Investigation Commis- 
A total of :;04. sion at Washington. 

Since the termination of Spanish control, "^ 

and up to December ?A, 1910. the follow- Among the nominations sent to the 

ing extraordinary growth is recorded : United States Senate on February 12th 

„.,,„.„. ,7^ was that of Edward Bell of New York to 

Pniar del Kio Provmce l/o , r ^i tt -i. j Ci. ^ 

Havana Province 63 be second secretary of the United States 

Matanzas Province 59 legation at Havana. Mr. Bell is a graduate 

Santa Clara Province 161 gf Harvard and has been in the foreign 

C^maguey Province 28 g^j-vice since 1909, serving as vice and 

Oriente Provmce /oy , , , . r- • i 

deputy consul general at Cairo, and as 

Or a grand total of 1270 concessions secretary of legation at Teheran, 

have been granted. » 

The acreage covered bv these conces- ^, -,-, r-^ ^ z n i 
sions aggregates 149,4.^8 hectares.* , The Havana Chamber of Commerce and 
the Agrarian League urge the removal of 

*A hectare equals 2.471 acres. customs barriers against the United States. 




I'lesent aspect of the new terminai station in Havana to be used by tlie United Railways and tlie 

Western Railways 




New Government Piers now being completed at the Paula Wharf, Havana Harbor. Several 
companies have tried to get the rights of the wharves for coastwise trade but the United Rail- 
ways of Havana has notified the government that such action would be an injury to the Havana 
Central railroad, which it controls, and would be in opposition to the privileges granted the 
railroad in Article 9 of the law of July 23rd. 



30 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HELPFUL HINTS AND DEVICES (popular mechanics) 



PULLING POST DEVICE 

The device shown in the sketch (see 
Figue 1) is very simple for pulhng old 
posts, but it works as well on any post. 
A plank, 2 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 3 ft. 
long, is set slanting against the post, and 
a chain is fastened around the post just 
above the ground and run up over the 
end of the board. A horse hitched to the 
end of the chain can pull out any ordinary 
post. 

Do not throw away a leaky hot-water 
bottle or bag. Heat clean white sand in 
the oven and pour it into the bottle. Sand 
will remain hot longer than water. 




Figure No. 1 

A method used by a correspondent of 
American Blacks'vAth to keep hammers 
from coming loose on handles is first to 
wedge the hammer on the handle as 
tightly as possible, then drill two 1-16 in. 
holes in the end of the wood and drive 
two large wood screws into the holes. The 
screws never come out and the hammer 
head does not come loose. (See Figure 2.) 



u J 

Figure No. 2 

TILTING A BARREL 

When the contents of a barrel reaches 
a low ebb, the barrel needs tilting each 
time as more liquid is withdrawn. This 
disturbs the sediment, and the liquid comes 
out muddy. To prevent this, anyone with 
a few tools can make a tilting apparatus 
as shown in the sketch (see Figure 3). 
A chain is hooked to the back of the 



^— -~. 




Figure No. 3 

barrel and runs over a pulley, bearing a 
weight at its other end. The pulley is 
suspended from the ceiling by two staples. 
As the liquid in the barrel becomes less, 
the weight raises tlie 1 arrel, the liquid 
thus coming out clear to the last. 



AN EASY WAY TO REMOVE CORKS 

When catsups, summer beer or grape 
wine is bottled, it is most convenient to seal 
each bottle as shown (see Figure 4). Before 
inserting the cork into the neck of the 
bottle, lace a large flat pearl button on a 
piece of wire about 10 in. long, then place 
the cork into the loop and drive it into 
the neck of the bottle. 

Have the two ends of the wire firmly 
twisted together at the top. Dip the 
whole cork, wire and all, into sealing wax 
or melted paraffin. When ready to open 
the bottle, knock off the wax, place a lead 
pencil under the wire, pull gently and the 
cork is easily withdrawn. The button pre- 
vents the wire from cutting into the cork. 



To bend tubing or pipe, heat the piece 
where the bend is to be made to a good 
red heat, then put it in a vise or other 
convenient place and bend while a stream 
of water is turned on the inside of the 
bend. Pipe can be bent in almost any 
angle in this manner without kinking or 
breaking. 




Figure No. 4 



THE CUBA R E V I E W 



31 



AGRICULTURAL MATTERS 



BEE-KEEPING IN THE ORIENTE 

D. W. ^Millar and his partner have ex- 
perimented and studied bee-keeping in the 
tropics for fourteen years. They write 
interestingly in Gleanings in Bee Culture 
regarding their failures and successes in 
Oriente Province, Cuba. They say : 

"On account of the difference between 
bee-keeping in the North and in the tropics, 
about all we know we have had to figure 
out for ourselves. All our new blood, 
which we believe in introducing regularly, 
is pure Italian, although we prefer the dark 
leather-colored bee, which comes from a 
pure queen mating with a hybrid drone. 
They have the three distinct bands, but 
cannot be pure, although they pass as such. 
However, we make no special effort to 
breed for them, as we keep our apiaries as 
nearly pure as is possible, where there are 
so many black bees in the country. We 
make our hives, after the pattern of the 
ordinary American single-walled hive, out 
of native cedar, and all other wood parts 
the same. 

"Many long methods for moving colonies 
from one location to another have been 
given, but we find here the simplest and 
best way is to move the hive at night, and 
to place a bottom-board or some notice- 
able object in front of the entrance for 
the next day. 

"We use but little smoke, and try to 
raise quiet bees. If we have a bad colony 
we kill the queen and try another. Queens 
of our own rearing are cheap, and are 
good for only about two years here, any- 
way. In working here we dress for com- 
fort regardless of bees. Veils, gloves, etc., 
are in the way for fast work, and too 
warm. When, through our negligence, 
oversight, or overwork we have a swarm. 
it is brought back on our arm or in our 
hat. Don't understand that we are im- 
mune to bee-stings, but they are few, and 
of no consequence except for the instant. 

"We do not shade our hives except in 
locating an apiary. We select a place 
where there are a few young palms, and 
perhaps some other small trees. Hives are 
placed on two bricks, flat, one at each end. 
Everything is removed from the apiary, 
and Bermuda grass planted. It grows fast, 
is short, cannot be killed, and ants dislike it. 

"For robbers we use pure creoline, ap- 
plied with a feather at the ends and on 
sides of the hive. For brood-rearing, with 
our Italians we note no difference day in 
and dav out except that they usually let 
up for about 30 days from the middle of 
January to the middle of February. 

"We'figure the average yield of extracted 



honey per colony per year in this section 
at 30 gallons. The lowest I know about 
being 15 and the best 45 gallons. Cuban 
lioney has had a black eye in the past ; but 
it is not all alike, for we can market as 
o'ood 'IS there is. There are few modern 
bee-k_epers, with modern machinery, here, 
the larger per cent of bees being still kept 
in logs. Consequently, in the past a lot of 
honey has been shipped in very bad shape; 
but present pure-food laws should tend to 
remedy this." 

WANTED 
Cuban land, for clear vacant, 25xl25-ft. lot; 
value $1,200, in Chicago, Illinois, U. S. A.; gas, 
water, sewer and sidewalk in. Located 40th 
Avenue, which is well built up, and half block 
south of North Avenue, a business street. Elec- 
tric car line passes property, three other lines 
within half block and five minutes from elevated 
railroad. Send description to A. H. Newcomb, 
owner, 1944 West 21st Street, Chioago. 




Ilenequen sets ready for planting 



THE CUB A R E V I E \V 



TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER 
COUNTRIES WITH CUBA 



Trade of the United States with Cuba in the year just ended aggregated 108 million 
•dollars, having more than doubled during the reciprocity period. The exports to 
the island, according to the hgures of the Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce 
and Labor, were about 62 million dollars in value, having trebled under reciprocity, 
and imports from the island were 106 million dollars in value, haying doubled during 
the reciprocity period. The reciprocity agreement with Cuba went into effect December 
27, 190.3. the exports from the United States to that island in that year having been 
2'sVi> millions dollars, against 62 million in I'.ill. and the inii)orts therefrom olVi million 
dollars, against 106 million in 1911. 

UNITED STATES IMPORTS FROM CUBA 

The increase in imports from Cuba during the decade has occurred chiefly in 
sugar and leaf tobacco, though in the case of sugar a shortage in the crop of last year 
caused a material decline in the imports when compared with the immediately preceding 
year. In 1910, sugar from Cuba totaled 3,673 million pounds with a value of over 
100 million dollars: in 1911, about 3,192 million pounds, valued at a little over 70 million 
dollars: in 1903. just prior to the reciprocity period, the total was 1,994 million pounds, 
valued at 37 ^2 million dollars. Leaf toliacco other than that used for cigar wrappers 
shows a steady growth, from 10 million dollars in 19():i to 12 2-.3 million in 1910, and 
16 million in 1911. Of cigars, cigarettes, etc., a total of 4% million dollars' value was 
imported in 1911. against a little less than 4 million in 1907. Imports of Cuban iron 
ore have doubled since 1903. the total for that year having been l^-.' million dollars, 
compared with 3 million in the year just ended. Bananas, cabinet wood, pineapples, 
molasses and copper ore are the items next in importance, with importations ranging 
from one million down to a half million dollars annually. 

UNITED STATES EXPORTS TO CUBA 

On the export side, the United States trade with Culia covers a much larger range 
of articles, chiefly manufactures and various food products, such as flour and other 
breadstuffs, meats, lard and lard compounds, eggs, and coffee. Iron and steel manu- 
factures head the list, having grown from 2V2 million dollars in 1903 to S million in 
1907, and approximately 12 million in the year just ended. Under this head are included 
locomotives and other machinery, wire, pipes and httings, steel rails, builders' hardware, 
and numerous other articles. Boots and shoes have sextupled in value of exports 
since 1903, having risen from one-half million dollars' value in that year to 3% million 
in 1911. Of passenger and freight cars the exports are also increasing, having prac- 
tically doubled in live years. In 1903 our exports of cotton cloths to Cuba were but 
little more than a quarter million dollars, while last year they were valued at 1 2-3 
million. Of lard the exports to Cuba have increased from 1^2 to 4 million dollars 
in the period 1903-1911: of flour, from 2 to 4 million dollars: of corn, from 2-3 million 
to 1''l> milHon dollars; of vegetables, from a half million to 1 ^-j million dollars; pickled 
or salted pork, from one-quarter to three-quarter million dollars; and bituminous coal, 
from 1% to 2% million dollars. The foregoing are but representative of the growth 
which has occurred in many other articles, such as milk, chemicals and medicines, 
fertilizers, furniture, paper manufactures, mineral oil, and scientific instruments, the 
exports of which in 1903 had not. in some cases, attained sufficient importance to 
warrant their separate enumeration in the ^Monthly Summary by the Bureau of Statistics. 

Xot only is the United States increasing its trade with Cuba, but it is supplying a 
larger share of the commerce of that island than ever before. In the calendar year 
1910, according to the official figures of that island, the United States supplied .52.5 
per cent of the imports, compared with 43.8 per cent in 1900, and 41.4 per cent in 1903, 
the year immediately preceding reciprocity: and of the exports from Cuba in 1910 
85.8 per cent were sent to the United States, as against 68 per cent in 1900, and 77.9 
per cent in 1903. 

SHARE OF LEADING COUNTRIES 

'Meantime both Spain and the United Kingdom have lost in the share which they 
supply of the imports into Cuba, and are also taking a smaller share of the exports 
from that island. Of the total imports into Cuba, the share of the United Kingdom 
was, in 1900, 15.7 per cent, in 1903, 16.1 per cent, in 1910, 11.9 per cent: Spain, in 1900, 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



:;3 



14.6 per cent, in litors. 14. :> per cent, in 1910, 8.4 per cent: German_v, in 1900, 4..") per cent, 
in 1903, .J. 9 per cent, in 1910, (>.:! per cent: and France, in 1900, 4.9 per cent, in 1903, 
(i.6 per cent, in 1910, 3.3 per cent. Of the exports from Cuba, there was exported to 
the United Kingdom, 11.1 per cent in 1900, S.4 per cent in 1903, and 7.1 per cent in 1910: 
to Spain, 1.7 per cent in 1900, 1.9 per cent in 1903, and 0..j per cent in 1910: to Germany, 
11.3 per cent in 1900, 6.8 per cent in 1903. and 2.4 per cent in 1910: and to France, 
2.6 per cent in 1900, 1..5 per cent in 1903., and 1 per cent in 1910. From the foregoing 
,it would appear that every leading country except the United States had in 1910 a 
smaller part in the foreign trade of Cuba than in 1900, while during the same period 
a marked increase occurred both in the share which the United States supplied of the 
total imports into, and share which it took of the exports from Cuba. — Statistics of 
the United States Def^artiiieiit of Commerce and Labor. 



The Cuban Central Railway's Earnings 



Weekly receipts : 

Week ending January 6th £6,6.")7 

Week ending January 13th 10,882 

Week ending January :20th 11, 7s:; 

Week ending Januarx- :2Tth 14,147 



Decrease £2,00S 

Decrease :2,804 

Decrease 2,390 

Decrease 2,r)67 



Earnings of the Western Railway of Havana 



Weekly receipts : 

Week ending January 6th £4,757 

Week ending January 13th 4,608 

Week ending January 20th 4.449 

Week ending January 27th 4, .583 



Decrease £342 

Decrease 192 

Decrease 456 

Decrease 651 




Bombas de Marsh 

Del mas alto grado 
de eficacia para el 
servicio de Ingenios. 



Bomba de Vacio Seco de Marsh 



Garantizamos menor 
consume de vapor que 
cualquier otro fabri- 
cante de bombas de 
accion directa. 
Pidase un catdlogo. 

AMERICAN STEAM PUMP CO. 

BATTLE CREEK, MICH. 



METAL AGUILA BABBITT 



EI, Mirr.vi. i5.\ii- 

BITT ".xC.riL.X" cs 
c'l rcsiilliulo (If C'x- 
periiiii'iitDS hc'dios 
(iuiantc mas de 
tremticinco anos, y 
proclaiiiamoy ({uc cs 
el mc.joi' mclal aiiti- 
I'riccion jiara u.so 




general yuc .sc prn- 
(liicc liasta alioia. 

Ticiic especial aj)!!- 
lacioii en niaqiii- 
luiiia para moler 
.afia de azucar. 

I'rccio, 15 cts la 
lilira. 






HOYT METAL COMPANY - - NUEVA YORK 



l'ir.\-;K MIXTION llll-: ll r.A k|-'.\'I F.W wiirx wdiii: 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



SUGAR REVIEW 

Specially Written for The Cuba Review by Willett & Gray, of New York 



Our last review for this magazine was dated January 11, T.i];2. 

At that time centrifugals 96 degree test were quoted at 4.42c. per pound, at New 
York, duty paid, and are now 4.735c. per pound. In the meantime, the market showed 
a further slight decline to 4.39c. per pound, from which point the trend turned upward, 
and has steadily continued rising until the present time, when quotations are 4.735c. 
per pound, showing an advance of 34 %c. per 100 pounds. 

At the low point of the market, Cuban sellers were at 86c. per 100 pounds below 
the parity of European beet sugars, but the following advance has brought the two 
markets together to the present parity of 63 ^/^c. per 100 lbs. 

From various indications, this parity may continue to be reduced until it finally reaches 
the duty preference at 20 per cent below foreign markets by slow degrees, depending 
more or less upon the indications which point to a larger or smaller crop than our 
present estimate of 1,800,000 tons for Cuba. 

The European beet sugar market reached its low point on the date of our last report 
at 14s. 7i/^d. for beet sugar, from which point it made the following fluctuations: to 
15s. 8^/4d. (January 19th), reacted to 15s. on January 23d, rising to 15s. 3%d on January 
29th, declining to 14s. 10% d. February 3d, and then continuing steadily to advance to 
16s. on February 13th, and finally closing at 15s. 9d. The reaction at the close is caused 
by the settlement by the Brussels Convention of the Russian Export Contingent, the 
effect of which has evidently been over-discounted. This convention decided on the 
14th inst. to permit Russia to increase its export in 1912, from 200,000 to 350,000 tons, 
and a further 100,000 tons additional exports spread over the following years. The 
convention also agreed to extend its existence for five years from September 1, 1913, 
on the same terms as before, permitting Russia to export westward 200,000 tons annually 
during that period. This question being now out of the way, the future of the market 
depends upon the outturn of the Cuba crop. 

While the receipts from this crop up to the present time are materially less than 
during the same period of the large crop of 1910, yet we do not consider this fact 
a sure indication that the crop is to finally prove less than the present estimate of 
1,800,000 tons. There may be special reasons why sugars are being kept back on the 
estates, and not appearing at the shipping ports as rapidly as in the former year. 

The latest revised estimate of the European beet crop is 6,270,000 tons, against 8,105,126 
tons last year, showing a decrease of 1,835,126 tons. Under the circumstances of the 
very apparent short supplies for the United Kingdom, we thought it well to ask our 
London friends for an estimate of the amount that the United Kingdom might require 
from the present Cuban crop, and their reply received this day estimates such re- 
quirements at 180,000 tons. 

The only other important matter requiring particular notice in our report is the tarifif 
bill now being discussed liy the Committee on Ways and Means in the House of Repre- 




Valvula de Escape" LYTTON" 



Hecha para operar continuamente y dar buen 
servicio. 

El asiento y disco enteramente protegidos cuando 
abierta. Ambos se pueden quitar y poner. 

SIEMPRE QUEDA AJUSTADA 

LYTTON MANUFACTURING CORPORATION 

< Iticina para la Wnta : 

1159 Hudson Terminal Building, New York, N. Y. 

Oficina Principal y Talleres: Franklin. \'a. 
Agente en Cuba: J. E. Hernanrlez, .Xgnacate 56, Habana, Cuba. 



THE C L' B A R E \' I E W 



35 



sentatives. The Department of Commerce and Labor last July sent to every consul of 
the United States in every sugar-producing country of the world, a request for prices 
and conditions relating to sugar in each of those countries. These reports, now at hand, 
show that the almost universal systems for collecting revenues by those countries are 
to tax every pound of sugar that goes into consumption. This method varies materially 
from that in operation in the United States, where virtually only the sugars produced 
in Cuba pay revenue to the government. A revision of the tariff in this respect, pro- 
viding in addition to customs duties an international revenue tax upon all the sugars 
going into consumption is now proposed, and appears to meet with favor. A tariff bill 
along these Hues is quite likely to be given to the House of Representatives within a 
very few weeks. Such a bill will reduce the duties on Cuban sugars possibly about 
%c. per pound, and maintaining at the same time the reciprocity difference of 20 per cent 
below the duties assessed on sugars from foreign countries. 

The market at the close hesitates at 3%c. c. & f., equal to 4.735c. per pound, duty 
paid, on account of the weakening of the European market. 

Refined sugars have been in active demand following the course of the raw market. 
Granulated is now quoted at 5.70c. less 2 per cent by all refiners. 

New York, February 15, 1912. 



GREAT SUMS FOR ADVERTISING 

The California Fruit Growers' Exchange 
will spend in 1912 $150,000, as against 
$100,000 in 1911, for advertising the citrus 
fruit of its members and thus increase sales 
all over the country. An effort is made 
to concentrate as much of the sale as pos- 
sible on the product of Exchange members 
by giving premiums of silverware, such as 
spoons, knives or forks, in return for 
orange wrappers bearing their brands. This 
department has been so successful and has 
increased to such an extent that the Ex- 
change is now said to be the largest pur- 
chaser of flat silverware in the world.— 
California Fruit Grozver. 




Grow Pecans, Most 
Profitable of Nuts 

All over tliis country and aWroad, Pecans are in 
^ro'Ain:< demand as an article of food. Trees can ^ 
l>e planted nearly anywhere and will bear abun- 
dant crops when well started. 

Bay from Glen Saint Mary and Save Money 

^Ve have Neen in the Pec ai I 
start in the South — ^rowini^ 
both trees and nuts. When \ - ^u 
hiiy our trees you g^t the benclit 
of our loni; experience. 

Fine Catalogue FREE 
\\ ii it vou need to knowaliout 
t r.-. s for the South: Citrus fru 
1'- iluous fruits, nuts, crna 
i;i'-ntal trees, roses, shrubs 
Interesting, informing. 
Glen Saint Mary 
Nurseries Company 

A' imHer A-cetui. 
Glen Saint Mary, Fla 




Jeffrey Conveyor handling Bagasse 
from mill storage floor and boiler 
house, at \hi Sugar Refinery of 
Fajardo Sugar Company, Fajardo, 
Porto Rico. 

Complete Conveying equipment in- 
stalled by the Jeffrey Compan\' at 
this plant. 

Let us figure with you on a labor- 
saving and practical equipment for 
handling your sugar-cane and 
bagasse. VV'r/7e for Folder 

JEFFREY MFG. COMPANY, 
Columbus, Ohio 

.\GENT : P. D. DE POOL, P. O. B. 297 
Hav.\na, Cuba 20-1-12 



ELECTRIC APPLIANCE COMPANY 

C. ROBERT CHURCHILL, President and General Manager 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTfor SUGAR FACTORIES 

205-7-9 Chartres Street NEW ORLEANS, U. S. A. 



36 T H E C U B A R E V 1 E W 

REVISTA AZUCARERA 

Er.crita ex]irerainente ])ara la (l-ka J\i.\ik\v ]jnr Wii.mit ^; (Ikav. de Niieva >'ork 



Xuestra ultima revista azucarera para esta pulilicacion estalia fecliada <.-] 11 de eiiero 
do l'J12. 

En aquclla ocasion los centrifugas polarizacitin ".)() gradds se cotizahan a 4.42 cents, 
por lilira. en Xueva York, derechos pagados, y ahora se cotizan a 4. 7:;.") cents, la libra. 
Entretanto, el mercado mostro aun una ligera baja a 4.39 cents, la lilira, desde cuyo 
punto hubo tendencia al alza, continuando asi hasta el presente, en (|ue las cotizaciones 
.son 4.735 cents, la libra, mostrando un alza de 'i-iVj cents, por lOi) liliras. 

En el i)unto ])ajo del mercado, los vendedores cubanos se hallaban a 8(5 cents, por 
100 libras por bajo de la i)aridad de los azucares de remolacha europea, pero el alza que 
se siguio ha hecho que los dos mercados se hallen en la presente paridad de 63^1' cents, 
por 100 libras. 

Por varias indicaciones, esta paridad puede continuar reduciendose hasta que final- 
mente Ilegue a la preferencia de derechos de 20 por ciento por bajo de los mercados 
extranjeros paulatinamente, dependiendo mas 6 menos de las indicaciones que auguran 
una zafra mayor 6 menor de nuestro actual calculo de 1,800,000 toneladas de Cuba. 

El mercado europeo de azucar de remolacha alcanzo su punto bajo eh la fecha de 
nuestro ultimo informe a 14s 7Vjd para el azucar de remolacha, desde cuyo punto 
tuvieron lugar las siguientes fluctuaciones, a los 8M^d (enero 1'.)), bajo a l.">s el 23 de 
enero, subiendo a l.js 3%d el 29 del mismo mes, bajando a 14s 10 '-jd el 3 de febrero, 
y luego continuo aumentando sin interrupcion hasta llegar a Ifis el 13 de febrero, 
cerrando finalmente a 15s 9d. La reaccion al final es causada por haber venido a un 
acuerdo la Convencion de Bruselas respecto al contingente de exportacion ruso. cuyo 
efecto evidentemente ha sido descontado en demasia. Esta convencion decidio el 
14 del actual el permitir que Rusia aumentase su e.xportacion en 1912, de 200,000 toneladas 
a 350,000 toneladas, y aun 100,000 toneladas de exportacion adicional en los anos siguien- 
tes. La convencion tambien acordo extender su existencia por cinco anos, desde el 
1° de septiembre de 1913, en las mismas bases que antes, permitiendo qu-i Rusia expor^ 
tase al oeste 200,000 toneladas anuales durante ese periodo. Este asunto ahi::ra elimina,d<5» 
el future del mercado depende del re-sultado de la, zafra de Cuba. 

Aunque los recibos de esta zafra al presente son materialmente menore? que durante 
el mismo periodo de la grande -cosecha de 1910, sin embargo no consideramos este 
hecho una indicacion segura de que la cosecha va a resultar finalmente menor que los 
calculos actuales de 1,800,000 toneladas. Podra haber motivos especiales para que los 
azucares sean retenidos en los ingenios, no apareciendo en los puertos de embarque tan 
rapidamente como en el ano anterior. 

El iiltimo calculo revisado de la cosecha de remolacha europea es de 6,270,000 toneladas 
contra 8,105,126 toneladas el ano pasado, mostrando una disminucion de 1,835,126 tone- 
ladas. Baja las circunstancias de la escasez de existencias muy aparentes de la Gran 
Bretana, pedimos a nuestros amigos en Londres que nos suministrasen un calculo de la 
cantidad que la Gran Bretana pudiera requerir de la actual cosecha de Cuba, y su 
contestacion hoy recibida calcula tal requerimiento en 180,000 toneladas. 

El otro asunto de importancia que rcquiere atencion particular en nuestro informe 
azucarerd es el proyecto de ley sobre el Arancel, que se esta discutiendo ahora por el 
Comite de Medios y Arbitrios en la Camara de Representantes. El Departamento de 
Comercio y Trabajo en julio pasado envio a todo consul de los Estados Unidos en cada 
pais productor de azucar del mundo una Solicitud expresando los precios y condiciones 
repecto al azucar en cada uno de dichos paises. Estos informes ahora a mano muestran 
que casi todos los sistemas universales de colectar derechos por esos paises es imponer 
una contribucion por cada libra de azucar que se destine para el consumo. Este metodo 
varia materialmente del que hay en operacion en los Estados Unidos, donde verdadera- 
mente solo los azucares producidos en Cuba pagan derechos al Gobierno. Una revision 
del Arancel en este respecto, imponiendo ademas de los derechos de Aduana una con- 
tribucion interna a todos los azucares destinados para el consumo, se ha propuesto ahora 
y parece acogerse favorablemente. Urta Ley Arancelaria bajo estas bases es muy 
probable que sea presentada a la Camara de Representantes dentro de unas cuanta^ 
semanas. Tal Ley reducira los derechos je^ los azucares de. Ci^^ probal^IeanentejCowo 



THE CUBA R E X' J E W" 



CABLE ADDRESS: Tu«nu»« 



NEW YORK. 
64-66 Wall St»ibt 



LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

BANKERS 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of Collection and Remittance 
of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale 
of Letters of Exchange. Collection of Drafts, Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Paymenti 
by Cable and Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, Spain, 
Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo. Central and South America. 



CORRESPONDENTS: 



HAVANA-N. Gelats y Ca. 
MEXICO — Banco Central Mexicano. 



LONDON— The London Joint Stock Bank, Ltd. 
Paris — Heine et Cie. 



ORENSTEIIV-ARTHUR KOPPEL COMPANY 



30 CHURCH St. 

CANE-CARS 

LOCOMOTIVES 

PLATFORMS 




NEW York 



RAILS AND 



SWITCHES 



PORTABLE 

RAILWAYS 



DUMP-CARS 



Agents for Cuba Schwab S Tillmann, San Ignacio 76, Babana 



SUGAR TESTING APPARATUS 



FUNDADA EN 1851 




Mi-: 



Hace una especiali- 

dad de surtir 
Todos los Instru- 
meiitos para la 
Prueba de Azxtcar 
y Habilitacidn de 
Laboratorio. 
Unicos Agentes en 
los Estados Unidoi 
y Canada para loi 

STANDARD 
POLARISCOPIOS 

Su triple 6 doble 
campo de vision ha 
sido adoptado por 
el Gobierno de loi 
Estados Unidos co- 
mo norma. 

Toda la maquina- 
ria experimental y 
los aparatos descri- 
tos fM ((Agricultural 
Analysis,)) del Prof. 
H. W. Wiley. Se 
suministran 



POLARISCOPIO SOBRE "BOCKSTATI V LA FORMA MAS MODERNA formes*°pedidos. '" 
Con caja a prueba de polvo, parte de prisma, y engranaje prolongado. 

EIMER & AMEND, 205^211 Third Avenue. New York Pre'cios7iu.f "!,"'■ ■ 

Please mention THE CUK.VRE\'IEW when writing to advertisers 



38 



T H E C U 



A R E \' I E \V 



¥2 de centavo por libra, mantenicndo al mismo tiempo la diferencia de reciprocidad de 
20 por ciento por bajo de los derechos impuestos a los azucares de paises extranjeros. 

El mercado al cerrar vacila a 3% cents, costo y flete, igual a 4.735 cents, por libra, 
derechos pagados, a causa de la flojedad del mercado europeo. 

El azucar refinado ha estado en activa demanda, siguiendo el curso del mercado de 
azucar cruda. El azucar granulado se cotiza ahora a 5.70 cents, menos 2 por ciento 
por todos los refinadores. 

Nueva York, febrero 15 de 1912. 



HAVANA 



The United Railways of Havana 

in conjunction with ttie Cuba Railroad, maintain a service of 
two trains daily between Havana and the growing Eastern 
city of CAMAGUEY, and one Express Train daily between 
Havana and SANTIAGO DE CUBA, the "Dream City of the 
West Indies." Buffet lunch is served on these trains. 

FOUR TRAINS DAILY 

in both directions between Havana and MATANZAS, which latter city because of its picturesque 
situation and tne charm of its principal attractions (Yumuri's famous valley and the wonderful 
caves of Bellamar) has long enjoyed distinction as the great "Mecca" of the tourists, and it 
continues to gain in populaiity. EXCELLENT TRAIN SERVICE is maintained to many other 
places of great interest to tourists, all of which are fully described in "Cuba — A Winter 
Paradise," a profusely illustrated 80-page booklet with six complete maps and 72 views illustrative 
of this wonderful island, sent postpaid on receipt of 3 cents in stamps. 

Frank Roberts, General Passenger Agent 
United Railways of Havana -- 118, Prado, Havana, Cuba 



FRED WOLFE ^^^ calzada de vives, havana 

Cable, "Wolfe" 

Negociante en Todas Clases Dealer in all Classes of 
de Ganado Live Stock 

Especialmente en Mulos Especially in Mules 

Always on hand Large Stock of All Classes of Mules — All Mules Sold Are 
Guaranteed as Represented — Can Furnish Any Number Desired on Short Notice 



^ 



AGENCY 

ISLAND OF CUBA 



OF 



THE LIVERPOOL & LONDON & GLOBE INSURANCE CO. 

This Company will issue Binders on risks in the Island of Cuba 
at theii New York oflice, 45 William Street. Tel., 3097 John. 

FIRE LOSS OF INCOME BOILER EXPLOSION 

BOILER EXPLOSION FOLLOWING FIRE ENGINE BREAKDOWN 

Havana Office: 106 Cuba Street 



P. 


RUIZ 


^ BROS. 




ENGRAVERS 




FINE STATIONERY 


Obispo 22 


p. 0. Box 608 




HAVANA 


, CUBA 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

EsUblished 1836, at 105 Wall St. 

Cable Address, "Tide, New York" 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



HAVANA 



CUBA 

National Bank of Cuba 

Government Depositary 

CAPITAL, SURPLUS AND 
U NDI VIDED PROFITS 

$6,250,000.00 



Head Office — Havana 

20 BRANCHES IN CUBA 

N eiv Yorf( Agency 
I WALL STREET 



COLLECTIONS 



THE 

TRUST COMPANY OF CUBA 

HAVANA 



CAPITAL and 
SURPLUS 



$580,000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRJST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT 

EXAMINES TITLES COLLECTS RENTS 

NEGOTIATES LOANS ON MORTGAGES 

Correspondence Solicited from 
Intending Investors 



OFFICERS 

Norman H. Davis President 

O. A. Hornsby - Vice-President and Treas. 
C'.audio G. Mendoza ■ - Vice-President 

Rogelio Carbajal Secretary 

J. M. Hopgood - - - Assistant Treasurer 

Offices: Cuba, 31, Havana 



The Royal Bank of Canada 

INCORPORATED 1869 

Fiscal Agent of the Government of the Republic of 
Cuba for the Payment of the Army of Liberation 

Paid-up Capital 

and Reserve. . . ,^13,100,000.00 
Total Assets $95,000,000.00 



Head Office 



MONTREAL 



New York Agency 
68 William Street 

Branches in Havana: Obrapia 33, Galiano 92; 

Matanzas, Cardenas, Manzanillo, Cienfuegos, 

Camaguey, Santiago de Cuba, Mayari, Sagua, 

Caibarien 



Established 1844 



H. UPMANN & CO. 

BANKERS 

TRANSACT A GENERAL BANKING BUSINESS 
Correspondent! at All Principal Placet c( the liland 

Safe Deposit I lults 

Manufacturers of the Famous H. Upmann 
Brand of Cigars 



FACTORY: 
Paieo de Tacon 159-163 



OFFICE: 
Amargura l-S 



Established 1876 

N. GELATS & COMPANY 

BANKERS 



Transact a general banking business 
Correspondents at all the principal 
places of the world 

Safe Deposit Vaults 
Office: Aguiar 108 



A movement is on foot 'n Havana to 
secure more pay for the city's police. For 
first class patrolmen an increase to $75.00 
per month is asked for and to $65.00 per 
month for those in the second class. The 
present pay is $65.00 and $55.00 per month, 
respectively. 



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40 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



THE WOOD OF MANGROVES 

Mangroves are highly valued in New 
Caledonia, as they iirevent the erosion of 
the coast and afford shelter for the cocoa- 
nut plantations, ilcncc an application for 
a concession to cut down the trees for the 
sake of the bark has been refused. Man- 
grove bark in East and West Africa was 
collected and sold in 1909 to the extent of 
15,295 tons, and prices ranged at Hamburg 
between £5 13s to £6 9s per ton. The 
average tannin content of the bark ranges 
from 38 to 42 per cent and is lioiight up 
by the leather factories in Germany and 
France. 

The value of the wood from mangrove 
trees differs considerably. That of the 



West African variety is extremely hard, 
and is adapted to making piles and rail- 
way sleepers. The effect of sunlight and 
heat on the wood has not yet been de- 
termined. Cuba is full of mangroves, and 
while of too small a girth generally to 
permit of such uses as are mentioned 
above, still if the wood is valuable, there 
are doubtless many ways in which it could 
be employed. 

"Years of time and thousands of dollars 
have been wasted in Cuba by importing 
stock from foreign localities that have 
proved worthless when they became old 
enough to produce fruit." S. S. Ilarvey 
ill the Hai'itiia I'osl. 



WI1.I-E:TT St GRAY, BroKer. ^wd Agents 

FOREIGN AND ^^ X T^^'^ TV ^R> ^^ ^^"^ ^^^ 

DOMESTIC '^^^l^ V^W.^^VJRC.'^^ REFINED 

82 ViTALL STREET. NEW YORK 

'ublishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal — -the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED. 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

Engines, Boilers andMacKinery 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass 
Castings. Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

St*ama^ip l^ork a Specialty 
A. KIvING. Prop. MORff IT Af A 



"Sugar News from Cuba'^ 

is the title of the interesting correspondence from the tropical island 
appearing in every issue of the 

AMERICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY 

The latest and most reliable sugar news from every part of the 
World is gathered by our own Special Correspondents, and appears ex- 
clusively in this paper. 

PRINTED IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH 

A Spanish Section has been recently added for the benefit of our 
readers in Cuba, Porto Rico and other Spanish speaking countries. 

Monthly, $2.00 per year in the United States, Cuba, and Mexico. In 
foreign countries, $2.50 per year. Subscribe for it if you want to keep 
posted. 

SAMPLE COPY FREE. SEND FOR ADVERTISING RATES. 

Address: BEET SUGAR GAZETTE COMPANY 

222 North Wabash Ave., Chicago, III. 140 Nassau St. New York 



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41 



Tel«phone, S3 Hamilton 
Nlfht Call. 411 Hamilton 



Cable Addr«H: 
"Abiworki," New York 



Atlantic Basin Iron Works 

Engineers and "Boiler Makers 

y«chlni»ta, Plumbers, Tinsmiths, Pipe Fitters, Blacksmithi, Copperimiths, 
Pattern Makers, Sheet Iron Workers. Iron and Brass Castings. steamship 
Repairs a Specialty. 



Cor. ImJap and Stsmmit Streets 



Brooklyn, ff, Y. 



John Nunro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

722 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y» 

Cable Address : Kunomale, New York 

Telephone, 2492 South 



Telephone 
215 Hamilton 



Box 186 

Maritime Exchang* 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

Caulkerst Spar Makers 

Boat Builders, Etc 

No. 9 SUMMIT STREET 
Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 



THE AMERICAN PHOTO COMPANY 



:: COMMERCIAL :: 
PHOTOGRAPHERS 



OBISPO No. 70 



HAVANA, CUBA 

The best equipped plant in the Island of Cviba. Our photographers will go on your order to 
any jjart of Cuba and do your photographic work — any size. Panorama work a specialty. 
Developing and printing for amateurs receive the same care as our professional work. Largest 
and best collection of Cuban and Isle of Pines views in existence. 



PITCH PINE MARKET CONDITIONS 

Cuban lumber trade with the Gulf ports, 
though fairly brisk, has been of slightly 
less volume than in the opening weeks of 
1911. Inquiry seems to be improving, 
however, and there is good reason to look 
for unusual activity during the spring 
months. 

Last vear's shipment of lumber to Cuba 
was about 12,000,000 feet less than in 1910, 
but the figures for that year, the largest 
yet known in the trade, should be sur- 
passed in 1912. — -Gulf Coast Record. 



The popularity of the Cuban national 
lottery is rapidly declining. When it was 
first started, 30,000 tickets were issued, and 
the demand was so great for them that 
large premiums were charged. The de- 
mand continued so great that the number 
of tickets were increased to two series of 
.30,000 each drawing. The demand after 
a few months began to diminish until now 
the government has been unable to dispose 
of 37,000 tickets in one drawing. 



BAPTIST SUNDAY SCHOOL WORK 

A convention of Baptist ministers was 
held in Havana on February 6th. At the 
meeting the Rev. M. N. McCall, pastor 
of the Baptist church in Havana, was 
elected president of the Sunday School 
Association of Cuba. Figures regarding 
the work show that there are thirty-three 
Sunday schools organized in provinces of 
the island, nine of these being in the city 
of Havana. In these schools there are 
1,738 pupils enrolled, with fifty-eight teach- 
ers. There are also various departments — 
Iiome, cradle roll, normal class, etc. The 
llgures are much better than those of last 
vear. 



A POPULAR OFFICIAL RESIGNS 

Benito Ortiz, who has been the mayor 
of the Isle of Pines for many years, has 
resigned his office and will come to Havana 
to make his home. The resignation of the 
mayor has been received with great regret 
in the Isle of Pines, where he was uni- 
versally popular. 



42 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HENRY E. BROWN Shipping and Ex- 
_, , . port Chemist »nd 

Pharmacist Druggist. 

Ships' Medicine Chests furnished and re- 
plenished. Prescriptions compounded by a 
Graduate in Pharmacy. 

Trusses, Surgical Appliances, etc. 

Office and Laboratory, Room 36 

116 BROAD STREET, NEW YORK 



Bottled at the Brewery 




For Sale at all Dealers 
and on the Munson Line 



Sobrinos De Bea & Co. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 
lmportaci6n directa de todas los 
central manufactiireros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, 
New York and Mobile; James E. Ward & 
Co., New York; Sena Steamship Company, 
Liverpool; Vapores Transatlanticos de A. 
Folch & Co. de Barcelona, Espana Indepen- 
dencia Street 17/21. 

MATANZAS. CUBA 



JOHN w. McDonald 

COAL. WOOD. LUMBER 
AND TIMBER 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

112 Wall Street, New York 

Near South Street 

Yard; 56-5S Beard Street, Erie Basin 

Telephones: 

Office, 1905 John Yard. 316 Hamilton 



A company known as the Boston Wreck- 
ing Company has organized an expedition 
to hunt for Spanish treasure near the 
Colorado reefs off the north western coast 
of Cuba. 

Rev. William A. O'Hara, pastor of the 
Catholic Church of the Assumption of 
Keyser,_West Virginia, has been granted 
a vacation of one month, which will be 
spent in touring Cuba on a bicycle. 



Emmanuel Lasker, the world's chess 
champion, seems to be afraid of losing his 
laurels to the young Cuban champion Raou-1 
Capablanca, and declines to arrange for a 
match on the basis of conditions insisted 
upon by the latter, which experts say were 
nothing more than the usual laws govern- 
inq- such matches. Mr. Lasker says the 
Cuban in his correspondence shows much 
disrespect and he will not sit at the same 
table with him in a chess game. 

M. J. CABANA COMMISSION 

MERCHANT 
P. O. Box 3, Camacuey 
Handlei all Unci of merchandise either on a commliiloD 
basis or under ageno arrangements. Also furnisbM all 
desired Information about lands in eastern Cuba. 

Journal d* Agriculture Tropicale 

Founded iy J. VILBOUCHEVITCH 
164 Rue Jeanne d'Arc Prolongie, Paris 

SuBscKiPTiON, One Yeak • • • - 20 Fbancs 



Deals with the leading questions of the hour, 
agricultural and commercial, of interest to tropical 
countries. International in character. Illustrated. 
Monthly. Descriptions of machines for tropical 
crops a specialty. Complete review of new agri- 
cultural publications. Commercial part intelligible 
for every one and always interesting ISO con- 
tributors in West and East Africa, East and West 
Indies, Java, Mauritus, Central and South Amer- 
ica, and throughout the tropical world'. 

r^n(^f-r tUf ■ .. Ej p " ^ ■• - e ™ ► ,- » qr, , 

The Republic of Cuba has been in busi- 
ness for nearly ten years, but thus fai 
has never had its own coinage, using 
mostly the Spanish money that was the 
legal tender when Spain was in charge 
and the money of the United States. 
However, says the New York Tribune of 
January 29th, before long Cuba will 
probably have her own coins in circulation. 
President Gomez has a plan for the estab- 
lishment of a mint in Havana. It is ex- 
pected that the first coinage will amount 
to $20,000,000. 



THE SNARE AND TRIEST COMPANY 

CONTRACTING ENGINEERS 



STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 



We are prepared to furnish plans and estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 



New York Office 
143 Liberty St. 



Havana Office 

La Leal Building 



W. H. Bennett 



F. W. HVOSLEF 



Bennett, Hvoslef & Co. 
Steamship Agents and Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY. NEW YORK 



Cable : "Benwahh" 



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MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE 

GENERAL OFFICES 

82 BEAVER STREET, NEW YORK 
NEW YORK-CUBA SERVICE 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT SERVICE BETWEEN NEW YORK 
AND ANTILLA.NIPE BAY, NUEVITAS, PUERTO PADRE, GIBARA 

Special Through Rates to Camague]) via Nuevitas 



PROPOSED SOUTHBOUND SAILINGS 
S.S. CuRiTYBA March 20th 

Steamers sail from Pier 9, East River, at 1 2 o'clock noon 



PROPOSED NORTHBOUND SAILINGS 

S.S. CuRiTYBA Nuevitas, March 8th 

Xote : Steamers do not call at Xipe nortliljouiul. 

The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without pre\ious notice. 



NEW YORK— CUBA SERVICE 

freight oslv 
New York to Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua and Caibarien 



MOBILE— CUBA SERVICE 

freight oslv 

Regular Sailings Mobile to Havana; Mobile to North Side 
AND South Side Cuban Ports 



BALTIMORE— COLON SERVICE 

freight only 

Regular Sailings Baltimore to Colon 



Pleasf uention the CUHA REVIEW when writinc to advertis 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Lrillie Multiple E^vaporators 



Model of 1904-1905 (Patentedj 




"One of three Lillic quad- 
ruple effects installed ia 
1907, in sugar factories in 
Formosa, belonging to tke 
Taiwan Seito Kabushiki 
Kwaisha, of Tokio, Japan. 
Two more quadruple effects, 
one to handle 550,000 gallon/ 
of cane juice per twenty-fou. 
hours, and the other to 
handle 325,000 gallons in the 
same period, are now (July 
ist, 1909) being built fof 
the same Japanese Company, 
also for St vice in Formosa. 
These quadruple effecta arc 
arranged for reversing the 
course of the vapors and 
heat at will, a mode of op- 
eration peculiar to the Lillie 
and which has proven of 
great value for solutions de- 
positing incrustations on th« 
evaporating tubes." 



The Sugar Apparatus Manufacturing Co. 

328 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



*. MORRIS LILLIE, l^esul.ni 



LEWIS C. LILLIE, Secretary and Treasurat 



THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS 

Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A. 

LOCOMOTIVES 



BROAO AND 
NARROW GAUGE 



SINGLE EXPANSION 
AND COMPOUND 




OF T R A C 



k"' plantation locomotives o'^tions or* 



specifications Furnished on Application 



American Trading Company, Calle de Cuba 78a, Havana, Cuba 

Cable Address: "Baldwin, Philadelphia" 



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THE 



CVBA REVIEW 







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"LINK-BELT" 
LOCOMOTIVE CRANES 

Steam or 
Electrically Operated 

Arranged for handling 
Grab Bucket, 
Lifting Magnet, 
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and other special 
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SPECinCATlONS AND 
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PHILADELPHIA - CHICAGO 
INDIANAPOLIS 



New York, 299 Broadway 




COPYRIGHT, 1912 



All 

/ABOUT 
CUBA'* 



IT COVERS THE ISLAND'S 

INDUSTRIES AND ACTIVITIES 

ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR POSTPAID 



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PAlENTE PELAEZ 



Esta maza puede colocarse fadltnente en cualquier trapiche, sea de dos 6 tres mazas. Machuca bien 
la cafia desmenuziindola y extrayendole al imsnio tiempo las dos terceras partes de su guarapo, dejando 
la cafia bien preparada i>ara el seguudo trapiche. Ejecuta todo el trabajo de una destnenuzadora de 
priniera clase y sin mis gasto que cuaudo se opera con una maza lisa. Ksta ruaza es de acero y se ha 
sacado privilegio para ella en todas las partes del mundo donde se ciiltiva la cana de aziicar. Pues 
envienos un dibujo de la maza superior que usan U Is , asi que de su eje, y les cotizareinos precios bajos 
por una maza completa para desmenuzar la cafia dt este trapiche. 

NEWELL MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 149 Broadway. New York, E. U. A. 

PIERRE DROESHOUT, Agt., Apartade 861, Havana, Cuba 





Casa Fundada en 1866 


Diseiio, Materiales 




M 


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Mano-De-Obra 

Estos tres caracteres esenciales se 
encuentran reunidos en la construc- 
cion de las 

Bombas 

"EPPING-CARPENTER" 

con valvula de piston perfectamente 

equilibrada y ajuste exterior para com- 

pensar el movimiento perdido, haciendo 

que sean estas bombas las mas economicas 

Construimos Bombas de todos 

tamanos y para todos objetos 

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Oficina en New York : 90 WEST STREET 



/^ A DD/^C para todos uses y de todos tamanos, de los para cana con cuatro ruedas y capa- 

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de ruedas, completamente armados, con todas las piezas de metal, y pianos 

completes para construir los carros a su destino de maderas del pais 




RAMAPO IRON WORKS, 30 Church St., New York, N. Y. 



Cable Address: 
Rahaliau 



ABOUT THE PLANTATION 



Dixon's Silica-Graphite Paint will be found to preserve all buildings, 
machinery will not rust and corrode if protected with Dixon's Paint. 



Laid-up 



Cuban Agent: CHAS. BLASCO, 
JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE COMPANY - - - 



HAVANA 

- JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



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Bombas de Marsh 

Del mas alto grado 
de eficacia para el 
servicio de Ingenios. 



Bomba de Vacio Seco de Marsh 



Garantizamos menor 
consumo de vapor que 
cualquier otro fabri- 
cante de bombas de 
accion directa. 
Pidase un catdlogo. 

AMERICAN STEAM PUMP GO. 

BATTLE CREEK, MICH. 




Prensas de 

Filtrar 

para Ingenios 

SHRIVER 
FILTER PRESSES 

Write us for 
Catalog, Prices 
and Information 

T. Shriver & Co. 

814 Hamilton St 
Harrison, N. J 

Reprtsented in Lout 

siana by B. A. SAM 

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Ntw Orleans, La. 

Represented in Porte 
Rico by McMUR- 
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Inc., San Juan, P. R. 



FOR MOLASSES USE 

STEEL TANKS 



BUILT BY 



HAMMOND IRON WORKS 

WARREN, PA., U. S. A. 

MATERIAL FABRICATED OR ERECTED COMPLETE 
W. B. Hammond, Sales Agent - - - 29 Broadway, New York 



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THL CUBA RLVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 
An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 82-92 Beaver Street, New York 



MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Editor* and Publisher* 

SUBSCRIPTION 
$1.00 Per Year --------- lo Cents Single Copy 

Advertising Rates on Application 



Vol. X 



MARCH, 1912 



No. 4 



Contents of This Number 



The cover page shows the waiting carretas at the plantation with their loads of sugar cane. 

Cuban government matters are discussed on pages 7, 8 and 9. There is an important 
assurance from President Taft that the United States has no intention of inter- 
vening in Cuban affairs. Then there is some interesting information on the con- 
stitutionality of the suspension of the Cuban Congress by President Gomez. United 
States Minister l>eaupre has communicated with the government regarding the Cai- 
barien-Xuevitas Railroad. The Cuban veterans oppose all further sales of the 
island's land, desiring to keep it for the natives. It is believed that Cuba intends 
to settle the claims of Germany, France and England. The veterans' organization 
in convention in Camaguey assented to some strong utterances in opposition to 
another intervention by the United States. 

\'arious interesting news items from all parts of Cuba will be found on pages 10 and 11. 
Some characteristic cartoons reflecting Cuban thought are also on these pages. 

That we should sell Cuba everything is the opinion of the Cuban consul at Oklahoma. 
His views are given on page 12. 

Some curious Cuban boxing rules are given by a professional on page 13. 

An account of the Guantanamo and Western Railroad changes appears on page 14. 

Much readable comment on Cuban affairs is on page 15. 

An interesting description of banking methods in Cuba is given on page 16. 

Tlie merger of the Havana Electric Railway and the Havana Gas and Electric Light 
Company is described on page 17. 

Traffic receipts of Cuban railroads will be found on page 18. 

Voting machines are to be introduced in Cuba. The story is on page 19. On the same 
page is an account of the United Fruit Company's earnings. 

The usual valuable statistics regarding the active sugar plantations of the island, which 
are a special feature of the March issue each year, will be found on pages 20 to 28. 
These tables are absolutely accurate, being revised and all changes and additions 
made to date. 

A graphic chart of sugar prices during the years 1911 and 1910 is given on page 29. 
In view of the extraordinary rise in the price of sugar this chart will be studied 
with interest. 

An article on the advantages of irrigation in cane planting written in Spanish will be 

found on pages 30 and 31. On the latter page there is also an interesting note 

shownig that the long distance telephone lines are now reaching the plantations. 
Traveling men in Cuba will find them very convenient. 

A summary of the sugar statistics by provinces is on page 32. 

The usual valuable review of sugar prices at New York by Messrs.' Willett and Gray 
will be found both in English and Spanish on pages 34, 35 and 36. 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED THROUGHOUT 
















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THE 
CUBA REVIEW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, 1912, by the Munson Steamship Line 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORi 
BOTANICa 



Volume X 



MARCH, 1912 



Number 4 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 



President Taft has assured 

Taft the Cuban minister. Dr. An- 

Reassures tonio Martin-Rivero, in em- 

Ciiba phatic terms that the United 

States has no intention of 

intervening in Cuban atifairs. 

The Cuban minister had an interview 
with "the president on March 12th and in- 
formed him that persistent rumors that 
the United States was preparing for an- 
other intervention in Cuba were coming 
from Havana. Mr. Taft's reply was ca- 
bled immediately to Havana, but was not 
made public until the minister received 
authority from his government the follow- 
ing day. 

"The United States cannot be expected 
to take the trouble to deny all the foolish 
gossin which is, unfortunately, spread 
about its foreign relations. It should be 
understood in Havana that whenever the 
United States has anything to say about 
her relations with Cuba it will be said by 
the president or the secretary of state. 
Then, and only then, will it be authentic. 

"I am astonished to learn from you of 
the stupid and fantastic stories wdiich are 
being circulated in some circles in Havana 
to the - effect that intervention is being 
planned. These stories are pure inventions, 
and absolutely without foundation. 

"I am disposed, at your request, to take 
the trouble to deny them on this occasion, 
but truly, Mr. Minister, I cannot establish 
the custom of denying one by one these 
foolish stories, especially for the reason 
that it is a deplorable fact that there are 
certain circles in Havana which are cir- 
culating rumors of this class to forward 
their ulterior ends. 

"This pernicious custom is all the more 
surprising and reprehensible in view of 
the transparent politics of the United 
States. The government of the United 
States, as an act of friendship, has indi- 
cated where dangers are and has adopted 
what has been well called a 'preventive 



policy,' that is, a policy which consists in 
doing all within its power to induce Cuba 
to avoid every reason that would make 
intervention possible at any time. 

"Finally, I repeat it, the subject of in- 
tervention is not considered." 

On March Gth President 

Cuba's Gomez issued a decree ad- 

Congressioiial journing the Cuban Con- 

Crisis gress. That body insists 

that it has not adjourned, 

the conservative members asserting that 

the decree is unconstitutional. 

The only precedent for such action by 
the president since the beginning of the 
Cuban republic was in 1904 when President 
Palma, on receiving a message from both 
Houses stating that they were unable to 
agree on date, sent a message announcing 
a decree adjourning Congress because they 
had informed him that they could not 
agree. 

In the present case the Senate voted to 
adjourn on February 28th, since which 
time the House has held no session at 
which there was a quorum, and conse- 
quently there was no opportunity to con- 
sider the Senate resolution. President 
Gomez without receiving any communica- 
tion from Congress, without any action by 
the House on the Senate resolution and 
without sending any message to Congress 
issued a decree adjourning that body. 

The House has not had a quorum since 
February 22d, and the Senate had voted to 
end its legislative work on March 28th. 

The Brooklyn Eagle of March 10th, com- 
ments editorially on this new phase of the 
Cuban situation as follows : 

"Cuba faces a genuine constitutional 
crisis, the significance of which, consider- 
ing the generally disturbed condition of 
things on the island, must be apparent to 
exerybody. 

"Article II, Section 3, of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States contains this 



T H E C U B A R E V I E W 



clause with regard to the powers of the 
president, which has been copied into the 
Constitution of Cuba : 

" 'He may, on extraordinary occasions, 
convene both Houses or either of them ; 
and, in case of disagreement between them, 
with respect to the time of adjournment, 
he may adjourn them to such time as he 
shall think proper.' 

"This clause appears with some modi- 
fications in every one of the Constitutions 
of American States. It was thus e.xplained 
and justified by Thomas Jefferson fourteen 
years after he had advised Virginia to deny 
any such power to her executive : 

" 'As it might happen that obstinacy or 
a difference of object might prevent this 
occurrence (of the two Houses) it CArt. 
n. Section 3) goes on to take from them, 
in that instance, the right of adjournment 
altogether, and to transfer it to another. 
It was necessary to keep them together, 
by restraining their natural right of de- 
ciding on separate times and places, and 
by requiring a concurrence of w-ill.' 

"Most students regard this clause as a 
needful feature of any bicameral legislative 
system. In Cuba the point is raised that 
the two Houses had not reported a dis- 
agreement, and had not actually disagreed 
because the Lower House had not acted 
on the Senate's resolution ; hence that 
President Gomez exceeded his powers in 
the action he took. The point seems to 
be well taken. If the fact is as stated, 
then the president of Cuba cannot take the 
back track too soon." 

President Gomez hopes that when Con- 
gress reconvenes the problems now dis- 
turbing the Liberal Party will have been 
solved. 

Mr. Beaupre, the United 
Objects States minister to Cuba, 
to acting presumably on in- 

Railroad structions from Washing- 
ton, says the Neiv York 
Sun, notified President Gomez on March 
7th that the United States would be dis- 
pleased with the approval of the subsidv 
of $1,800,000 voted by the House to build 
a railroad from Caibarien to Nuevitas. It 
has been common gossip that the subsidy 
is intended for President Gomez and his 
friends. 

One of the plans of the 
Wants "Veteranos," according to 
State Manuel Aranda, in an in- 

Lands terview with a representa- 
tive of the Havana Lucha, 
is to obtain a distribution of the state 
lands. "To this end," he says, "we shall 
employ all our means so that those lands 
may be distributed among Cuban families 
whether they be veterans or not. In that 
way we shall prevent lands from being 



sold to foreign companies which take ad- 
vantage of the acts of conscienceless Cu- 
bans." 

"In order to obtain that," continued 
Colonel Aranda, "we have the purpose of 
employing every means, and violence even 
in the case should such become necessary. 
By this we mean that we would lynch the 
justices and the judges who may oppose 
our plan, just the same as we would a 
common 'guerrillero.' 



Claims 

to be 

Settled 



According to the Post of 
Havana Cuba is understood 
to have promised thie French 
government that it will pay 
the claims which P"rench 
citizens hold against the republic for sums 
advanced to revolutionary chiefs during the 
rebellion against Spain. The other claims 
for damages to their property will be dis- 
cussed later. 

It is understood that more or less the 
same note will be submitted to the English 
and German ministers regarding their 
claims against Cuba. 




Cuba y los Productes Franceses 

Refnblica: \Au revoir mon ami! Por hoy no 

qniero nada. — La Luclia. 

French trade with Cuba jeopardized. 

On February 26th Minister Le Clerq, 
French minister to Cul)a, following a con- 
ference with Secretary of State Sanguily, 
authorized the publication of a letter in 
which an apology is given Cuba for the 
insulting remarks made against the credit 
of Cuba in the French chamber of deputies. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




-xlt^^^ 




A Canal for Cuba. — This canal will not only shorten the route to the Panama Canal, but 
will settle political animosities by providing two little republics for the two leading liberal 
candidates, one for Zayas and the other for Asbert. says PoUtica Comica of Havana. 



The United States naval 

Tobacco station at Guantanamo is 

Frauds alleged to have been made 

Alleged the excuse for frauds which 

an inspector of the Cuban 
Treasury Department report having dis- 
covered, says the United States Tobacco 
Joiivnal. The inspector says that he has 
found large quantities of cigars and 
cigarettes in Caimanera and other places 
which are without the internal revenue 
stamps required by law. The inspector re- 
ported that when he inquired about the 
source of the contraband tobacco he was 
informed that it was for the naval station 
at Guantanamo. He intimates that Havana 
factories are sending cigars to Oriente 
without the internal revenue stamps, claim- 
ing that they are for export because they 
are for the naval station, but that they 
are disposed of outside of the naval station 
grounds to the injury of Cuba's revenues. 
The Treasury Department has ordered 
the books of Havana factories to be in- 
spected to see what shipments thej^ have 
made to Oriente and if there has been any 
intent on their part to defraud. 



General Estenoz, the leader 

Bars of the negro party to which 

Negro the government has denied 

Parties recognition under the Mo- 

rua law, said recently: "If 

the colored men are not recognized at the 

election nobodv in Cuba will •"ote." 



Pre\iously he had said: "If Congress 
by April 24th proceeds to abolish the laws 
of Cuba that section which bars negro 
parties, there will be peace, but if, instead, 
an outrageous law placed on our law books 
by a negro, a traitor to his race, is en- 
forced, I know that every negro in Cuba 
will again defend the liberties for -which 
he has fought." 

The government is forbidding negroes 
to hold meetings, but the latter are deter- 
mined to meet, organize and take an active 
part in the elections. 

General Fernandez de Cas- 

Veterans tro, at the assembly of the 

are veterans in Camaguey on 

Defiant March 12th, asserted that 

should the United States 

attempt another intervention, the veterans 

of Cuba would fight as they had fought 

against Spain. He was enthusiastically 

applauded. 

The asseml)ly discussed for many hours 
a resolution to demand an investigation 
into the sources of the wealth of all the 
members of the administration, including 
the president of the republic, and this was 
finally agreed to. 

The resolution also asked the National 
Assembly to remain permanently in session 
in order to watch the government and pre- 
vent future looting of the treasury by 
subsidies, concessions and fraudulent 
contracts. 



10 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



ALL AROUND CUBA 



INTERESTING NEWS NOTES REGARDING VARIOUS MATTERS PERTAINING 

TO THE ISLAND 



There is a scarcity of Havana's water 
supply latterly hardly explainable, as the 
Vento Springs yield daily enough water to 
supply a city of twice Havana's population. 
Says La Liicha editorially on i'ebruary 21st, 
"Just what is now happening has never 
occurred before. Whole districts in the 
city, not to say the whole of the town, 
is left without this precious liquid during 
hours when it is absolutely necessary, 
causing much bother and trouble to fami- 
lies residing in the city. Water is not 
to be obtained at cooking hours, and the 
sanitary services are converted into focus 
of infection, all dangerous to public health. 
At some of the houses water is only ob- 
tained during the night hours, and the 
amount obtained is so little, that it is not 
sufficient." 

Leading American citizens of Havana 
gave a testimonial banquet on March 12th 
in honor of Major Harely B. Ferguson, 
corps of engineers. United States army, 
engineer in charge of the work in Havana 
harbor of raising the battleship "Maine." 




La Lucha sees in the scarcity of water in Havana 
the usual "chivo" (goat), which in Cuba is 

synonymous with graft. 

EL PUBLICO: — Todos se quejan del mal servicio 

del agua .. . . iSe prapapara alguna nueva com- 

binacidn con el canal de Vento? 



The new officers of the Cuban National 
Horticultural Society elected at the Feb- 
ruary meeting are as follows : 

President, J. E. Roberts, of Bartle. Vice- 
president, for Havana Province, H. G. 
Gocio ; for Pinar del Rio Province, E. C. 
Goetz, of Herradura; for ]\Iatanzas Prov- 
ince, C. E. Peck, of Itabo; for Santa Clara 
Province, A. E. Doering, of Manacas; for 
Camaguey Province, W. W. Travis, of 
Minas ; for Oriente Province, E. C. Peir- 
son, of Omaja; for the Isle of Pines, Capt. 
J. A. Miller, of Santa Ana. Secretary, 
Charles A. Beatty, of Havana. Treasurer, 
E. W. Halstead, of Los Palacios. 

The Ward Line Steamship Company will 
establish its own agency in Havana instead 
of being represented by the banking house 
of Zaldo and Co., as has been the case for 
many years. The new agency will be in 
charge of W. H. Smith, who has been con- 
nected with the house for years, both in 
New York and Havana. 

Stephen Decker, for many years known 
to all Colorado, including eastern tourists 
who spend the summer months on the 
South Fork of the Platte River, as the 
owner of Decker's Springs summer resort, 
is leaving Colorado for good. He is about 
to sell his Colorado resort, buy a tract of 
land in the Isle of Pines and spend his re- 
maining days in that summery spot. — Den- 
ver (Colo.) Post. 

Some United States officials, among 
them being Walter L. Fisher, secretary of 
the interior, and Frank H. Hitchcock, 
postmaster general ; Baron Hengelmuller 
von Hengarvar, Austrian ambassador to 
the United States ; Count Moltke, Danish 
minister to the United States, and Mrs. 
Nicholas Longworth arrived at Santiago 
on March 1st on board the "Prinz Eitel 
Friedrich," from Colon, after a visit to the 
Panama Canal. 

They were welcomed by the civic and 
port authorities and later visited Havana. 

In New York on March 5th, Justice 
Gavegan of the Supreme Court granted 
permission to the Benevolent Society of 
Divine Providence to dissolve. This 
charity was incorporated shortly after the 
Spanish war to care for Cuban orphans. 

Mr. Herman Upmann has been elected 
president of the German Club in Havana. 

Congress on February 17th enacted a 
divorce law. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



11 



Cubas population is increasing rapidly 
judging from a government report just 
made public, which shows that during 1911 
births have exceeded deaths in Cuba by 
more than 100 per cent, the former being 
74,286 and the latter 33,194. This is really 
a remarkable gain in population, says the 
Rochester (N. Y.) Democrat, and, if it 
continues, and there are no signs to the 
contrary, it will in the course of several 
years bring to the island people the prob- 
lems of acute congestion and overcrowding 
of occupations. Consequently, it is natural 
to suppose that many natives might seek 
employment in Florida, making week-end 
visits to their families in Cuban homes, 
or might even settle in the State and return 
to the island for a period long enough each 
year to qualify as voters. Furthermore, 
the swelling population and the railroad 
may be factors which, working together, 
will result in Cuba being tempted to annex 
herself to the mainland. 

The governor of Camaguey Province 
wants the mayor of Camaguey City sus- 
pended for giving permission for cock- 
fights on other days than Sunday and holi- 
days, which are tlie days legally set apart 
for the sport. 

Three members of the police force of 
Santiago de Cuba were on trial for 
abusing a prisoner so brutally that he died 
from the injuries he received. The prose- 
cuting attorney asked for fourteen j-ears 
imprisonment for the chief of police, and 
ten years each for two other officers who 
were the assailants. The former was the 
only one punished. 

President Gomez refused recently the 
petition of a committee of negroes to 
rescind the Morua law which forbids the 
organization of colored citizens into an 
independent party. The colored voters 
are accordingly highly incensed. 

At a meeting of forty-one Cuban senators 
and representatives held in the latter part 
of February, thirty-seven expressed their 
determination to support the candidacy of 
Alfredo Zayas, the present vice-president, 
for president. 

Cuba's hunting law provides that any 
one caught without a license shall have 
his weapons and hunting dogs confiscated. 
The property is later sold at auction, and 
the proceeds divided between the govern- 
ment and the officer bringing the charge. 

A new beer brewing incorporated com- 
pany in Havana at $500,000 has issued 5.000 
shares at a value of $100.00. The govern- 
ment tax amounted to $50,000. 

A money order department has been 
established in connection with the post- 
office at Carlos Rojas, Matanzas Province. 



When the North Atlantic Fleet was mak- 
ing its way south of Guantanamo, a storm 
of extreme furry burst upon the fleet, work- 
ing swift damage, disabling many ships, and 
causing the admiral to bid each disabled 
vessel make its way to the nearest port 
of refuge. During the greater part of 
the gale, an official at Washington was in 
touch with every battleship and cruiser in 
the fleet, says the Scientific American. 
Sitting in the quiet of his office, he learned 
hour by hour how each vessel fared, where 
she was, and how her course was laid. If 
a heavy sea came aboard, smashing boats 
and carrying away deck structures, the facts 
were known within the hour and laid upon 
his desk in a typewritten statement. He 
was able to converse with the captain of 
each ship, advise with him ; and in short, 
tlirough the wonderful eyes and ears of the 
wireless, he was in a position, had he so 
wished, to control and co-ordinate the 
movements of the scattered fleet with a 
surer knowledge of their position and con- 
dition than the admiral himself. The 
most daring dream of Jules Verne never 
carried him so far into the seemingly 
miraculous as that ! 

George Eugene Bryson, well known as 
a Cuban correspondent for various New 
York newspapers before and after the 
Spanish-American war, and active as a 
lieutenant on the staff of Gen. Antonio 
Maceo in the revolutionary affairs of Cuba, 
died on February 22d at his home, in Ha- 
vana. 

President Gomez has addressed a letter 
to Captain Frank Parker, United States 
army, asking him to remain in Cuba as 
military instructor to the rural guard. The 
letter expresses entire confidence in the 
American officer. The act of the president 
is the outgrowth of a statement made first 
in La Discusiuu and later in La Ultima Hora 
that the American note threatening inter- 
vention in Cuba was due to misrepresen- 
tations of Cuban conditions by Captain 
Parker. 

England's importations of Cuban cigars 
in 1911 exceeded 1910 by 6,647,838 cigars 
and the United States purchased 4,377,059 
cigars more in 1911 than in the previous 
year, and at the same time its purchases 
of leaf tobacco exceeded that of 1910 by 
49,479 bales. Germany bought 1,482,105 
more cigars in 1911 than in 1910, but its 
importations of leaf tobacco were 5.040 
bales less. — El Tobaco. 

A large order of stock saddles, among 
which were about one hundred ranging in 
price from $12.00 to $40.00, was recently 
shipped to one of the largest dealers in 
Cuba by the Nashville (Tenn.) Saddlery 
Company. 



12 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



GENERAL NOTES 



SHOULD SELL CUBANS EVERYTHING 

C. H. Whittington, Cuban honorary 
consul to the United States, has moved his 
headquarters from Atlanta, Ga., to Okla- 
homa City, Oklahoma. From here he will 
report to his government on all financial 
and diplomatic matters for the entire 
southwestern section of the United States, 
exclusive of Galveston and New Orleans, 
which cities are already provided with 
consuls. 

"Cuba is a great field for the American 
wholesalers and manufacturers," said Air. 
Whittington. "That country annually im- 
ports about $13,000,000 worth of grain and 
grain products and only about half are 
now being sold by the United States. We 
can sell these people this class of product 
from 10 to 32 per cent cheaper than any 
other country in the world and there is 
no reason why we should not sell them 
everything they use in that line. There 
is a reason why we don't, of course, and 
it is simply because we do not go after 
the trade. Flour and stock feed grains 
find a ready market there and I believe that 
kafir corn would find ready buyers. A 
great amount of feed stuff is imported and 
kafir corn is cheap and easily handled. — 
Oklahoma Oklahoma}!. 

Omaha products have broken down the 
barriers and are going into Cuba at a 
lively rate, says the Omaha Bee. In other 



wurds, tile Cubans have acquired the habit 
of eating the output of the Omaha packing 
houses and are clamoring for more. 

During the last few weeks the Missouri 
Pacific has hauled out of South Omaha 
three solid trains of fresh and cured meats 
for Cuba and in addition to this enough 
more to fill the cars of two more long 
trains have been contracted for. From 
Omaha the meats go in refrigerator cars. 



HAVANA S HOUSEHOLD REQUIREMENTS 

In addition to the market trade there 
is a large trade in vegetables and fruits 
carried by street merchants in Havana. In 
the early morning the roads leading to the 
city are filled with country men bringing 
in the product of the farm in large pan- 
niers carried on horses and donkeys. The 
panniers are filled with oranges, pineapples, 
melons, sweet potatoes and other com- 
modities. One often sees a mass of green 
advancing without any visible means of 
progression, but later it is found to be a 
stack of green fodder covering and envel- 
oping the animal bearing it. 

Poultry dealers bring in live chickens 
and turkeys carried head down from their 
shoulders and small live pigs are carried 
in the same manner. The open-grilled 
windows are favorable to the street venders 
of all classes and their musical cries are 




The new sugar mill of tlie Cuba Company at Tobabo, Oriente Province. It is the newest in the 

sugar group and only began grinding in February. 

El nuevo Ingenio de acjicar de la Compauia Cuba, en Jobado, Provincia de Oriente. Es el mas 

moderno en su clase, y solamente empeso la molienda en febrero. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



13 




Improved methods of cane cultivation making headway in the island. American Steam Plow 

at work on the Xueva Luisa Plantation. Matanzas Province. 

Metodos perfeccionados del cultivo de la caila van avanzando en la isla dc Cuba. Arado de 

Vapor amcricano funcionando en el inaenio Nueva Luisa, en la Provincia de Matansas. 



heard everywhere. The shoe seller cries 
his wares. They are strung on a rod 
and carried on his shoulder and the lace 
seller carries his assortment in alluring 
array on a staff. The baratillero carries 
his stock of little notions, pins, needles 
and other housewife supplies in wooden 
boxes with glass ends, on' the back 
of a horse or a donkey. — Correspondence 
Atlanta (Ga.) Journal. 



CUBAN BOXING REGULATIONS 

The Cuban tight fans have their own 
notions how boxing bouts should be con- 
ducted. They do not tamper with the 
rules governing the time of rounds, the 
regulations regarding "fouls" — hitting in 
clinches, etc., but they do insist that the 
time between session shall be of sufficient 
duration for each boxer to make a speech 
and, if needs be, receive applause. The 
crow d will not permit the fight to proceed 
until the combattants have responded to 
the cheers of their friends. Tommy Smith, 
a lightweight, who recently boxed a negro 
named Bowers in Havana, in speaking on 
the subject says this method is a blessing 
— it gives a boxer a chance to recuperate. 

"Before I went on with Bowers," said 
Smith, "the Cuban customs were duly ex- 
plained to us, but we thought it was an 
excellent piece of 'kidding' on the part of 
the promoters. The first round ended in 
a warm rallj- on the ropes, and as we took 
our corners tremendous shouts of 'Smeeth, 
Smeeth,' 'Bowairs, Bowairs,' went up all 
over the theatre. One of my Cuban sec- 
onds hissed in mj^ ear : 'Step to the front 
of the ring and make a little speech.' I 
got up and walked to the ropes. Wild 
applause. 'Gentlemen,' said I, T thank you 



and 1 will endeavor to merit your applause.' 
They cheered again. Then the black boy 
addressed them. 'Fellers,' said he, Til do 
mah best to win dis hea battle," and the 
rafters rang. 

''After every round the crowd cheered 
and we made a speech. In the fifth Bowers 
knocked me down for a six count, and 
I got up just as the bell rang. Thunders 
of applause. I went forward and said : 
"Gentlemen, I will endeavor to make up 
for that knockdown in the immediate fu- 
ture,' and they nearly took the roof off. 

''In the eighth I crossed a right to 
Bowers' jaw and down went the black boy 
in a heap. He was counted out, and then 
the Cubans whooped it up for several 
minutes. When I could get in a word, I 
told them I was glad to have entertained 
them, thankful for their courtesy and hope- 
ful of some day fighting Ad Wolgast be- 
fore them. Terrific cheers and a shower 
of Spanish money. By this time Bowers 
was up and he told them how sorry he 
was to have been defeated before so noble 
an audience. More cheers and a hat full 
of money for him. 

"Some' of the rests between rounds in- 
stead of one minute were over four min- 
utes especially one time when I felt groggy 
and needed all the time I could get. Some 
class to the Cubans, though, and believe 
me, some novelty to their ideas." — From 
the Hartford (Conn.) Courant. 



HAVANA S COLLECTIONS 

February, 1912 $l,.-,34.354 

1911 1,426,238 

1910 1,252,485 

1909 1,237,130 



14 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



GUANTANAMO AND WESTERN CHANGES 

By the purchase of C,000 shares each of 
the preferred and common stock of the 
Guantanamo and Western Railroad from 
tlie Knickerbocker Trust Company of New 
York, a syndicate made up of a number 
of the larger stockholders, mostly in Bos- 
ton, has secured a majority of the stock of 
that corporation, says the Havana Post. 
At a meeting held recently the followmg 
entire new board was elected : 

C. St. L. Abbott, chairman of the board, 
and William Barbour, Courtlandt D. 
Barnes, J. H. Caldwell, B. P. Cheney, 
I. McD. Garfield, James M. Gilbert, M. H. 
Lewis, Joseph N. Smith. The new board 
elected officers as follows: M. H. Lewis, 
president; G. St. L. Abbott, treasurer; L 
McD. Garfield, vice-president, and D. H. 
Thomas, secretary. 

The Guantanamo and Western is a broad 
gauge line eighty-one miles long, with an 
ocean terminal at Boqueron on the south 
coast of the east end of the island, ad- 
joining the United States naval station on 
Guantanamo Bay. It connects at San Luis 
with the Cuba (Van Home) Railroad, ex- 
changing trafiic at that point to and from 
Santiago, Nipe and Havana. The territory 
between San Luis and Boqueron is re- 



puted to be a very fertile sugar cane dis- 
trict, and while only about 15 per cent of 
it is under development the gross earnings 
of the railroad during the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1911, were in excess of $4,000 per 
mile. The formation of the syndicate and 
subsequent changes in control and manage- 
ment were effected by Messrs. Cheney and 
Garfield, of Boston. 



Every employee of the Cuban National 
Lottery, with the sole exception of the as- 
sistant director, was dismissed from the 
service on February 26th on orders of Sr. 
Gustavo Alonso Castanedo, the director. 
According to the Havana Post Sr. Casta- 
neda intends reorganizing the inspection 
department of his bureau, in order to stop 
the sale of Spanish and San Domingo lot- 
tery tickets. 

According to figures printed by El To- 
haco of Havana, the population of Havana 
and Oriente Province consume more 
cigars during 1911 than were sent to the 
United States. 

Havana Province consumed in the period 
mentioned 61,411,275 cigars and 226,976,175 
packages of cigarettes, and Oriente Prov- 
ince G1,09S,.300 cigars. 




Interior view of the Conchita Mill, Matanzas Province. It is of Cuban ownership and its 

output averages 150,000 bags annually. 

Vistu interior del Ingenio Conchita, en la Provincia de Matanzas. Es propiedad cubana y su 

producciSn asciende d 150,000 sacos de asticar anuales. par termino medio. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



15 



LAST TRIBUTE TO THE "MAINE" 



On Saturday, March 16th. tlie old battleship "Elaine," resurrected after fourteen 
years' burial in Havana harbor, plunged, with her colors flying, to her final rest six 
hundred fathoms deep in the waters of the Gulf of ^lexico, four miles off the coast 
of Cuba, marking the end of the great work begun more than a year and a half ago. 

After imposing ceremonies in the city of Havana, the coffin containing the dead of the 
"Maine" was taken aboard the armored cruiser "North Carolina," where it was 
deposited on the quarterdeck, completely covered by a great mound of floral tributes, 
under a guard of honor composed of marines. Minute guns were fired by the "North 
Carolina" and the scout cruiser "Birmingham"' and the batteries of Cabafia's fortress 
until the ships cleared the harbor. 

The deck of the old battleship was covered deep with flowers and palms and a great 
American ensign floated from the jurymast, where the mainmast formerly stood. On 
the deck stood Captain John O'Brien, famous as "Dynamite Johnny," acting as the 
"Maine's" last pilot. As the wreck passed the American squadron, the crews manned 
the rails, the marines presented arms, the scarlet coated bandsmen on the quarterdeck 
played the national anthem, while minute guns boomed a requiem. 

At a little after five o'clock, when the three-mile limit had been passed, a wrecking 
crew opened numerous valves in the bottom of the hulk, which were operated from the 
deck, and in twenty minutes the waves had closed over the historic vessel forever in 
the presence of Cuban and United States warships and many thousands of sympathetic 
and patriotic citiz&ns of both republics. 

For ten minutes after the valves were opened no change was visible in the trim of 
the great, rusty, battered hulk, which pitched heavily as the huge rollers struck her. 
Then she was seen to be sinking at the bulkhead end. Soon the waves began to wash 
over her deck. As she remained pitching and wallowing, each moment settling deeper 
and deeper, the stern was seen to rise. In a few seconds the hulk was almost vertical, 
showing first the propellers and then the full keel. The next moment there was a flash 
of blue and white, as the great ensign flying from the mast struck the waves and 
disappeared. Simultaneously the decks were blown up by the air pressure, and with 
incredible velocity the "Alaine" plunged down, leaving no trace save flowers tossing on 
the surface of the sea. 

The silence was broken by whistle blasts from the whole fleet, which was the only 
salute. Ten minutes later the Cuban flagship "Hatuey" fired a farewell national 
salute to the squadron. 



The Nezv York Tribune of March 6th 
editorially reviewing Cuba's progress under 
the rule of its own people finds much that 
is gratifying so far as the business interests 
of the island are concerned. It says : 
"There has been a steady growth in ma- 
terial affairs, relatively comparable, we 
should say, w-ith that of almost any other 
country. Perhaps it will be most to the 
purpose to take the whole period since the 
Spanish war for observation. In 1899 
the total foreign trade of the island was 
$125,003,000, and the balance was $25,605,000 
against Cuba. In 1910 the total was 
$259,230,000, or more than twice as much 
as in the preceding year, and the balance 
was $43,312,000 in favor of Cuba. In 1902 
Cuba had in her ocean trade 3,848 ships, 
of 7,846,671 tons, and in 1910 she had 4,647. 
of 11,944.272 tons. Greater progress than 
this the island should not have expected." 

"This very progress in business aff'airs 
which is so marked and gratifying." it says 
further, "should serve to promote improve- 
ment in governmental affairs. The people 
of Cuba ought to recognize the close rela- 
tionship between good government and ma- 



terial prosperity, and to understand that 
the latter is to be maintained only by main- 
taining the former." 



Clarence D. Pollock, who has been acting 
chief of the bureau of highways in Man- 
hattan since the resignation ^ of General 
Bingham from the commissionership some 
months ago, resigned his post March 10th, 
says the New York Press, to accept a po- 
sition as chief engineer in charge of pav- 
ing on the new paving and sew-er contracts 
in Havana. He is a graduate of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

On March 9th application was made to 
the New York Stock Exchange to list 
l,.j00,000 improvement and equipment mort- 
gage four per cent bonds of the Cuba Rail- 
road, due 1960. 

Cuba is one of the chief countries to 
which eggs are exported from the United 
States. The quantity exported to the island 
in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1911, was 
4^2 million dozen and valued at a little less 
than one million dollars. 



16 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



BANKING IN CUBA 



.\t a metting of the Chattanooga Manu- 
facturers' Association, held Februarj' 16th, 
after their return from Cuba, where some 
120 of them had gone on a trade and 
pleasure trip, JMr. W. A. Sadd, president 
of the Chattanooga Savings Bank, gave 
an interesting address on the subject of 
Cuba's banking methods. 

His address in part, as found in the 
CJiattanooga Times, is as follows: 

"Before the beginning of the independ- 
ence of Cuba, after the Spanish-American 
war of 1S98, the banking business of Cuba 
was handled almost entirely by foreign 
banks, there being the Bank of Spain and 
a branch of the Royal Bank of Canada 
and of the Bank of Nova Scotia. The 
main banking business of the city was done 
by the English banks, as there was a feeling 
of distrust against any Spanish institution. 

"After the beginning of their independ- 
ence the installation of an American bank 
was conceived by Mr. Jarvis, of New York, 
who formed a company called the National 
Bank of Cuba, with an original capital of 
$500,000. Ele brought all of his money 
in gold to Havana in boxes and barrels, 
and, as soon as he arrived, rented a small 
place on the main business street, and, for 
about a year's time, did his business with 
his money in this way. 

"After that time he was able to interest 
local parties and started a bank with 
$1,000,000 capital, buying the location where 
their bank is located at the present time. 

"At that time also they obtained the bank- 
ing business of the republic of Cuba, which 
gave them prestige and considerable stand- 
ing. Their history since that time has 
been one of progress, and at the present 
time they have branches in nearly every 
important city in the island, with a deposit 
line of practically $30,000,000. The bank 
is controlled by American capital and its 
executive heads are Americans. 

"In the island of Cuba you have entirely 
two bases of currency — the American and 
Spanish bases. Your deposits, however, in 
the banks there are made entirely on the 
Spanish eciuivalent. In other words, an 
American dollar is worth about 1.09% in 
Spanish money, so when a teller takes a 
deposit made to him in American money 
or English money, the deposit is made as 
Spanish money. The teller has to figure 
out the value of the same on a basis of the 
exchange that day. This exchange varies 
each day. 

"Tellers in banks in Cuba have to have 
more qualifications than in this country. 
He has to be able to speak Spanish, English 
and French. In fact, it was told to me 
while visiting the National Bank of Cuba 



that there was probably more English 
spoken that day than there would be in a 
year. 

"On account of this difference in the 
two monies, all of the deposits and also 
all of the exchanges made each day have 
to be figured out, and it is done and checked 
by machines. They have two machines, 
one of which is made by a Swiss, which 
is the most expensive, and by setting down 
the rate of exchange and also the amount 
of money which is deposited by pressing 
keys similar to our adding machines, the 
total amount in Spanish exchange is given 
on the machines. The same process can 
be used in figuring the other way. 

"The use of checks has come into more 
prevalent use of late, although even at the 
present time I was told by the president 
of the Trust Company of Cuba, if a man 
purchased a piece of property, say, for 
$10,000, he would go to the bank, draw 
the money out, turn it over to his attorney 
who was preparing the papers, and after 
they were prepared the actual money would 
pass. Very possibly the seller would be 
a depositor in the same bank and he would 
bring it back and deposit it to his account. 

"Loans in Cuba are made almost en- 
tirely on the discounting of drafts or ac- 
ceptances for goods shipped out of the 
country. There is very little, if any, actual 
loaning on commercial paper, as is known 
in the States. Loans are made on col- 
lateral security with bonds or stocks, and 
also loans are made on property. The 
average rate on money at the present time, 
which they consider quite low, is 9 per cent. 
This is practically half of what it was about 
ten years ago. The rate of interest seems 
high to us, but I presume on account of 
the instability of the government the rate 
was necessarily higher. 

"Loans on real estate are quite prevalent 
at the present time, and with the growth 
of the city and of the country will probably 
increase. The titles of the property are 
in very good shape, as they come primarily 
from the main government. 

"The banks in Havana have no institution 
known as a clearing house and they collect 
checks on each other. If they have large 
amounts, the same is done daily between 
them. As a rule, the banks carry inter- 
changeable accounts and the same are 
charged against these accounts, and every 
two or three days settlements are made 
lietween them. 

"On account of the different nationalities 
in the banking business, and rather the 
suspicion of each other, it seems rather 
impossible to establish a clearing house at 
the present time, but that will come. 



THE CUBA R E V I E W 



17 



"They have a very hirge clTapter of the 
American Institute of Banking, and a large 
development is being made in educational 
lines, and while American banking is not 
in full control of the situation at the pres- 
ent time, yet it seems very probable that 
in a few years they will be the controlling 
force.'" 

The association at the same meeting 
oflficially declared their belief that their 
trip to Cuba "has done more to extend 
the influence and reputation of Chatta- 
nooga's industrial resources than any one 
thing which has been undertaken l)y this 
association, and we look forward to a large 
extension of our export trade and a closer 
and more intimate knowledge of the people 
and trade of our adjoining country and 
neighbor. 

"The trade interests of both countries 
cannot help but be benefited materially by 
this trip." 

The Cuban Consular Agent J. W. 
Rawlings was presented with a beautiful 
loving cup. 

HAVANA ELECTRIC MERGER 

Speyer & Co. gave notice March 12th to 
the preferred and common stockholders of 
the Havana Electric Railway Company and 
to the holders of the stock of Compania 
de Gas y Electricidad de la Habana that, 
at the request of the holders of a large 
amount of the stock of each of these com- 
panies they have agreed to act as deposi- 
taries under a plan of amalgamation and 
agreement, looking to the formation of a 
company to hold the stock and ultimately, 
if feasible, to a united ownership of the 
physical properties. 

The plan has been formulated by repre- 
sentatives of both companies and has been 
approved by directors of Compania de Gas 



y Electricidad de la Habana and by a com- 
mittee representing the Havana Electric 
Railway Company. 

Participation under the plan is dependent 
upon the deposit of stock on or before 
April 1st with Speyer & Co. or with their 
agent in Havana, Banca EspanoJ de la Isla 
de Cuba. Copies of the plan fnay be ob- 
tained from the bankers. 

It is expected that the consolidation will 
result in substantial savings in operating 
expenses and greatly increase the' revenues, 
and it is the expressed: opinion of the 
management that the earnings of the new 
company will warrant the full dividend on 
the new preferred stock, besides showing 
a surplus for the common issue. 

The Havana Gas and Electric Light 
Company, which is the English translation 
of the Spanish title of the lighting cor- 
poration, practically controlls all of the 
lighting, both gas and electric,, in Havana, 
and a merger with the lighting company 
commended itself to the traction interests 
as the simplest solution of their intention 
of entering the lighting business. The 
new corporation will be called the Havana 
Electric Railway, Light & PoWer Company. 

The announcement of the merger re- 
sulted in a new high record price for the 
preferred shares of the Havana Electric 
Company in the New York Stock Market 
on March 13th. They sold at 115, having 
previously sold at 110 on advance news of 
the probable consolidation of ,the Hghting 
and traction business of Havana. The 
Havana Electric Railway shares have never 
been very actively traded in, says the Nezv 
York Times financial editor, and previous 
to the sale at 110 none of the preferred 
stock had changed hands in a long time. 
For the common stock 105 was bid. The 
latest actual sale was reported on October 
1, 1911, at 98. 




Bridge on the plantation railway of the Central Resulta, Santa Clara Province. 
Punta en la linea del Central Resulta a Sagua la Grande— de Juan de Dios Oi'ia. 



18 THECUBAREVIEW 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 

EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD, THE HAVANA ELECTRIC, ETC. 
The Cuba Railroad Company's Earnings 

The report of the Cuba Railroad for the month of January and f(jr seven months 
ended January 31st compares as follows: 

1912 1911 1910 1909 

January gross $368,471 $315,783 $256,793 $218,258 

Expenses 176,216 166,890 129,607 114,885 

January net $192,254 $148,893 $127,1S(; $103,373 

Charges 65,125 59,625 36,667 33,086 

January surplus $127,129 $89,268 $90,519 $70,287 

Seven months' gross $1,951,136 $1,577,719 $1,276,059 $1,065,868 

Net profits 876,567 669,095 474,290 426,007 

Fixed charges 425,875 279,625 251,877 277,359 

Seven months' surplus $450,692 $389,470 $222,413 $198,648 



Earnings of the United Railways of Havana 



Weekly receipts : 1912 

Week ending February 3d £39,996 

Week ending February 10th 40,094 

Week ending February 1 7th 40,951 

Week ending February 24th 43,324 



1911 


1910 


1909 


£39,065 


£39,486 


£36,619 


39,650 


39,436 


35,638 


40,673 


42,252 


37,366 


42,897 


44,159 


37.532 



Earnings of the Havana Electric Railway 



Weekly receipts ; 1912 

Week ending February 4th $47,184 

Week ending February 1 1th 45,803 

Week ending February ISth 45,994 

Week ending February 25th 46,775 

From January 1st $371,148 $360,812 $352,699 $338,550 



1911 


1910 


1909 


$50,476 


$39,976 


$36,035 


48,912 


39,132 


27,360 


47,048 


38,984 


36,991 


44,145 


39,084 


38,664 



February Quotations for Cuban Securities 

Supplied by Lawrence Turnure & Co., New York 

Bid A<;ked 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (interior ) 99% 99 '/2 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (exterior) 103% 103% 

Havana City First Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 106 108 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 104 106 

Cuba Railroad First Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds 102 103 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 88 95 

Cuba Railroad 6 per cent Debentures 93 100 

Havana Electric Railway Consolidated Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds .... 99% 99% 

Havana Electric Railway Preferred Stock 115 120 

Havana Electric Railway Common Stock 

Matanzas Market Place 8 per cent Bonds — Participation Certificates .. 104 106 

Cuban-American Sugar Co. Coll. Trust 6 per cent Gold Bonds 97 97^/4 

^Central Vannina First Mortgage 8 per cent Bonds 

All prices of bends quoted on an "and interest" basis. 
*The Central Vannina Company's property is at San Juan, P. R. 



THE C U 



A REVIEW 



19 



VOTING MACHINES IN CUBA 

[^From Secretary Hugh S. Gibson, American Legation, Habana] 



A bill has been introduced in the Cuban 
House for the adoption of voting machines 
for use throughout the island. The bill 
contemplates the appointment composed of 
the secretar\' of Gobernacion. who will be 
chairman, and two inembers of the House 
of Representatives, chosen by that body — 
one from each of the two political parties. 
This committee is to invite manufacturers 
of automatic voting machines to submit 
specimen machines during a period of 30 
days. Upon the expiration of that period 
the committee is to examine the several 
machines submitted. The committee may 
employ mechanical engineers in making the 
tests. A longer time than three days may 
not be employed in testing any machine, 
and the compensation of the engineer, if 
employed, is to be paid by the owner of 
the machine at the rate, of $5 per day. 
Within 10 days after completing the 
examination, the comrnittee must report to 
the president of the republic, recommend- 
ing the adoption of the machine which in 
its judgment best fulfills the requirements, 
offers greatest security, and is most accept- 
able as to price and terms for sale. 

The following requirements are neces- 
sary: 

Absolute secrecy of vote ; sufficient 
capacity to permit voting for as many 
parties as may be organized — there are 
usually from three to five tickets — and on 
as many questions as may be submitted 
ad referendum ; names of candidates to be 
placed in parallel horizontal lines, and the 
designation of offices in columns perpen- 
dicular to the names of candidates ; an ar- 
rangement to permit the elector to vote for 
any person for any office for which he has 
a right to vote, and no more, and to vote 
a "straight" or "split" ticket : an arrange- 



ment enabling the elector to vote for any 
person whose name is not on the ticket, 
and to vote for as many persons for a given 
office as he is entitled to vote for, and pre- 
venting his voting for a greater number; 
an arrangement preventing the voter from 
voting for more candidates than he has 
a right to vote for; enabling the voter to 
vote for or against as many questions 
ad referendum as he has a right to vote 
on ; an arrangement to note and register all 
votes cast for each and all candidates and 
in favor or against each and every ques- 
tion submitted ad referendum; one or 
more keys which will prevent operation 
(if the mechanism of the poll register when 
the polls close ; a protecting register or 
counter that will prevent and register every 
attempt at alteration or fraud made upon 
the machine during, before, or after an 
election : a counter or register showing 
the exact number of voters who use the 
machine : each machine to be accompanied 
by reduced model or facsimile for instruct- 
ing electors in its proper use. 

The president is to be authorized to enter 
into a contract with the company recom- 
mended by the committee. Computation 
of the number required will be based upon 
the ratio of one machine for every 500 
electors, with a spare machine for each 
municipality. This would mean about 1,100 
machines. 

]\Iachines are to be paid for in install- 
ments, as follows : 35 per cent of the price 
upon receipt by the government of the first 
lot of machines and the remainder in five 
equal annual installments, for which 
proper amounts will be included in the 
national budgets as preferential obligations. 

The contractor will be required to give 
bond in sum, not exceeding $250,000. 



UNITED FRUIT CO. EARNINGS 

Unless the raw sugar market slumps 
precipitately, the United Fruit Co. and its 
subsidiary, the Xipe Bay Co., will earn 
in 1912 the largest balance of net money 
in their history from sugar operations. 
That should mean a sugar net from the 
two mills of slightly rising $4,000,000, of 
which somewhat more than half would 
show up directly as earning of the United 
Fruit Co. itself, while the balance would 
be represented in the parent company in- 
come account by whatever dividends it 
received from the Nipe Bay Co. 

To date the United Fruit Co. has sold 9 
cargoes of sugar aggregating about 225,000 
bags. The average price received has been 



about 3^/1 cents, which is a full cent per 
pound higher than was obtained a year 
ago up to this time. 

"United Fruit expects to make this grind- 
ing season a total of 36 cargoes of sugar, 
so that approximately 25 still remain to be 
sold. Before grinding cominenced the 
company has sold two cargoes at 3% cents 
per pound. Then came a drop in raw 
sugar to 3 cents' per pound, at which level 
two more cargoes were sold. The price 
has since recovered to a recent hight of 
3 7-16. The average for the nine cargoes 
makes a very satisfactory level. 

Net profits on sugar operations of the 
two mills to date are understood to have 
exceeded $1,000,000.00 by a substantial 
amount. — Boston Nezvs Bureau, March 7th. 



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THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



21 



FARQUHAR 




Verdaderamente es una realidad conocida de que nuestra reputacion ha 
sido acreditada por mas de treinta y cinco anos en Cuba con Arados y otros 
Instrumentos, de los cuales todos los comerciantes de esta Isla lo justificaran. 

Como demostramos arriba, es nuestro Arado "LABRADOR" del tamaiio 
corriente, con timon de madera y como tambien mas abajo nuestros Arados 
enteramente de acero. 

Hacemos ambos tamanos con diferentes medidas, de los cuales son 
conocidos como los MEJORES. Todos los comerciantes en Cuba saben esto, 
y tienen constantemente un surtido en almacen. 




Tambien hacemos un tamaiio y medida correcto de Carretillas para Sacos 
y como tambien Carretillas para Almacen, Desgranadoras de Maiz, 
Rastras, etc. 

Xucstros agentes de Cuba son THE AMERICAN TRADING COM- 
PANY, de la Habana, y Nueva York. 

A. B. FARQUHAR & CO. 

COTTON EXCHANGE BUILDING - - - - NEW YORK 
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THE CUBA R E.V I E W 




Registrado en la Oficina dc 
Patentes de los Estados L'nidos 



LA MEJOR EMPAQUETA- 
DURA EN HOJAS PARA 
INCENIOS DE AZU.CAR 

EBONITE niantendra hermetica 
cualquier juntura, a pesar de 
cualquiera presion 6 vibra- 
cion. 

EBONITE no se afecta por la 
accion de vapor, del agua, del 
alcali, de la salnuiera, los 
acldos, etc. 

Nada hay que endurezca la 
empaquetadura EBONITE, y 
cuando fuere necesario des- 
hacer una juntura, el antiguo 
anillo de empaquetado puede 
usarse de nuevo. 

Entre los que usan EBONITE se 
cuentan el Gobierno de los 
Estados Unidos, los grandes 
ferrocarriles, los vapores que 
navegan el Atlantico y el 
Pacifico, y las mayores in- 
stalaciones de fuerza motriz 
en todas las partes del 
mundo. 

Escribasenos pidiendonos una 
nmestra de EBONITE y fac- 
similes de cartas testimo- 
niales, que se envian gratis. 




LA MEJOR EMPAQUETA- 
DURA PARA VASTAGOS 
DE EMBOLO EN INGE- 
NIOS DE AZUCAR :: 

La empaquetadura P. P. P. de 
Daniel para vastagos de em- 
bolo, se ajusta automatica- 
mente a la presion reqerida, 
ya sea de 200 6 de 5 libras. 

P. P. P. reduce la friccion en el 
vastago en un 90%, por lo 
que ahorra muchas veces el 
costo de la empaquetadura, 
pues no se desperdicia ener- 
gia para veneer la resistencia 
ofrecida por friccion in- 
necesaria. 

P. P. P. no raya los vastagos, 
pues es blanda y elastica. 

P. P. P. dura muchos meses, y 
en caso de resultar algiin 
escape, todo lo que se ne- 
cesita es aiiadir un nuevo 
anillo a la empaquetadura. 

Pidase muestra y folleto que se 
envian GRATIS. 



ARTICULOS DE COMA PARA INSTALACIONES MECANICAS 

Hacemos mangueras para vapor, agua, aire y riego; correas para 
conductores y todas las demas clases de correas de cualquier numero 
de telas, anchura y longitud; articulos de goma amoldada; articulos de 
goma para instaladores de caiicrias, etc. 

Correspondencia en ingles y en castellano 

QUAKER CITY RUBBER CO., FILADELFIA, E.U.A. 



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T H 1-: C L' H A R H \' 1 }{ W 




MACHINERY 



FOR 




ALCOHOL AND Tl RPENTIXE TINS, 

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CANS, 

TIN BOXES, TIN CANS AND 

METAL PACKAGES OF 

EA ERY SHAPE 

AND SIZE 




Bliss No. 12-\ Lock-and-Lap Seam Body Making and Side 

Seam Soldering Machine. For standard Nos. 1, 2 and ."3 

sanitary can bodies. Capacity 00,000 in 10 hours. 



Our close co-upevation with the leading can manufacturers, together 
with our wide experience of over o4 years as machine builders, com- 
bine to give you machinery which will meet the most exacting re- 
quirements. 



Results are what we offer as proof of the merits of our machines. 



Our experience is at your service. Send samj)lcs stating require- 
ments. Catalogue in Spanish. 



High Speed Machinery for Large Capacities 



E. W. BLISS CO. 

36 PLYMOUTH STREET BROOKLYN, N. Y., U.S.A. 





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CHART OF 

SUGAR PRICES 

AT NEW YORK 

OF CENTRIFUGAL 

SUGAR 96° TEST 

SHOWING THE 

EXTRAORDINARY 

ADVANCE 

IN THE 

PRICES 

DURING 

THE YEAR 

\9\\ AS 

COMPARED 

WITH 1910. 

SOLID LINE . . . 
DOTTED LINE . . 



1911 
1910 



30 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



VENTAJAS DE LA IRRIGACIoN DE LA CAnA DE 
AZOCAR EN CUBA 

PoR Jules A. Sanchez 



La irrigacinn, como todos sahen, es un 
modo artificial de ayudar al suelo a pro- 
ducir mejores cosechas, ya sean de cana 
de azucar 6 de cualquiera otra planta, 
haciendo que estas puedan obtener todo su 
desarrollo posible, aun en tierras aridas y 
en lugares donde la lluvia falta. Desde 
los mas remotos tiempos, y en pueblos de 
razas y caracteres distintos, se ha venido 
usando en manera que difiere mas 6 menos 
en la aplicacion, pero que en principios es el 
mismo, y para preparar un estudio 6 
disertacion, este tema ofrece materia rica 
e inagotable, pues se podria comenzar 
analizando la historia y exponer gradual- 
mente el empleo de la irrigacion desde los 
tiempos primitivos, en epocas varias, en 
pueblas de diversas nacionalidades y en 
tierras distintas, esparcidas por todo el 
mundo. 

Por falta de tiempo y espacio, siento no 
poder dedicarme en el presente a este 
atractivo trabajo, y solo me limito a ex- 
poner con brevedad y sencillez algo de in- 
teres a los cultivadores de caiia de azucar 
en Cnlia. 



Sicndo el suelo de Cul)a fertil en su 
mayor parte, y de fecundidad prodigiosa 
para producir caiia de azucar con tales 
ventajas que hacen al pais el mayor centre 
azucarero del mundo no es muestra el 
peligro de desyerbar la caiia en los surcos, 
y comprueba cuan necesario es el uso, en 
su lugar, de maquinas tales como la 
maquina cortadora de las cepas y la ma- 
(|uina escarpadora. Ha emprendido la 
Estacion Experimental este ano unos en- 
sayos con estos instrumentos para probar 
sus usos en la provincio. Se hallara una 
descripcion de estos experimentos en el 
articulo sobre "Xoticias de la Estacion" en 
este numero de la Rez'ista. 

En cuanto al analisis del jugo de la caiia, 
l)arece que el metodo de cultivo no ha te- 
nido efecto particular sobre la composicion 
de la cana. Calculando el rendimiento de 
azucar por hectarea del valor propio del 
jugo encontramos que el termino medio de 
la cantidad de aziicar producida por los 
diferentes metodos tiene el mismo orden de 
clase para los diferentes metodos como el 
temino medio de tonelaje de caiia. 



Let The Wind Pump The Water 



Have an abundance of pure, fresh water in the home and 
on your farm. Water for drinking, cooking, bathing, — for 
the live stock and other purposes. The wind costs you noth- 
ing and with a 

STAR WINDMILL 

you can have all the water you want for use in the home, 
for hotels, colleges, public and private buildings, and for ir- 
rigating purposes, making your land more productive. Thou- 
sands of STAR Windmills in use all over the world. Write 
to us requesting special catalogues in either English, Spanish, 
French or German, describing the up-to-date features of 
STAR WINDMILLS. 

Hoosier Pumps 

More than a hundred different designs and sizes; operated by han.l, 
windmill, gasoline engine or electric motor. Ask us about Fig. 700 
Pitcher Spout Pump for shallow well or cistern, to be used in the 
kitclien or yard; also Fig. 747 Hoosier Force Pump for hand or wind- 
mill use, to force water where you want it. 

Hoosier Gasoline Engines 

Will operate all kinds of machinery — save time and labor. Sizes, 
i;/2, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 horsepower. 

Galvanized Steel Tanks 

Made in many sizes and for all purposes. Shipped knocked down, 
with rivets and solder so that they can be set up quickly and easily. 




Flint & Walling Mfg. 

596 Oak St., Kendallville, Indiana, U.S.A. 



CO. 



NEW YORK OFFICE; 
96 WALL STREET 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



31 



TOD AS LAS FERRETERIAS EN CUBA 

.IS) .^kfiS::^: • " aS- TlENEN SURTIDO DE LA GENUINAHBI 

EMPAQUETADURA "EUREKA" 

porque en los ingenios de azucar se ha visto no solo que es la mejor para 
maquinas de vapor y bombas, sino tambien que es la empaquetadura que dura 
mas tiempo y cuesta menos. 

TENGASE ESTO PRESENTE: 

La envidiable repvitacion que desde hace 30 
anos tiene la empaquetadura "EUREKA" ha 
inducido a muchos a imitarla con un producto 
que tiene buena a])ariencia exterior pero que es 
de material muy inferior. 

La empaquetadura genuine ?e vende en cajas 
de carton rojo con este rombo en rojo en la 
etiqueta de la caja y en la empaquetadura misma. 




Hagasele al fer- 
retero local un 
pedido de ensayn. 
6 nosotros ]<■ 
despacharemos di- 
rectamente. 




EUREKA PACKING CO., 78-8omurrayst., nuevayork 



Los resultados de los trabajos del ano 
primero per estos ramos parece aconse- 
jarnos fuerteinente el use de metodos me- 
jorados de cultivo de nuestra cana. porque, 
no solo liemos obtenido una cantidad de 
cafia notablemente ma3-or por el uso de 
implementos mas modernos. pero lo hemos 
hecho a un gasto mucho menor que cuando 
el arado y la pala han sido usados exclusi- 
vamente. Se pueden traer estos instru- 
mentos por un Canaveral para hacer el 
mismo trabajo que un arado, como en la 
mitad del tiempo que necesita el arado, y 
por esto, a cerca de la mitad del gasto. 

Cuando se calculan a razon de miles de 
hectareas de cana, solamente la economia 
en tiempo y gasto de cultivo, omitiendo la 
ganancia actual en al cana producida por 
los metodos mas modernos, se vera que 
este item solo puede ejecutar una influencia 
apreciable sobre si parecera el saldo del 
plantador bajo "Deber" 6 "Haber" al fin 
del ano. Siempre ha tenido Tucuman la 
desventaja de no tener bastante mano de 
obra, y cualquier cosa que tiene tendencia 
de aumentar por medios mecanicos, esta 
deficiencia, es un paso hacia adelante en 
el progreso de la industria de la provincia. 
- — El Haccndado Mcxicano. 



Governor Manduley of Oriente Province 
says he will not support President Gomez. 



PLANTATIONS INSTALL TELEPHONES 

At the end of February, 1912, the Cuban 
Telephone Company, now engaged in in- 
stalling a long-distance service throughout 
the island of Cuba, had 8,757 subscribers, 
an increase of 239. 

The majority of the sugar mills of the 
island have solicited the installation of the 
service on their plantations. Up to the 
beginning of March the telephone service 
has been established between Havana and 
the "San Antonio" and "Santa Lucia"niills 
in Havana Province with "Mercedes" and 
"Santa Gertrudes" in ?^Iatanzas Province 
and "Hormiguero," "Portugalete," "Ha- 
tuey," "Soledad," "Reglita" and "Andreita" 
in Santa Clara Province. 



INEFFICIENT CANE SELECTION 

Speaking of the sugar-cane cultivation 
of Porto Rico and Cuba in the Louisiana 
Planter. Dr. M. Donchi complains se- 
riously of the inefficient selection of tops 
and canes for planting purposes without 
any regard for the condition of the parent 
cane, unless it is absolutely diseased. This 
kind of wholesale selection, without any 
distinction as to their origin or quality, 
the same practice being kept on for every 
year, cannot, he says, produce in most in- 
stances but a poorly-growing cane. 



32 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Summary of Active Plantations by Provinces — Output Figured in Bags 



English, Spanish, French, etc. American 

Ownership Ownership 

Province 1911 Est. 1912 1911 Est. 1912 

Havana 829,564 1,240,000 14,121 30,000 

Pinar del Rio 10,222 35,000 48,252 87,000 

Matanzas 787,089 1,075,000 265.513 265,000 

Santa Clara 1,175,853 1,369,000 737,358 880,000 

.Camaguey 605,081 815,000 

Oriente 369,093 509,000 1,558,345 2,206,000 

Totals 3,171,821 4,228,000 3,228.670 4,283.000 

Percentage .... 31 31 32 32 



Cuban 

Ownership 

1911 Est. 1912 

117,736 162,000 

95,447 165,000 

1,030,748 1,600,000 

1,894,267 1,897,000 

175,096 250,000 

526,252 812,000 


To 

1911 

961,421 

153,921 
2,083,350 
3,807,478 

780,177 
2,453,690 


tal 
Est. 1912 
1,432,000 
287,000 
2,940,000 
4,146,000 
1,065,000 
3,527,000 


3,839,546 
37 


4,886,000 
37 


10.240,037 
100 


13,397,000 
100 



Summary of Sugar Plantations by Provinces — Nationality of Ow^ners 



English, French, Spanish, etc 
Ownership 

Havana 14 

Pinar del Rio 2 

Matanzas 24 

Santa Clara 26 

Camaguey 1 

Oriente 9 

Total 1912 76 

Total 1911 78 



. Cuban 


American 




Ownership 


Ownership 


Total 


4 


1 


19 


4 


1 


7 


21 


6 


51 


31 


13 


70 


1 


4 


6 


9 


12 


30 


70 


37 


183 


72 


35 


185 



VENDEN t^ Equipos de Ferrocarril para el uso de Centrales 

Locomotoras de todas clases, pesos y entrevias. 

Carros de Pasajeros, Carros Combinados de Pasajeros 
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Carros de Plataforma, Carros Gondola con fondo 
piano, Carros Qondolo con fondo de tolva, Carros 
Cerrados de Carga, Carros de Refrigeracion, Ca= 
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Especiales. PIDASE NUESTRA ULTIMA LIST.A 

INDIQUESE SUS EXIGENCIAS 

26 CoRTLANDT St. THE MALES COMPANY New York City 



METAL AGUILA BABBITT 



EL METAL BAB- 
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demostrado cuali- 
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en cuanto a la fric- 
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bajo una presion 
extraordinaria y en 
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Lo reconiendamos 
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eaiia de aziicar. 

Precio, 15 cts la 
libra. 



HOYT METAL COMPANY - - NUEVA YORK 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



&S 




Jeffrey Conveyers and 
Elevators for Sugar Plan- 
tations and Refineries 

Illustrdlion shoios part of a Jeffrey Con- 
veying System for handling bagasse or 
Crushed Cane in a Porto Rican Sugar Mill 



Write for information and prices on a 
Conveying Sifslem for your requirements. 



JEFFREY MFG. COMPANY, COLUMBUS, 0. 

Agent: P. D. DE POOL, HAVANA, CUBA 



EQUIPO ELECTRICO para INGENIOS DE AZUCAR 

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE COMPANY 

205-7-9 CHARTRES STREET NUEVA ORLEANS, La., E. U. A. 

EL ALMACEX MAVOK EX AMERICA DE APARATOS V ENSERES EI-ECTRRi )S 



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This book will help you get right 
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CHARGES LAND FRAUDS 

Boston despatches to New York news- 
papers said that the appointment of a 
receiver for the International Fruit and 
Sugar Company is sought in a bill brought 
in the Superior Court of Massachusetts 
on March 11th b\' Charles O. Whitmore, 
of Hartford, Conn. The company was 
organized under the laws of Arizona and 
has its business offices in Boston. The 
petitioner asks for an injunction to re- 
strain the officers and directors from dis- 
posing of certain real estate, bonds and 
stock of the company and to restrain the 
International Trust Company, of Boston, 
from releasing any land subject to the 
mortgage that it holds thereon. The de- 



fendant officers and directors named were 
George F. Davis, of Toronto; Ira G. Ross, 
of Boston, and E. Edward Rice and 
Charles F. Hill, both of Brookline. 

The complaint further asks th-at the 
trust company be directed to foreclose its 
mortgage of $400,000 and that the bonds 
held by the individual defendants be de- 
clared void because issued without valuable 
or adequate consideration. 

It is alleged that the company was used 
by the individual defendants in a scheme 
to defraud. They were officers in that 
company and in the Canadian Cuba Land 
Company. It is charged that the indi- 
vidual defendants caused the Canadian 
company to transfer to the fruit company 
at a grossly excessive price forty thousand 
acres of land in the Province of Pinar del 
Rio, Cuba. It is alleged that $400,000 was 
the price, of which $350,000 was in cash 
and $.50,000 in bonds of the fruit company. 
The land was placed with the trust com- 
pany as trustee to secure a mortgage exe- 
cuted to secure the issue of bonds by the 
fruit companv. The latter was capitalized 
at $1,900,000.' 

It is charged in the petition that the 
land was worth only $50,000. It is alleged 
that the fruit company offered the stock 
and bonds to the public, that it falsely 
represented the property to be worth 
$2,000,000 and that the business was that 
of a going concern. The petitioner charges 
that the defendant diverted money raised 
from the sale of stocks and bonds to its 
own use. 



34 THECUBAREVIEW 

SUGAR REVIEW 

Specially Written for The Cuba Kevikw by VV'illett & Gray, of New York 



Our last review for this magazine was dated February 15, 1912. 

At that time centrifugals 96 degrees test were quoted at 4.735c. per pound. In the 
meantime the market became temporarily firmer and prices advanced to a basis of 4.80c. 
for 96 degrees test, followed by a reaction, which continued steadily reducing prices 
until the basis of 4.52c. for 96 degrees test was reached and which is now the current 
quotation for prompt shipment. A considerable quantity of sugar was taken by the 
refiners, especially of Cuban centrifugals, but not more than usual for this time of 
the year. 

The boom in prices during February was rather premature and hardly warranted by 
the general situation, but was largely due to the sudden enormous deinand for refined 
sugars from dealers throughout the country who were almost entirely out of supplies, 
thus causing a heavy demand for raws from refiners to cover their sales of refined. 

The trade generally is now well supplied and comparative dullness may be expected 
for the present. 

On February loth European quotations were basis of 15s 9d for prompt beet sugars, 
since which time they advanced to 16s 3%d on February 20th, but gradually declined 
thereafter to the close when 15s %d was reached, the last being the parity of 5.22c. for 
centrifugals or .70c. above our market, a not unusual difference for this time of the year. 

Our cable advices from Europe to-day report an increase of 75,000 tons in the esti- 
mate of the Russian beet crop, making the total beet crop for all Europe 6,336,000 tons, 
against 8,105,126 tons in campaign 1910-11. This increase in the Russian estimate does 
not give the world any more supply this year, as the Russian exports are limited by 
the Brussels agreement. 

The latest information regarding Russian exports was received by us in cable dated 
March 13th, stating that it was "semi-officially reported Russia may export in addition 
to the regular 200,000 tons, 150.000 tons extra in 1912, 50.000 tons extra in 1913 and 
50,000 tons extra in 1914." 

European operators are now closely watching reports on the Cuban crop, as the course 
of the future market depends largely on the production in the island this season; there 
will be enough sugar in the world if Cuba produces 1,800,000 tons, but any important 
reduction in this estimate will tend to strengthen the market up to about September 1st, 
after which date the next European beet crop can be drawn upon. 

Reports on the weather in Cuba as affecting the crop vary daily; recent advices in- 
dicated fine weather and large receipts, but there has been many complaints since January 
1st of excessive rains and low sugar yields ; there is so much cane in the fields that 
authorities do not yet feel justified in lowering their estimates of total outturn, feeling 
that present apparent deficiencies may be made up if the grinding season can be length- 
ened somewhat. 

COLECTOR DEL AGUA DE CONDENSACION "LYTTON" 

Importante paralosduenosdeingenios deAzucar 



i 


^ 






If 




tkHZzr^ 


K 




P Hj 



Para obtener todo el efecto del vapor que generen 
las calderas de la finca, especialmente en los 

TACHOS AL VACIO 

estos deben estar perfectamente desaguados del 
agua de condensacion. El 

COLECTOR "LYTTON" 

presta el mas satisfactorio servicio en ese respecto. 

Escritorio para la venta: 

1159 HUDSON TERMINAL, NUEVA YORK 

Fabricado por la LYTTON MANUFACTURING CORPORATION, FRANKLIN, VIRGINIA, E. U. A. 

Agente en la Habana: J. E. Hernandez, Inquisidor 5. 



_ T H E C U B A R E \' I E W 35 

In the House of Representatives at Washington a hiU was reported by the Committee 
on Ways and Means proposing to make all sugars free of duty and it may pass the 
House to-day, as the democrats, who are in control of that House, favor it, but when 
the bill reaches the Senate, controlled by republicans, it will doubtless be amended by 
placing a duty of 80c. to $1.00 per 100 lbs. on Cuban 96 degrees test sugar and go back 
to the House for further action. 

It is generally considered that the free sugar proposition is made for political effect 
and that no final action on the sugar tariff will be taken until after the November 
elections. 

Free sugar would, of course, kill the Cuban reciprocity treaty and have a great effect 
on the trade in general merchandise between Cuba and the United States, but, from 
present indications, it is not necessary to worry about that, for the present, at least. 

Refined sugars advanced to basis of fine granulated at 5.80c. less 2 per cent, but since 
declined to 5. 70c. to 5.60c. less 2 per cent, at which little business is doing, pending the 
consumption of sugars already contracted for. 

In any event, the present season should prove very profitable to Cuban planters. 

New York, March 15, 1912. 



REVISTA AZUCARERA 

Escrita expresamente para la Cub.\ Review por W'illett & Gray, de Xueva York 



Nuestra ultima revista para esta publicacion estaba fechada el 15 de febrero de 1912, 
en cuyo periodo las centrifugas polarizacion 96 grados se cotizaban a 4.735c. la libra. 
Entretanto el mercado se puso temporalmente mas firme y los precios alcanzaron una 
base de 4.80c. por las de polarizacion de 96 grados, siguiendo una reaccion que continue 
reduciendo los precios invariablemente hasta haber alcanzado una base de 4.52c. las de 
polarizacion 96 grados, lo cual es ahora la cotizacion corriente para pronto embarque. 
Los refinadores tomaron una cantidad considerable de azucar. especialmente de aziicares 
centrifuges de Cuba, pero no mas de lo usual para esta epoca del ano. 

La actividad en los precios durante el mes de febrero fue algo prematura y escasamente 
justificada por la situacion en general, sino que fue debida en gran parte a la repentina 
y enorme demanda por aziicares refinados de parte de los traficantes en todo el pais, 
los cuales carecian casi por complete de existencias, ocasionando asi una fuerte demanda 
de aziicares crudos por parte de los refinadores para cubrir sus ventas de aziicares 
refinados. 

El comercio esta ahora generalmente bien surtido y por el presente es de esperarse 
una comparativa depresion. 

En 15 de febrero las cotizaciones europeas eran sobre la base de 15s 9d por azucar de 
remolacha pronta entrega, desde cuya fecha avanzaron a 16s 3%d el 20 de febrero, pero 
de aqui en adelante declinaron gradualmente hasta cerrarse el mercado, en que se alcanzo 
el precio de 15s %d, esto ultimo siendo la paridad de 5.22c. por centrifugas, 6 .70c. sobre 
nuestro mercado, una diferencia no fuera de la usual para esta epoca del ano. 



BUCKEYE NURSERIES 

M. E. GILLETT. Proprietor TAMPA, FLORIDA, U. S. A. 

ORANGE, LEMON AND GRAPE-FRUIT TREES 

LARGEST CITRUS NURSERY IN THE WORLD 
QUALITY VARIETY DELIVERY 

Price May Be Forgotte.m — Quality NEV'^ER. 

We grow nothing but Standard \'arieties which we can recommend to the trade as Money- 
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Having had thirty-one years' experience, we thoroughly understand packing trees for 
long-distance shipments. 

We guarantee our trees to be True to Name, Free from White Fly and to arrive at 
destination in good condition. 

Consider the future and protect your RI TPKTYF NIIRSFRIF^ 

investment by planting reliable trees from E»^^^-'IVtJ 1 J-. 1'^ «^ tXtJL.lXlL.kJ 



36 T H E C U B A R E V 1 E W 

Nuestros avisos por cable de Europa dan ciienta hoy de un aunu'iito de 7r),000 tone- 
ladas en el calculo de la cosecha de reniolacha de Rusia, haciendo el total de la cosecha 
de remolacha de toda Europa 6, 33(5, 000 toneladas contra 8,105,126 toneladas en la 
compaiia azucarera dc 1910-1911. Este aumento en el calculo ruso no da este ano al 
mundo mayores existencias, pues las exportaciones de Rusia estan limitadas por el 
acuerdo de Bruselas. 

Los ultimos informes acerca de las exportaciones de Rusia fuoron rcciindas por 
nosotros por cable con fecha 13 de marzo, manifestando que "segun informes semi- 
oficiales Rusia tal vez exportaria 150,000 toneladas extra en 1912 en adicion a las 
300,000 toneladas regulares, 50,000 toneladas extra en 1913 y 50,(i(i0 toneladas extra 
en 1914." 

Los especuladores europeos estan ahora vigilando minuciosamente los informes sobre 
la zafra de Cuba, pues el curso del futuro mercado depende en gran manera de la 
produccion en esa Isla esta estacion : habra suficiente azucar disponible en el mundo 
si Cuba produce 1,800,000 toneladas, pero cualquier disminucion importante en este 
calculo tendra tendencia a fortalecer el mercado hasta el primero de septiembre proxi- 
mamente, pasada cuya fecha puede hacerse uso de la proxima cosecha de azucar de 
remolacha europea. 

Los informes del tiempo en Cuba respecto a afectar la zafra varian diariamente; 
avisos recientes indican buen tiempo y grandes cosechas, pero desde el primero de enero 
ha habido muchas quejas acerca de lluvias excesivas y una baja produccion de azucar; 
hay en los campos tanta cafia que las personas competentes no se creen justificadas aun 
en reducir sus calculos acerca del resultado tota, en a creencia de que las deficiencias 
aparentes al presente pueden contrarrestarse si la estacion de la molienda puede alargarse 
algun tanto. 

En la Camara de Representantes en Washington el Comite de Medios y Arbitrios 
presento un proyecto de ley para que todos los azucares fuesen admitidos libres de 
derechos, cuyo proyecto tal vez sea aprobado por dicha Camera, por ser favorecido por 
los democratas, que cuentan con una mayoria en dicha Camera, pero cuando el proyecto 
llegue al Senado, en donde los republicanos cuentan con una mayoria, indudablemente 
sera enmendado imponiendo un derecho de 80c. a $1.00 por 100 libras en los azucares 
cubanos de polarizacicm 96 grados, volviendo a la Camara de Representantes para ser 
discutido de nuevo. 

Se considera generalmente que la proposici(3n del azucar libre de derechos se ha hecho 
con miras politicas y que no se llevara a cabo resolucion final respecto a la Tarifa del 
azucar sino hasta despues de las elecciones de noviembre. 

Por supuesto, el azucar libre de derechos acabaria con el Tradado de Reciprocidad 
con Cuba e influiria en gran manera con el comercio de mercaderias en general entre- 
Cuba y los Estados Unidos, pero por lo que se nota al presente, no es necesario preocu- 
parse de eso, por lo menos al presente. 

Los azucares refinados subieron a una base de 5.80c. menos 2 por ciento por los 
azucares finos granulados, pero desde entonces declinaron de 5.70c. a 5.60c. menos 2 
por ciento, a cuyo precio se estan haciendo pocas transacciones, dependiendo del consume 
de azucares ya contratados. 

De todas maneras, la presente estacion deberia resultar muy favorable para los planta- 
dores cubanos. 

Nueva York, marzo 15 de 1912. 



The Jobabo Mill, the newest among the already been fifty houses built, which are 
sugar mills of Cuba, is situated about 27 inhabited by families who have come from 
kilometers from the town of IMarti in other parts of the island. 
Oriente Province on the branch of the Cuba The plantation and mill work is under 
Railroad to Manzanillo, and has been con- the direction of Mr. Skaife and Mr. Evans, 
structed within seven months. The mill's superintendent and administrator, respect- 
capacity is a thousand bags daily. There ively. An illustration of the new mill ap- 
has also been built many buildings, offices, pears on page 12. 

dwelling of the administrator, three chalets ^ 

for members of the staff, store house, 

laboratory, etc. General Guillermo Acevedo, who headed 

The Cuba Company has taken a part of an uprising at Guanabacoa, in Havana 

the batey and established a town and named Province, last August, was sentenced to 

it Jobabo after the mill. There have thirty years' imprisonment on March 0th. 



THE CUBA R E V 1 E W 



37 



CABLE ADDRESS: Tu«nu«i 



NEW YORK 
64-66 Wall Strut 



LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

BANKERS 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of Collection and Remittance 
of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale 
of Letters of Exchange. Collection of Drafts, Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Payments 
by Cable and Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, Spain, 
Mexico, Puerto .Kico, Santo Domingo. Central and South America. 

CORRESPONDENTS: 

HAVANA— N. Gelats y Ca. LONDON— The London Joint Stock Bank, Ltd. 

MEXICO— Banco Central Mexicano Paris — Heine et Cie. 



DE INTERES PARA LOS DUENOS DE 
INGENIOS 

Hace poco oimos decir a un fabricante de 
los Estados Unidos : 

"Con frecuencia se nos ocurre la idea 
de si por regla general el dueno 6 admi- 
nistrador de un ingenio se fija en los 
pequefios detalles del costo en el desarrollo 
de la fuerza motriz a vapor de su maqui- 
naria, 6 si considcra esto de poca impor- 
tancia para llamar su atencion. Si tuviera 
esto en cuenta al finalizar la estacion, se 
quedaria asombrado y vendria a realizar 
la importancia de prestar mayor interes en 
la seleccion de efectos que den los mejores 
resultados. 

Por ejemplo, tomemos el pequeno de- 
talle de la empaquetadura para la maquina 
de vapor, la bomba y el compresor. Esto 
podra parecerle casi de poca monta para 
tenerlo en consideracion, pero fijandose 
un poco mas aun en este pequeno detalle 
se convenceria que representa para el mayor 
cantidad en dincro de lo que supone. 



La empaquetadura mal acondicionada 
significa exceso de friccion en la maquina 
de vapor y en los tubos de la bomba. La 
friccion significa mas consumo de vapor 
y esto a su vez quiere decir mas consumo 
de combustible. La friccion significa 
tamliien el desgaste de los tubos y gastos 
en composturas. La empaquetadura mal 
acondicionada rara vez proporciona la 
mitad del servicio obtenido con la de buena 
calidad, pues requiere la renovacion fre- 
cuente y ocasiona una perdida de tiempo 
considerable, lo que la hace ser un acce- 
sorio caro. 

Una empaquetadura verdaderamente 
buena no es costosa. La maquina de vapor 
funciona mas libremente, se desarrolla 
mas vapor sin gasto extra y rara vez re- 
quiere ser renovada, ahorrando trabajo." 

El fabricante aludido, cuyo producto es 
la empaquetadura "Eureka," regreso hace 
poco de un viaje a Cuba, quedando suma- 
mente complacido al observar en sus pere- 
grinaciones por toda la Isla que su articulo 
estaba de venta en casi todos los estable- 
cimientos. 



SUGAR TESTING APPARATUS 



FUNDADA EN 185! 




Hace una especiali- 

dad de surtir 
Todcrs los Inslru- 
mentos para la 
Prueba de Asucar 
y Habilitacidn dt 
Laboratorio. 
Unicos Agentes en 
los Estados Unidoi 
y Canada para loi 

STANDARD 
POLARISCOPIOS 

Su triple 6 doble 
campo de vision ha 
sido adoptado por 
el Gobierno de loi 
Estados Unidos co- 
mo norma. 

Toda la maquina- 
ria experimental y 
los aparatos descri- 
tos en ((Agricultural 
Analysis,)) del Prof. 
H. W. Wiley. Se 
suministran con 



POl.AKISCOPIO SOB 
Con caja a prueba 



RE "BOCKSTATIV" LA FORMA MAS MODERNA f^^^° todos los in- 
de polvo, parte de prisma, y engranaje prolongado. ormes pedidos. 

EIMER & AMEND, 205-211 Third Avenue, New York P.^;l?r/»S^'^ 

Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW wtikn writtnt, to advertisers 



38 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



ROOMS FOR THE SUMMER 



Habitaciones claras y con sol para hospedaje, 
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all the year round. Write for terms to 

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459-461-463 Tompkins Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



HAVANA 



The United Railways of Havana 

in conjunction with the Cuba Railroad, maintain a service of 
two trains daily between Havana and the growing Eastern 
city of CAMAGUEY, and one Express Train daily between 
Havana and SANTIAGO DE CUBA, the "Dream City of the 
West Indies." Buffet lunch is served on these trains. 

FOUR TRAINS DAILY 

in both directions between Havana and MATANZAS, which latter city because of its picturesque 
situation and tne charm of its principal attractions (Yumuri's famous valley and the wonderful 
caves of Bellamar) has long enjoyed distinction as the great "Mecca" of the tourists, and it 
continues to gain in populaiity. EXCELLENT TRAIN SERVICE is maintained to many other 
places of great interest to tourists, all of which are fully described in "Cuba — A Winter 
Paradise," a profusely illustrated 80-page booklet with six complete maps and 72 views illustrative 
of this wonderful island, sent postpaid on receipt of 3 cents in stamps. 

Frank Roberts, General Passenger Agent 
United Railways of Havana 118, Prado, Havana, Cuba 



FRED WOLFE ^^i calzada de vives, Havana 

Cable, "Wolfe" 

Negociante en Todas Clases Dealer in all Classes of 
de Ganado Live Stock 

Especialmente en Mulos Especially in Mules 

Always on hand Large Stock of All Classes of Mules — All Mules Sold Are 
Guaranteed as Represented— Can Furnish Any Number Desired on Short Notice 



'te 



^s'Land''of''Suba''Sf the LIVERPOOL & LONDON & GLOBE INSURANCE CO. 

This Company will issue Binders on risks in the Island of Cuba 
at theii New York oflice, 45 William Street. Tel., 3097 John. 
FIRE LOSS OF INCOME BOILER EXPLOSION 

FIRE AND BOILER EXPLOSION following FIRE ENGINE BREAKDOWN 

Havana Office: 106 Cuba Street 



P. RUIZ ^ BROS. 

ENGRAVERS 
• FINE STATIONERY 
Obispo 22 P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA, CUBA 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

Established 1836, at 105 Wall St. 

Cable Address, "Tide, New York" 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



HAVANA 



CUBA 

National Bank of Cuba 

Government Depositary 

CAPITAL, SURPLUS AND 
UNDIVIDED PROFITS 

$6,250,000.00 



Head Office — Havana 

20 BRANCHES IN CUBA 

N en? York Agency 
I WALL STREET 



COLLECTIONS 



THE 

TRUST COMPANY OF CUBA 

HAVANA 



CAPITAL and 
SURPLUS 



$580,000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRUST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT 

EXAMINES TITLES COLLECTS RENTS 

NEGOTIATES LOANS ON MORTGAGES 

Correspondence Solicited from 
Intending Investors 



OFFICERS 

Norman H. Davis President 

O. A. Hornsby - Vice-President and Treas. 
Claudio G. Mendoza - - Vice-President 

Rogelio Carbajal Secretary 

J. M. Hopgood - - - Assistant Treasurer 

Offices: Cuba, 31, Havana 



The Royal Bank of Canada 

INCORPORATED 1869 

Fiscal Agent of the Government of the Republic of 
Cuba for the Payment of the Army of Liberation 

Paid-up Capital 

and Reserve. . . .w>13, 100,000.00 
Total Assets $95,000,000.00 



Head Office 



MONTREAL 



New York Agency 
68 William Street 

Branches in Havana: Obrapia 33, Galiano 92; 

Matanzas, Cardenas, Manzanillo, Cienfuegos, 

Camaguey, Santiago de Cuba, Mayari, Sagua, 

Caibarien 



Established 1844 

H. UPMANN & CO. 

BANKERS 

TRANSACT A GENERAL BANKING BUSINESS 
Correspondent* at All Principal Placet cf the Kland 

Safe Deposit I'aults 

Manufacturers of the Famous H. Upmann 
Brand of Cigars 



FACTORY: 
Paieo de Tacon 159-163 



OFFICE: 
Amariura 1-3 



Established 1876 



N. GELATS & COMPANY 

BANKERS 



Transact a general banking business 
Correspondents at all the principal 
places of the world 

Safe Deposit faults 
Office: Aguiar 108 



The coachmen's strike in Cienfuegos was 
settled Februar.v 28th in their favor. 

They struck because the condition of the 

streets was such as to seriously damage 

their vehicles. The city government has 

agreed to put the streets in proper condition 

I at once. 



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40 THECUBAREVIEW 



LINGUISTIC PRINTERS' COMPANY 

Neumann & Spark, Props. 



Excellent Printing of Magazines and Trade Publications 



Jobs of All Description Tastefully Executed 



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82 VITALL STREET, NEMr YORK 

'ublishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal — the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED. 



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"Sugar News from Cuba" 

is the title of the interesting correspondence from the tropical island 
appearing in every issue of the 

AMERICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY 

The latest and most reliable sugar news from every part of the 
World is gathered by our own Special Correspondents, and appears ex- 
clusively in this paper. 

PRINTED IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH 

A Spanish Section has been recently added for the benefit of our 
readers in Cuba, Porto Rico and other Spanish speaking countries. 

Monthly, $2.00 per year in the United States, Cuba, and Mexico. In 
foreign countries, $2.50 per year. Subscribe for it if you want to keep 
posted. 

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Telephone, 83 Hamilton 
Night Call, 411 Hamilton 



Cable Addr«u: 
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Atlantic Basin Iron Works 

Engineers and "Boiler Makers 

ICachinifts, Plumbers, Tinsmiths, Pipe Fitters, Blacksmiths, Coppenmiths, 
Pattern Makers, Sheet Iron VVork«rs. Iron and Brass Castings. Steamship 
Repairs a Specialty. 



Cor. Jmlay and Svmmit Streets 



Brooklyn, JV. Y. 



John Munro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers* Supplies 

7?2 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address : Kunomale, New York 

Telephone, 2492 South 



Telephone 
215 Hamilton 



Box 186 
Maritime Exchangt 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

Caulkers, Spar MakcfS 

Boat Builders, Etc 

No. 9 SUMMIT STREET 
Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 



THE AMERICAN PHOTO COMPANY 



:: COMMERCIAL :: 
PHOTOGRAPHERS 



OBISPO No. 70 



HAVANA, CUBA 

The best equipped plant in the Island of Cuba. Our photographers will go on your order to 
any part of Cuba and do your photographic work — any size. Panorama work a specialty. 
Developing and printing for amateurs receive the same care as our professional work. Largest 
and best collection of Cuban and Isle of Pines views in existence. 



A Canadian opinion on the relations of 
the United States and Cuba is as follows : 
"Uncle Sam took Cuba from Spain because 
he believed Spain did not know how 
properly to govern the island. Spain and 
the world at large is being afforded evi- 
dence that Uncle Sam finds the job a trifle 
burdensome. Of course, the United States 
does not really govern Cuba. Cuba governs 
herself. But behind the Cuban govern- 
ment is alwaj^s the hand of the authorities 
at Washington. The United States should 
not permit the Cuban politician to despoil 
the island. Having taken the job out of 
the hands of Spain, for Cuba's good, Uncle 
Sam must improve on Spain's misgovern- 
ment. even if things are openly to be di- 
rected from Washington." — London (Ont.) 
Free Press. 

This country has spent priceless blood 
to establish an orderly government in Cuba. 
The money cost of our two interventions 
has amounted to twenty million dollars. | 
These sacrifices must not be wasted. Cuba' 
must have an orderly government — even 



if she is unable to sustain a detached and 
independent government. — Los Angeles 
fCal.) Examiner. 











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iM 


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ip^^^»j»-j^H 




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Steel Bridge on the line of the Cuban Central 
Railways in Santa Clara Province 



42 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HENRY E. BROWN Shipping .nd Ex- 

, port Chemist mnd 

Pharmacist Druggist. 

Ships' Medicine Chests furnished and re- 
plenished. Prescriptions compounded by m 
Graduate in Pharmacy. 

Trusses, Surgical Appliances, etc. 

Office and Laboratory, Roou 36 

116 BROAD STREET, NEW YORK 



Bottled at the Brewery 




For Sale at all Dealers 
and on the Munson Line 



Sobrinos De Bea & Co. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 
lmportacl6n directa de todas lot 
centroi manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, 
New York and Mobile; James E. Ward & 
Co., New York; Serra Steamship Company, 
Liverpool; Vapores Transatlanticos de A. 
Folch & Co. de Barcelona, Espana Indepen- 
dencia Street 17/21. 

MATANZAS. CUBA 



JOHN w. McDonald 

COAL. WOOD. LUMBER 
AND TIMBER 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

112 Wall Street, New York 

Near South Street 

Yard; 56-58 Beard Street, Erie Basin 

Telephones: 

Office, 1905 John Yard, 316 Hamilton 



M. J. CABANA COMMISSION 

MERCHANT 
P. O. Box 3, Cauaguey 
Handle! all Unei of merchandise either on a commliiion 
baiii or under agenejr arrangement!. Also furnlihei all 
de!ired information about land! in eaitarn Cuba. 

The secretary of agriculture has sent an 
order to all the port authorities of the 
island prohibiting the catching of lobsters 
between March 1st and May 31st. 



ISLE OF PINES BOATS 

A sea-going vessel is to be constructed 
in Pittsburgh. Colonel T. J. Keenan, who 
has just returned from the Isle of Pines, 
where he has large investments, announced 
recently that it had been decided by the 
Isle of Pines Navigation Company, of 
which he is president, to construct a steam- 
ship for operations between Key West and 
Cuba and that the vessel would be built 
in Pittsburgh, says the Post of that city. 

It is his opinion that the theory of the 
necessity of a deep draft as a necessity for 
ocean-going vessels is a worn-out super- 
stition. The Isle of Pines Navigation 
Company has now two vessels plying be- 
tween the island, which lies to the south 
of Cuba, and Havana. These vessels are 
of only about six feet draft, but they have 
navigated the length of the Atlantic coast. 

The steamer which Colonel Keenan and 
his business associates intend to have con- 
structed here will be used to carry trade 
between Key West and Havana. It will 
form part of an important link in the new 
commerce between this country and the 
southern islands, which is now in process 
of formation. 

There are about 100 Pittsburghers who 
have investments in the Isle of Pines, said 
Col. Keenan. 

Journal d' Agriculture Tropicale 

Founded iy J. VILBOUCHEVITCH 
164 Rue Jeanne d'Arc Prolongie, Paris 



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Deals with the leading questions of the hour, 
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THE SNARE AND TRIEST COMPANY 

CONTRACTING ENGINEERS 



STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 



We are prepared to furnish plans and estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 



New York Office 

143 Liberty St. 



Havana Office 
Zulueta 36 D. 



W. H. Bennett 



F. W. Hvoslef 



Bennett, Hvoslef & Co. 
Steamship Agents and Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY. NEW YORK 



Cable: "Benwalsh" 



Pleask mention the CUBA REVIEW wkek wkitimg to aovektisku 



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MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE 

GENERAL OFFICES 

82 BEAVER STREET, NEW YORK 
NEW YORK-CUBA SERVICE 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT SERVICE BETWEEN NEW YORK 
AND ANTILLA.NIPE BAY. NUEVITAS. PUERTO PADRE, GIBARA 

Special Through Rates to Camague^ via Nuevitas 



PROPOSED SOUTHBOUND SAILINGS 

A Steamer (F. eight only) -------_. April 3rd 

S.S. CuRiTYBA April 1 7th 

Steamers sail from Pier 9, East River, at 12 o'clock noon 

PROPOSED NORTHBOUND SAILINGS 

S.S. CuRiTYBA - Nuevitas, April 5th 

A Steamer (Freight only) - - - - Nuevitas, April I 9th 

Note : Steamers do not call at Xipe northbound. 

The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 

NEW YORK— CUBA SERVICE 

freight only 

New York to Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua and Caibarien 

MOBILE— CUBA SERVICE 

freight only 

Regular Sailings Mobile to Havana; Mobile to North Side 
and South Side Cuban Ports 

BALTIMORE— COLON SERVICE 

freight only 

Regular Sailings Baltimore to Colon 



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Lillie Multiple Ervaporators 



Model of 1904-1905 (Patented) 




"One of three Lillie quad- 
ruple effects installed in 
1907, in sugar factories ia 
Formosa, belonging to the 
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Two more quadruple effects, 
one to handle 550,000 gallon/ 
of cane juice per twenty-four 
hours, and the other to 
handle 325,000 gallons in the 
same period, are now (July 
ist, 1909) being built for 
the same Japanese Company, 
also for stvice in Formosa. 
These quadruple effects arc 
arranged for reversing the 
course of the vapors and 
heat at will, a mode of op- 
eration peculiar to the Lillie 
and which has proven of 
great value for solutions de- 
positing incrustations on th« 
evaporating tubes." 



The Sugar Apparatus Manufacturing Co. 

328 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



*. MORRIS LILLIE. President. 



LEWIS C. LILLIE, Secretary and Treasure 



THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS 

Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A. 

LOCOMOTIVES 



BROAD AND 
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""op" TRAn"' PLANTATION LOCOMOTIVES d'?t.ons"of*serv?ce 

specifications Furnished on Applicatwn 

American Trading Company, Calle de Cuba 78a, Havana, Cuba 

Cable Address: "Baldtvin, Philadelphia" 



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COPYRIGHT, 1912 



IT COVERS THE ISLAND'S 

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ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR POSTPAID 



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PA lENTE PELAEZ 



Esta maza puede colocarse facMmente en cualquier trapiche, sea de dos 6 tres mazas. Machuca bien 
la cana desmenuzdndola y extrayendole al mismo t:empo las dos terceras partes de su guarapo, dejaiido 
la caiia bien preparada i>ara el seguudo trapiche. Ejecuta todo el trabajo de una desmenuzadora de 
primera clase y sin mas gasto que cuando se opera con una maza lisa. Esta maza es de acero y se ha 
sacado privilegio para ella en todas las partes del mundo donde se cultiva la catia de aziicar. Puea 
envienos un dibnjo de la maza superior que usan Uis , asi que de su eje, y les cotizaremos precios bajoa 
por una maza completa para desmenuzar la canadc este trapiche. 

NEWELL MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 149 Broadway, New York. E. U. A. 

PIERRE DROESHOUT, Agt., Apartade 861, Havana, Cuba 



EPPING-CARPENTER COMPANY 

HIGHEST GRADE PUMPS FOR 
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Factory: Pittsburg, Pa., U. S. A. = New York Office: 90 West St. 



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Cable Address: 
Ramaliau 



FOR LUBRICATION 



OF ENGINES AND MACHINERY 
OF ALL KINDS 

Dixon's Flake Graphite gives results impossible to oil or grease alone. 
Write fo' free booklet. "Graphite as a Lubricant." 

Cuban Agent: CHAS. BLASCO, HAVANA 
JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE COMPANY .... JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



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OF 

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FARQUHAR 




Todos los comerciantes y agricultores 
en la Isia de Cuba saben de que el nom- 
bre de FARQUHAR es el solicitado para 
Arados, Implementos de Agricultura y 
iVlaquinaria. — Orandes partidas estan 
proveidas constantemente por los comer- 
ciantes de todas las ciudades de la Isla. 



Se envian Catalogos llustrados 
a previa peticion 



Asentes: AMERICAN TRADING COMPANY, NUEVA YORK Y HABANA 

A. B. FARQUHAR & CO. 

Cotton Exchange Building New York, U. S. A. 




Prensas de 

Filtrar 

para Ingenios 

SHRIVER 

FILTER PRESSES 

Write us for 
Catalog, Prices 
and Information 

T. Shriver & Co. 

814 Hamilton St 
Harrison, N. J 

Represented in Lout 

siana by E. A. SAM 

MONS CO.. Ltd. 

New Orleans, La. 

Represented in Porte 
Rico by McMUR- 
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Inc., San Juan, P. R. 



FOR MOLASSES USE 

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BUILT BY 



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MATERIAL FABRICATED OR ERECTED COMPLETE 



W. B. HAMMOND, Sales Agent 
2630 Whitehall Building, New York 



REPRESENTATIVE IN CUBA 

SUSSDORFF, ZALDO & COMPANY 
26 O'Reilly Street, Havana 



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THL CUBA RLVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 
An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 82-92 Beaver Street, New York 

MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Editor* and Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 
$1.00 Per Year --------- lo Cents Single Copy 

Advertising Rates on Application 

Vol. X APRIL, 1912 No. 3 



Contents of This Number 

The cover page shows beautiful Colon Park in Havana. 

Political matters naturally take first place this month,' and the two parties have made 
their nominations. For t*ie conservatives, General Mario Menocal, the candidate 
at the previous election has been chosen for president, and Dr. Enrique Jose Varona 
for his running mate. The Liberal Party has avoided the election of President 
Gomez and chosen Alfredo Zayas for their presidential candidate, and Governor 
Manduley of Oriente Province for vice-president; see page 7. United States Secre- 
tary of State Knox visited Havana and was handsomely entertained. At the banquet 
given in his honor he made an unusually lengthy speech, indicating the position of 
the United States with regard to Cuba. This is on pages 8 and 9. A table on 
page 8 shows the preponderance of the colored voters in the island. 

Short news notes, showing the activities of the island, are on pages 10 and 11. 

Some press and individual comment on Cuban matters is on page 12. 

The final word of the "Maine," describing the burial of the battleship, is on page 13. 

Further description of the pier construction work of Havana and a characteristic illus- 
tration will be found on pages 14 and 15. 

An interesting article on the cost of manufacturing ice from the Practical Engineer 
of Cliicago is on page 16. 

It is stated Cubans prefer American shoes, and that no discrimination is shown against 
them as otherwise reported. This is on page 17. On the same page our special 
correspondent in London gives some valuable figures regarding importations of 
Cuban mahogany. 

An article on the increase of Cuban wrapper duty is on page 18. 

Two illustrations, showing the industries of Cuba, are on page 19. 

Traffic receipts of Cuban railroads are on page 20. 

Some interesting views of the coming tobacco harvest are on page 21. 

Further financial and commercial news and Cuban railroad earnings are on page 22. 

The merger of the Havana Electric and the Havana Gas Company has been completed 

and is described on page 23. 
Havana's-, customs collection and the mileage of the 18 railroads in the republic are 
given on page 24. 

That Cuba has a growing market for American vehicles of all descriptions is shown 
by an article on page 25. 

Cuba's importations of mules are described on page 26. 

In an article on page 27 Professor Nicholson shows that the island is rich in minerals. 

The value of cane sugar in certain illnesses from an article in the British Medical 
Journal and a chart of sugar prices for the first three months of 1911 and 1912 
are on page 29. 

Production of fusel oil from sugar waste, and how to find the capacity of tanks and 
boilers are on page 32. 

The usual valuable analysis of sugar prices at New York by Messrs. Willett and Gray 
will be found on pages 35 and 36, and the same article in Spanish will be found 
on pages 37 and 38. 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED TIIROUGHGOUT 



THL 
CUBA RLVILW 



"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 



Copyright, 1912, by the Munson Steamship Line 



Volume X 



APRIL, 1912 



Number 



QAl 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 



Political 
Gossip 



Dr. Enrique Jose \'arona, 
president of the Conserva- 
tive Party, has made the 
positive statement that if 
his party nominates again General Mario 
Menocal, now the general manager of the 
great Chaparra sugar estate, for its can- 
didate for president of Cuba, that the 
General will run. The Havana Post says 
he has written a letter to Dr. Varona, 
in which he points out that - there are 
several others in the Conservative Party 
just as strong as he and asks that one of 
them be nominated in his stead. He states 
in the letter that he is sick, that he has 
been working steadily at Chaparra for two 
years without a rest and that his physicians 
declare it imperative for him to go abroad 
after the present sugar campaign. He 
declares that he felt that he had done his 
dut}'- by his party by being its candidate 
three years ago. He ended, however, by 
saying that be bowed his head to party 
discipline. He will do its bidding. 

On April 8th, General Menocal having 
been on April 7th unanimously nominated 
for president of Cuba by the Conservative 
Party, accepted the nomination. Dr. En- 
rique Jose Varona is his running mate. 
"These two men, who are possessed of 
great prestige," says La Lucha, "will inspire 
a great deal of confidence to the people, 
for the country is now anxious for an hon- 
est and conscientious administration." 

"What is the more desirable for the 
country — a government of the Conserva- 
tive Party or a government of the Zayista 
faction?" asks El Miuido of Havana. 
"To formulate the question is to answer 
it," it says, and its own answer is as 
follows: "Evidently the welfare of the 
country would be better proinoted by a 
Conservative than by a Zayista administra- 
tion. For to be governed by a powerful 
party is b}'' no means the same as to be 
governed by a faction; factional adminis- 



tration is always disastrous, for it is one 
thing to be governed by a system of prin- 
ciples and quite another to be governed 
by a conglomeration of personal interests. 
Should the country declare its preference 
for a Zayista rather than for a government 
by the powerful and respectable Conserva- 
tive Party, it would show its poUtical in- 
eptitude, its incapacity for self-government, 
and this without taking into consideration 
that a Zayista .government could not en- 
dure ; its existence would be stormy and 
ephemeral. It could not long resist the 
assaults of the Conservatives and of the 
other Liberal faction." 



Alfredo 
Zayas 

Nominated 



The national convention of 
the Liberal Party held their 
meeting in Havana on the 
night of April 15th, ad- 
journing at ] a. m., and 
nominating Alfredo Zayas, the present vice- 
president of Cuba, for president, despite 
predictions that he would not receive the 
coveted distinction. Sr. Manduley, the 
governor of Oriente Province, was nomi- 
nated at the same time for vice-president. 
President Gomez' last word, says the Nezv 
York Sun, was that he had no desire for 
re-election, as he did not wish to be re- 
proached as the late President Palma had 
been with the assertion that he "was 
enamored of the job.". 

The same evening, partisans of Zayas 
and Governor Asbert, the unsuccessful 
candidate, met in a fierce riot on the Prado. 
Many shots were fired and several persons 
were wounded. The police charged the 
mob repeatedly. A large number of arrests 
were made and order was finally restored. 
The administration organs question the 
validity of the nominations. All the anti- 
Zayas papers predict the formation of a 
third party, the nomination of President 
Gomez and the defeat of the liberal can- 
didates. 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



United States Secretary of 

Secretary State Knox and party ar- 

Knox's rived at Santiago April ."ith. 

Visit and left on the Sunday 

following for Jamaica. 

Contrary to the wishes of the American 
secretary, his arrival took on somewhat 
of an official character, for he was met 
at the pier and welcomed by Ross E. 
Holaday, the American consul; the gov- 
ernor of the Province of Oriente, the 
commander of the rural guard, the mayor 
and city councillors of Santiago, repre- 
sentatives of the Chamber of Commerce, 
representatives of the archbishop of San- 
tiago and the British, French, German, 
Brazilian, Argentine, Colombian, Mexican, 
Norwegian, Santo Domingan and other 
consuls. A troop of cavalry escorted the 
secretary to his hotel, and officers of the 
rural guard were stationed there to attend 
him. 

The formal entertainment of the secre- 
tary took place in Havana, where^ Mr. 
Knox arrived April 11th. The Cuban 
government appropriated $13,000 for this 
purpose. 

\Vhile in Santiago, a delegation com- 
posed of thirty colored men who are in- 
terested in procuring an amendment of the 
constitution to permit the straight colored 
party to have electoral rights, tried to se- 
cure an interview with the secretary in 
order to present a petition asking the 
State Department to exercise its influence 
in order to secure the colored party's 
rights at the polls in Cuba, but were un- 
successful, Ross E. Holaday, the American 
consul, inducing them to abandon the 
project. 

A committee of the veterans, headed by 
General Castillo y Duany, also called to 
see the secretarv and also without success. 



The corrections made in 

Registered the voters' list in prepara- 

Voters tion for the presidential 

of Cuba campaign show there are 

in the entire island 485,116 

voters. These are divided among the 

provinces as follows : 

White Colored 

Pinar del Rio Province.. 41,328 14,981 

Havana Province 89,271 31.063 

]\Iatanzas Province 36,092 24,3.-.4 

Santa Clara Province... 79,051 34,526 

Camaguey Province 24,053 6,002 

Oriente Province 57,877 46,518 

Total 327,672 157,444 

This official compilation shows that the 
colored Cuban voters represent 48 per cent 
of the voting class. 



Congress convened April 1st for the last 
congressional period of the year. 



An association for good 
For roads has been formed in 

Good Havana under the name of 

Roads "Associacion de Buenos 

Caminos." The organiza- 
tion is preparing to go actively to work 
along the lines observed by such associa- 
tions in the United States. 

"The association's aim," says the Havana 
Post, "is to improve the present avenues 
of communication, prepare and publish 
road maps of the island, regulate and pro- 
tect the traffic of vehicles of all classes, 
secure the construction of highways which 
will open to local and foreign markets the 
produce of great tracts now waste for the 
lack of proper facilities." 



At a dinner given in honor 
Knox of United States Secretary 

J'^cassiires of State Knox on April 
Cuba 11th by the Cuban Secre- 

tary of the Interior Sr. 
Machada, w-hich was a most elaborate 
affair, Sr. Sanguily made the address of 
welcome. Secretary Knox's response was 
a reassurance of the disinterested purpose 
of the United States toward Cuba. 

After referring to his visit as the presi- 
dent's representative to the independent 
nation of the Caribbean, a message of 
fraternal good will and assurance, he said : 

"The special purpose of my mission hav- 
ing been accomplished, it is alike appro- 
priate and gratifying that on the home- 
ward journey I should have the opportu- 
nity to get into closer personal touch with 
the one sovereign people of the whole 
western world who, above all, are in a posi- 
tion to know and appreciate the broad and 
essentially conscientious policy of Anglo- 
Saxon America toward Latin-America. 

"So far as Cuba is concerned, our record 
speaks for itself. It is consistent and un- 
blemished. Our deeds with respect to the 
Cuban people are before you. Look to 
them for fresh assurance, that the United 
States stands firmly as a true and whole- 
hearted friend of Cuba, glad of the work 
it has done for the Cuban people and ready 
to aid them to conserve the civic and ma- 
terial benefits, which it was our good for- 
tune to be instrumental in helping them to 
win. 

"First among these benefits is self-gov- 
ernment. We hold that all people are fit 
to work out the highest ideals of self-gov- 
ernment by creating for themselves and by 
their own effort a healthy national life, 
inspired by safe and sane exercise of the 
popular will, homogeneous in all its parts, 
free from radical weakness or corporeal 
blemish, self-respecting and imbued with 
respect for the rights of all, at home and 
abroad. 

"Providence has called upon free Cuba 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



to be a model state among the popular 
commonwealths of the world and has 
opened the way to the achievement of that 
noble purpose. That is the goal for which 
we have, with you, spent our blood and 
treasure, and to which our earnest efforts 
will ever be directed. Beginning Cuban 
political life was the affirmation of the 
brotherhood of the American and Cuban 
people. Let us ever be brothers. 

"A people liberated from oppressive 
tyranny are no better oft' if unrestrained 
by selfishness, which almost inevitably 
leads to anarchy. A people so situated 
cannot porfitably exercise the right of self- 
government unless they work faithfully to- 
gether with a singleness of aim. Mistrust, 
jealousy, selfishness, aloofness, apathj^ will 
rob a people of their birthright. There is 
always more to unite than separate all 
classes of citizens, and in Cuba, as in all 
republics, all classes should be alert in 
the consciousness of their civic duties, and 
should not remit the destinies of their 
country to the hands of a few, who, with 
nothing to lose and everything to gain, 
make a business of the politics of their 
country. 

"It is the fervent prayer of my govern- 
ment and my countrymen," said the sec- 
retary in conclusion, "that free Cuba abide 
steadfastly in the high station to which 
Providence has called her, sturdy with the 
strength of stable self-control, free from 
the infirmities that beset weak peoples, 
earnest in the path of self-development." 

Sr. Sanguily, speaking on behalf of 
President Gomez, extended a cordial wel- 
come to Secretar}- Knox. He saluted him 
as a harbinger of peace, who came, "not 
bearing the sword of conquest, but extend- 
ing branches of olive and laurel and peace- 
ful messages from the greatest republic 
to those fiery little republics shaped to her 
image, although under different conditions 
— some born, as the most recent was. at 
the magic touch of her diplomacy ; others, 
as our own. by the assistance of her arms." 

"Americanism is either an empty word 
or a leaven of order and dignity, which 
implants in all peoples the seed of vigor- 
ous virtues. Whatever may be the changes 
in the application of the Monroe Doctrine, 
we know that they can never mean a har- 
assing, illegal and humiliating suzerainty, 
consisting in constant arbitrary intriguing 
of an alien government in the private nor- 
mal life of sovereign nations. If to coun- 
sel us in the difficulties of national life, 
pointing out the dangers born of inexpe- 
rience, is what may be called a preventive 
policy, no reproach can be laid at your 
door, and we should be blameworthy in 
failing to take advantage of the benefits 
so offered." 

The Havana press devoted much space 
to the visit of the secretary of state. All 



of them made a feature of a part of his 
speech, which was described as "Another 
Warning to Cuba." The interpretation of 
his remarks, however, was made on party 
lines. The government papers said that 
the secretary of state warned all factions 
to be good and to unite in support of the 
government. The opposition papers, on 
the other hand, said that Mr. Knox's 
reference to those who make a business of 
the politics of their country was intended 
for those who sat nearest him at table. It 
was noticeable that w^hile Mr. Knox's 
compliments to Cuba were applauded, his 
advice was received silently. 



On March 2.3d. General 

A Estenoz, president of the 

Negro Independent Colored Party, 

Meetings sent a cable despatch to 

President Taft, asking for 

the protection of his life and the right to 

preach a political doctrine of which he 

alleged the Cuban government had deprived 

him. 

An attempt to hold a meeting in a pri- 
vate house in Cruces, Santa Clara Prov- 
ince, was frustrated by the rural guard, 
acting under government orders to pro- 
hibit meetings of negroes. 

Nobody seems to know how to deal with 
this specter of an Independent Party of 
Color except by locking it up, says the 
Philadelphia Evening Post. Is is entirely 
impracticable to deal with the specter of a 
\ eterans' Association in that manner. 
Each of these specters contains possibilities 
of trouble : but there is another specter — 
that of American intervention — which tends 
l)owerfully to preserve the peace. 



The government of Cuba has at last de- 
cided upon the full plans for the monu- 
ment, which it will erect to the memory of 
the sailors who perished in the battleship 
"]\Iaine," and it will be the most elaborate 
that has so far been designed to com- 
memorate the disaster which gave that 
country its independence. 




Alfredo Zayas, now vice-president of Cuba, and 
nominated for president by the National Conven- 
tion of the Liberal Party, April 15th. 



10 



THE CUBA R E \^ I E W 



ALL AROUND CUBA 



INTERESTING NEWS NOTES REGARDING VARIOUS MATTERS PERTAINING 

TO THE ISLAND 



The Lo Gloria Cuban-American, date of 
March 23d, prints a story of an attack l)y 
L. L. Newsome upon A. L. Shriver, both 
well-known residents of the town, during 
which the latter received a serious wound 
from a pocket budding knife in the hands 
of Newsome. The wound developed 
serious complications later, and Mr. Shriver 
was moved to the Camaguey hospital. 
His assailant, after a preliminary hearing, 
was released on $400 bail. 

The rural guard, everywhere in evidence 
in Cuba, did some good work, recently, 
when the films in a moving picture show 
took fire at Union ed Reyes. The guards 
promptly put out the fire and prevented 
the audience from stampeding, thus pre- 
venting possible loss of life. 

Raul Capablanca, the Cuban chess cham- 
pion, was recently presented in Havana 
with a medal voted him by the Havana 
city council, in recognition of his splendid 
work in defeating the world's chess experts 
at the tourney at San Sebastian, Spain. 

When a factory devoted to the manufac- 
ture of perfumes in a suburl) of Havana 
burned down a few weeks ago, the arrest 
of the manager in charge was immediately 
ordered pending an investigation. 

The entire real-estate holdings in Vc- 
dado, Havana, of the late Sir William 
Redding were bought from th.e heirs. The 
Durchase price is stated to be $480,000. 

The purchaser was the Compania Ter- 
ritorial de Cuba. 

Cuban grapefruit sold on March 7th at 
Detroit at from $5.50 to $6.75 per box. 
Mention is made in the press of the fine 
quality of the Cuban fruit. 

A post office and telegraph station has 
been opened at Las Delicias, Oriente 
Province. 

A brewery and an ice plant are projected 
for Cienfuegos by New York parties. It is 
said that Mr. W. P. Schmidt, recently con- 
nected with the Franklin Brewing Co. of 
Brooklyn, has formed a company and se- 
cured the necessary capital. The capacity 
of the brewery will be 15,000 liarrels an- 
nually. 

During 1911 there were performed 308 
operations at the Hospital Santa Isabel at 
Cardenas, of which only six proved fatal. 

Fire in Santiago on .\pril 17th did 
damage to the extent of $2-50,000. 



A final decree directing the American 
Mail Steamship Company to pay into the 
court $105,000 in full "settlement of all 
claims resulting from the sinking of the 
steamship "Merida," of the New York and 
Cuba Mail Steamship Line, was entered 
March 14th by Judge Holt, in the United 
States District Court. 

The steamship "Admiral Farragut," of 
the American Mail Steamship Company, 
ran down and sank the "Merida" on May 
12, 1911, ofif Cape Charles, Virginia. The 
New York and Cuba company claimed 
damages of $1,800,000, but in accordance 
with a motion for limitation of liability, 
Judge Holt directed the payment of only 
$105,000. 

From some parts of Cuba have come 
requests to the government to permit cock- 
fights every day. At present the mains 
can only be fought on Sundays and holi- 
days. The government, it is stated, will 
not permit any change in the days already 
decided upon. The sugar mill owners do 
not want any more days set apart for the 
sport, as it takes away their laborers and 
seriously hampers the wurk of the mill. 




Sr. Manuel Gutierrez Ouii os. Secretario de 
IlacienTla. 



Sr. Manuel Gutierrez Quiros, who suc- 
ceeded Secretary of the Treasury Martinez 
Ortiz, assumed the ofiice about March 1st. 



THE CUBA RE\^IEW 



11 



A Xew Jersey motor construction com- 
panj' has shipped to Santa Cruz, Cuba, a 
motor boat 3() feet long and S feet beam, 
which will tow lighters carrying sugar 
during the harvesting season and rafts of 
mahogany at other times. Much of this 
trip is in the exposed waters of the Gulf 
of Guacarmabo, and as the boat will also 
be used in carrying light freight and pas- 
sengers from Manzanillo and Santa Cruz 
and return, power, seaworthiness and 
speed combined are demanded. 

Where there are shallow harbors and 
freight and passengers have to be lightened 
to the shore, a reliable fast little motor 
boat will be found indispensable. 

At the election, recently, of officers of 
the Cuban Horticultural Society in Cama- 
guey, the following were chosen : 

President : Dwight W. Dart, La Gloria ; 
Senior Vice-President and Treasurer : 
Walfredo Rodriguez, Camaguey ; Vice- 
President for Oriente Province : Thomas 
R. Towns, Holguin ; Colonial or District 
\'ice-Presidents : Angus Campell, Holguin : 
Edward Moss. Paso Estancia ; John J. 
Xeustel, La Gloria ; L. Rose, La Atalaya : 
E. J. Sharon, Camaguey City ; Secretary : 
Eli Shore, La Gloria. 

Cnited States Minister to Cuba, Arthur 
]\1. Beaupre, sends the following :- 

The Compahia Franco-Cubana de P^erro- 
carriles y Construcciones, capital stock 
$100,000, has been organized in Havana 
for constructing a tunnel under Havana 
harbor and a 4^L>-mile railroad from the 
other shore to Cojimar. The object is 
to boom real estate on the northern side 
of Havana Bay. 

The Xew York Women's League for 
Animals has established a newspaper, 
called the Animal Nezi's, and has appointed 
as its manager and editor Mrs. Edgar Van 
Etten, the wife of the president of the 
Cuba Eastern Railroad. 

According to a cable to the Xcic York 
Sun, boats of the Spanish-Cuban Steam- 
ship Line will no longer call at Lanzarote, 
one of the larger Canary Islands, for 
onions for the Cuban market. The in- 
habitants, whose sole occupation is raising 
onions, are thus deprived of a profitable 
market. 

A Trinidad firm has commenced the 
manufacture of chocolate creams of sev- 
eral flavors, and the product compares 
favorably with the best imported. Success 
seems assured, as it would be also if a 
similar industry were started in Cuba. 
Like in Trinidad, sugar and cacao are 
largely produced and the cost can be kept 
at a low figure. 

It is stated that good prices for the home- 
made confectionary were secured. 



The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Com- 
pany of America plans for the erection of 
a high power station near New York City, 
which will communicate south, through 
Cuba, to Panama and all South-Amercian 
countries. 

Laborers on the wharves at Cardenas 
struck March 1.3th, demanding $1.80 Amer- 
ican money for wages. They receive at 
present $1.00 Spanish, worth about 97 cents 
American currency. 

Provincial governments are demanding 
more money. Unless this is forthcoming, 
they say, it will be impossible for the 
provincial organizations to continue. 

Modern sanitary regulations have for- 
bidden the use of the picturesque old 
"tinajon" in Camaguey, and the residents 
of that old city must make connection 
with the mains of the new aqueduct for 
their drinking water. 

The "tinajon'' is a massive earthenware 
jar made on the island and big enough for 
AH Baba's purposes. They have been used 
from time immemorial for the storage of 
rain water. One finds them in almost 
all houses. 




rinajones in Camaguey, used for storing rain- 
water. 



Howard Gould, recently in Havana, was 
served with a suinmons and charged with 
breaking Cuba's maritime health laws be- 
cause his yacht "Niagara" arrived April 
1st from Jacksonville without the Cuban 
consul's certificate of health. 

Captain Gabrielson of the yacht settled 
the matter by paying a $.50 fine on April 4th. 

The sugar central "Angelita" in Ma- 
tanzas was destroyed by fire on March 
22d. The mill was situated at Vilalba, 
municipality of Marti. It is of Cuban 
ownership and its output averaged 30,000 
bags annually. 

Frank S. ]\Ielvin, manager of the Bank 
of Nova Scotia branch in Cienfuegos, died 
in that city March 14th. He was a victim 
of typhoid fever. 



12 



THE CUBA R E V I E W 



PRESS AND INDIVIDUAL COMMENT ON CUBAN 

MATTERS 



The chief opposition to annexation of 
Cuba would arise in the United States. 
Congress would not readily consent to the 
repudiation of our oft repeated promise to 
maintain Cuba's independence. The cane 
growers of Louisiana and the beet raisers 
of the Western States would naturally 
oppose a step which would bring them into 
free competition with Cuba's sugar. Our 
tobacco and fruit interests would be moved 
to antagonism on similar grounds. And 
it is doubtful whether our people at large 
would look with complaisance on the addi- 
tion of a Territory populated entirely by 
persons professing the same religion and 
speaking a foreign language. 

On the other hand, how long will the 
taxpayers of the United States submit to 
our costly and troublesome police super- 
vision of Cuba? It seems probable that 
another intervention will give rise to a 
demand for the establishment of some form 
of closer protectorate, with a constant in- 
fluence over the political affairs of the is- 
land. — Forbes Lindsay in the Independent 
(New York). 

No president of the United States can 
annex Cuba. It will not be annexed 
against the will of the people of the 
United States. They hold, as they did at 
the outbreak of the war with Spain, that 
"the people of Cuba are and of right ought 
to be free and independent," and that by 
that pledge the United States is bound. — 
New York World. 

France has apologized for attacks on 
Cubas' credit made in the French Chamber 
of Deputies some weeks ago. Commenting 
on France's retraction, the Troy (N. Y.) 
Record says : "While the insular republic 
is young and of little influence in inter- 
national affairs, its trade is of such im- 
portance to certain of the old world coun- 
tries, that it is in a position to stand on 
its dignity. Cuba's credit is not impaired. 
Hence, the republic across the Atlantic 
was decidedly undiplomatic in accepting 
rumors as facts. For the first time in its 
history the Gem of the Antilles has com- 
pelled a great power to concede that a 
little government should be offered con- 
siderate treatment. 

The president and his friends have been 
good comrades, says recently the Havana 
Lucha editorially. Together they have 
worked towards their own happiness and 
well being against the country. Together 
they have become possessed of the offices 
and positions which they now hold, for to 
get them they have been blind to everything, 



and cared little or nothing for the present 
or future of the republic. 

For that reason, would it be strange that 
they should quarrel now? Such always 
happens when the booty has been dis- 
tributed. 

There arc only two paths for the presi- 
dent to take, one or the other — to fight, 
or to resign. What he cannot do is to 
allow things to remain as they are, because 
Cuba cannot tolerate such unforsaken con- 
ditions, for such is the guarantee which is 
offered the nation by a government without 
a recognized head. 

It is necessary, therefore, that a quick 
solution be given the matter and as the 
actual president and his friends are re- 
sponsible for the unbearable situation in 
which we live at present, let them fight it 
out ; let the battle take place, or permit 
the president to resolve to disappear from 
the scene, the quicker the better. 

In and out of the State Department at 
Washington, says the World of To-Day, 
"among folk official and unofficial, there 
exists the l)elief that Cuba will not stand 
alone upon her own unsupported legs an- 
other twelvemonth. There will be a little 
sputtering flash of revolution, they say. 
No one will get hurt. There will occur 
much jabber and no blood. And then — 
Cuba will fall backward into the arms of 
her Uncle Sam. 

"Every Cuban with a dollar has his eyes 
upon this country. Also, he is eager to 
'join.' Already, they have a saying in 
Havana: 'Stand a Cuban on his head, and 
if a peseta roll out of his pocket, he's an 
annexationist.' 

"The foreign capital in Cuba is about 
$400,000,000. The local capital is $700,- 
000,000 more. Every dollar of that 
$1,100,000,000 wants to come in under the 
protecting pinion of the Eagle. 

"Those who own that $1,100,000,000 of 
capital believe that were annexation an 
accomplished fact, every Cuban value would 
be multiplied by three. In short, that 
$1,100,000,000 would swell to $3,.300,- 
000,000 the moment that Cuba could call 
herself part and parcel of the United States. 

"With that the common Cuban belief, 
how should you expect to head off annexa- 
tion ?" 

The Cuban generals have been mighty 
quiet since Uncle Sam warned them, and 
now if he could hush up the New York 
papers the same way, things would be 
running pretty well, says the Piftsfield 
(Mass.) Journal. 



THE CUBA R E \' 1 E \V 



13 



THE BURIAL OF THE "MAINE" 



How the sinking of the "Maine" at sea 
on March 16th impressed one of Uncle 
Sam's sailors, is told in the columns of the 
Indianapolis (Ind.) Nezvs in a letter writ- 
ten by J. L. Eahy, chief yeoman, to a 
comrade. 

Fahy, after describing the funeral serv- 
ices at Havana, and other ceremonies, 
writes : 

"Shortly after 1 o'clock the United 
States navy tug 'Osceola' made tast to 
the 'Maine,' and with the assistance of 
two other tugs started to tow the remains 
of that ill-fated vessel to her final resting 
place. As they approached the entrance 
of the harbor, the 'North Carolina' got un- 
der way, followed by this vessel ( 'Birming- 
ham'), and that was the start of the 
strangest funeral procession ever wit- 
nessed, for every vessel in the harbor, no 
matter of what description, got into line. 
As the 'Maine' passed Morro, a salute of 
twenty-one guns was fired, and during all 
this time they had a band playing a 'dead 
march.' Slowly she was towed to sea and 
at about 5 o'clock the three blasts from 
the whistle of the 'North Carolina' in- 
formed us that the proner position outside 
the three-mile limit had been reached. It 
was then the men became eager and all 
eyes were centered on the decks of the 
'Maine,' and we could see the men on 
board, about a half dozen of them, moving 
about. Then they commenced to open up 
the sluices and sea cocks and after this 
was done, and they had gone over the 
side into a boat and then to a tug and the 
lines from the tugs had been cast off, it 
was piteous to watch her drift and stagger 
about as the sea and current directed, 
unable to help herself, she who had once 
been the pride of our navy, now a poor 
helpless wreck. Lfke a poor doomed 
wretch about to be executed, and who 



had lost his sight, she drifted about, rolling 
a little, and it seemed for a long time that 
she was not filling up at all, but after a 
time it became perceptible ; and she then 
seemed to go down little by little until she 
commenced to take the seas over her deck 
and then she filled rapidly and finally went 
out of sight in one last long plunge. Be- 
lieve me, I never want to see anything 
like it again." 

The last act in the long chapter of the 
"Maine'' was the funeral of the 64 victims 
who could not be identified in any way, 
at Arlington National Cemetery, across 
the Potomac from Washington, on March 
2.3d, amid the highest honors. Congress 
adjourned so the members could attend 
in a body and thus pay the last tribute 
to the martyrs, and the leading men of 
the nation were there. The coffins, each 
carried on a caisson, were drawn by six 
horses each, having been brought from 
Havana by the cruiser "Birmingham." 
The Cuban minister took a prominent 
place beside President Taft. The president 
spoke at the graves' side with bared head, 
ignoring the rain and sleet falling at the 
time. He paid a beautiful tribute to the 
dead. Said he, in part : 

"We meet to pay appropriate honor to 
the memory of the first of the CDuntry's 
sons who gave up their lives in our war 
with Spain. That war every American 
can feel proud of, because it was fought 
without a single selfish instinct, and was 
prompted by the most altruistic motives. 
These, our honored dead, were hurled 
into eternity without the inspiration of 
anticipated battle or hoped-for victory. 
It is well that we should halt the wheels 
of government and stay the hum of in- 
dustry to take time to note by appropriate 
ceremony the debt we owe to those who 
gave up their lives for the nation." (See 
frontispiece illustration.) 



Books, Pamphlets and Periodicals Received 



La Instruccion Primaria. Enero y Febrero, 1912. 
Revista menriial. publicada por la Secretaria de 
Instruccion Publica y Bellas Artes. 

Boletin del Archivo Nacional. Enero-Febrero, 
1912. 

Anales de la Academia de Ciencias Medicos, 
Fisicas v Naturales de la Habana, Tomo XLVIII, 
Enero de 19)2. 

Starting Currents of Transformers, with Special 
Reference to Transformers with Silicon Steel 
Cores, by Trygye D. Yensen, has just been issued 
as Bulletin No. 55 of the Engineering Experiment 
Station of the University of Illinois. 

The transformer has come to be regarded as 
one of the most reliable and simple pieces of 
electrical apparatus. .\s new material, however, 
is utilized to increase its efficiency, new prob- 
lems arise. One of these problems is the mo- 
mentary rush of current that occurs upon closing 



the primary circuit of a transformer. In Bulletin 
No. 55. it is shown that while this starting current 
for old type transformers may rise as high as 
four times' full load current, it may rise to more 
than seven times full load current for the new 
type wtih silicon steel cores. The phenomenon 
is fully explained and illustrated by means of 
oscillograms. 

Copies of Bulletin No. 55 may be obtained upon 
application to W. F. M. Goss, Director of the 
Engineering Experiment Station, University of 
Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 

West India Committee Circular. Official organ 
of the West India Committee. London, March 
26, 1912. 

Tropical Life. London, March. 1912. 

Sanidad y Bencficiencia. Boletin oficial de la 
Secretaria. Enero de 1912. 

Bohemia of Havana. Handsomely illustrated. 



14 THECUB A REVIEW 

PIER CONSTRUCTION WORK AT HAVANA 

HOW THE CONCRETE PILES ARE MADE SOME INTERESTING 

INFORMATION AND ILLUSTRATIONS 

In the February issue of The Cuba Review a discussion was given of the new 
piers now being constructed at Havana by the Port of Havana Docks Company, owners 
of the Scovel Concession granted by the government of Cuba. This information was 
suppHed the Cuba Review by the engineer in charge of the work. Some further very 
interesting data, exclusively sent this magazine, with three new photographs of the 
work, follow. The illustrations described are on the opposite page. 

The concrete piles for the pier are manufactured at Regie, a suburb of Havana, 
across the bay. The plant is located at the water's edge, where all material may be 
Iirought on barges and the finished piles can be shipped out in the same way all at 
the minimum of expense. 

Picture No. 2 shows the interior of the shed in which the piles are made. There 
are two aisles, each 330 ft. long ; like the one shown in the photograph each is served 
by an overhead electric crane of 20 tons capacity, which serves to deliver the concrete 
to the molds and to transport the finished piles. 

The piles are of concrete reinforced with steel rods and hoops. Wooden forms 
are used for molding; at the left of picture No. 2, in the foreground, may be seen 
one of these molds with the reinforcing steel in place ready for the concrete. 

The mold just to the right is completely filled and the workmen are smoothing 
off the surface. The concrete is mixed in a mixer outside of the shed and delivered 
in buckets to the traveling crane. These buckets, which have a bottom opening some- 
what narrower than the molds, are brought over the mold and carried along the 
length of the mold by the crane as the concrete runs out of the bottom. This operation 
is shown in the centre of the picture. 

The molds are stripped from the piles after twenty-four hours and are immediately 
set up again, the tops of the piles already cast serving as the bottom of the mold 
for the one above it. In this way the maximum economy of space and molds is secured. 

The concrete piles are ready for use in thirty days from the time of casting. They 
are then transferred from the casting shed to barges for transportation to the work 
under construction. 

The same electric crane which was used for depositing the concrete picks up the 
pile at two joints where holes were left in the pile for the insertion of steel pins. 
Picture No. 3 shows a pile thus supported. It has come from the rear of the shed 
and is to be placed on the car shown at the extreme left of the picture. Owing to 
the length of the pile, two cars are necessary for its transportation. The pile shown 
in this picture is only 50 ft. long, but at the time of writing piles 85 ft. long and 
weighing 18 tons apiece are being handled in the same manner with the substitution 
of a steel beam for the wooden beam shown in the pitcure. 

The pile, once loaded on the cars, is pushed by hand out onto the pier shown on 
picture No. 1, a distance of about 300 ft. Here a derrick lifts it from the cars and 
places it on barges alongside. These barges carry from 14 to 20 piles depending on the 
length of the piles. The barge is then towed to Havana and run alongside the floating 
derrick, which does the work of driving. This work will be described later. 

To date about 15 hundred piles have been manufactured and transported with prac- 
tically no damage and no accidents. 

The finished groups of piles made in this way are 6 ft. high and 12 ft. broad. They 
are allowed to remain in the house 30 days for curing, being kept continuously moist 
and protected from the sun. 

The method of shipping will be illustrated by later pictures. 



According to Secretary of State San- The coast to coast railroad from Guan- 

guily, Sr. Fernandez Vallin, the Spanish tanamo to Baracoa, which opens up to 

minister to Cuba, reported as having left sugar planting a new district in Oriente 

Madrid on his way back to Cuba, will not Province, is soon to be inaugurated ac- 

return to Cuba any more. cording to Sr. Jose Marimon, head of the 

It will be remembered that some re- company which was organized for the 

marks regarding the republic were ill re- construction of this road, says La Liicha. 

ceived by the Havana press and his recall The new road will open up a rich section 

was demanded. He shortly afterward asked of the province now practically inaccessible, 

his government for leave of absence. as the region is mountainous. 



THE CUBA R E V I E W 



('unciete piles on pier 

ready for shipment 

by lighters. 




Where the piles are 

made. An overhead 

crane at work. 



How the heavy piles 

are moved from shed 

to the cars. 



ir, 



THE CUBA RE\"IEW 



COST TO MANUFACTURE ICE 

I From the Practical Hngiucir. (."liicagoj 



An inquiry to this Chicago puhlication as to the cost of manufacturing ice was 
answered fully in its columns. Of course it is understood that these figures are for 
the United States and that the figures will vary whether in the north or in Cuba, 
according to the cost of fuel and the cost of labor, but the data given gives something 
on which the individual estimate can be made. 

The Practical Engineer says : 

Gueth, in his Pocket Manual for Refrigeration Engineers, says that an absorption 
machine under the right conditions should produce up to 12 tons of ice per ton of coal 
burned. Actual results show 10 tons of ice sold per ton of coal bought. 

For a 50-ton plant actual costs follow: 

Coal at $2.20 per ton, 22 cents ; labor, 34 cents ; ammonia, 6 cents ; incidentals and 
repairs, 24 cents; interest on investments, 25 cents; taxes and insurance, 11 cents. 
Total cost to produce 1 ton of ice, $1.26. The factory cost, leaving out interest, taxes 
and insurance, is 86 cents per ton of ice, including repairs. 

A compression machine with compound condensing engine and all pumps driven 
by the compressor engine, would require 1.30 hp. rating for a 50-ton ice plant, and 
with an evaporation of 7 lb. steam per pound of coal in the boilers this would require 
the burning of 4^2 tons of coal a day, or 11 tons of ice per ton of coal burned. 
The cost of operating a 50-ton compression plant would be about as follows : 

Coal at $3.20 per ton, 32c. ; labor, 34c. ; ammonia, 3c. ; incidentals and repairs, 18c. ; 
interest on investments, 25c. ; taxes and insurance, lie, or a total of $1.23 as the 
cost of one ton of ice. The factory cost, leaving out interest, taxes and insurance, 
would be 87c. a ton. 

By a combination absorption and compression system, assuming a 100-ton plant, 
a 30-ton compression machine will drive a 70-ton absorption machine by the exhaust 
steam of the first machine and will turn out 14 tons of ice per ton of coal. The 
cost of operation per ton of ice would then be : Coal at $2.20 a ton, 16c. ; labor, 30c. ; 
ammonia, 5c.; incidentals and repairs, 21c.; interest, 25c.; taxes and insurance, lie, 
or a total of $1.08 a ton. The factory cost would be 72c. a ton. 

Schmidt, in his book on Artificial Ice Making, gives the following data : 

Cost of installation for the can system, $5.50 a ton ; for the block system, $6.50 
a ton ; plate system with direct expansion plates, $8 a ton ; plate system with brine 
plates, $10 a ton. 

He gives as operating costs, 8% lb. of coal per ton of ice-making capacity per hour, 
and with the wages of engineers at $2.50 to $5 a day, oilers $2 a day, firemen $1.50 
to $1.75, laborers $1.25 to $1.50, coal at $2 a ton, he gives as the expense for a 60-ton 
plant: Engineers, $9 a day; oilers, $2; firemen, $4.50; labor, $4.50; coal, $18; oil, 
waste and sundries $4, or a total operating expense daily of $42.00, making a cost 
per ton of ice of 70 cents. This does not, of course, include anything for interest, 
insurance or taxes, nor does it include the cost of handling the ice outside the plant 
and delivering to customers. 

Based on these same figures he gives the cost in a 10-ton plant at $1.26 per ton; 
25-ton plant as 87 cents a ton, and in a 100-ton plant as 61 Vi cents a ton. 




Presbyterian mission and children at Cardenas 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



17 



CUBANS PREFER AMERICAN SHOES 



A cable on Alarch 31st to the A^^ic^ York 
Herald said that complaints, originating 
in Havana, have come back to Havana 
from the United States that the Cuban 
customs officials discriminate against 
American shoes in favor of those of 
Spanish manufacture. The Herald repre- 
sentative accordingly inquired into the 
matter. His statement is as follows : 

All shoes pay ten per cent ad valorem. 
Men's shoes pay fifteen cents a pair addi- 
tional, sizes 6 to 11. Women's shoes pay 
ten cents a pair additional : children's, five 
cents, plus in each case thirty per cent of 
the amount of these charges. Then 
American shoes, under the treaty, enjoy 
a reduction on the total tax of thirty per 
cent. Thus duty on a $2 pair of Spanish 
made men's shoes amounts to about forty- 
five cents ; on a $2 pair of American made 
shoes it is about thirty-two cents. 

If, now, the American manufacturer 
finds that nevertheless the Spanish shoe- 
maker is getting ahead of him and under- 
takes to discover the cause he will not have 
to look far for it. 

It is probably true that goods can be 
laid down in Havana from- Barcelona 
quicker than from Boston. The Spaniard 



looks to his routing, and when he de- 
spatches goods it goes. It is probably 
true that shipments from Barcelona get 
through this custom house quicker than 
those from Boston. Barcelona makes out 
its shipping documents correctly, packs 
properly, weighs accurately. 

It is very doubtful that the Spanish 
maker dishonestly undervalues his goods. 
He doesn't have to do it to beat the Ameri- 
can, but if he does resort to trickery it is 
one safe bet that he will beat the American 
at that little game every time. 

It is not true that the Cuban when he 
buys a shoe leans toward the Spanish 
make. On the contrary, he prefers the 
American shoe because he believes it to 
be the better article. But if the retailer 
to cover losses through poor packing, ex- 
pensive delays due to mistakes in papers 
or poor routing, must sell the American 
shoe at a higher price than the Spanish 
(despite thirty per cent perferential), then 
the Cuban is going to buy the Spanish shoe, 
without rememberijig the "Maine" or the 
fact that his grandfather was a Gallego. 

At the United States consulate it was 
stated that there was no discrimination 
against American shoes. 



Cuban Mahogany in London in 1911 

[Exclusive London correspundence of THE CUB.\ REVIEW] 



London, April 3, 1912. 

From figures now available, London imported last year 6,569 tons of Cuban mahogany 
logs as compared with the previous year of 413 tons, the amount being 826 tons under 
the average for the last ten years. The lumber chiefly consisted of Santa Cruz wood, 
with smaller amounts from Jucaro, ]\Ianzanillo and other ports. The demand was 
strong and the consumption shows an increase. The total sales, however, were really 
less, as in 1910 four cargoes were disposed of for overside delivery, whereas only one 
was disposed of on these conditions in the year under review. 

Demand was active at all times, for small and inferior logs a slight lapse in the 
demand was noted. All the wood was. however, firmly held and a recovery in the 
demand for these inferior grades took place at the end of the year. The prices reialized 
for all of the wood were good. Brokers were practically cleared of stock at the end 
of the year, and prospects all point to a continuance of a firm market. 

Last 3'ear"s imports of Cuban mahogany logs compared with 6,982 tons in 1910, 
3,157 in 1909, 7,046 tons in 1908, 4,647 tons in 1907, 2,024 tons in 1906, 6,667 tons in 
1905, 11,134 tons in 1904, 8,051 tons in 1903. and 3,288 tons in 1902. The total imports 
of Cuban mahogany logs into Europe last year may be given as follows : London, 
6,569 tons; Liverpool, 6,400 tons; and Glasgow, 76 tons, giving a total for the United 
Kingdom of 13,045 tons : Germany, 2,470 tons ; Holland, 1,090 tons ; Belgium, 1,850 tons ; 
and France, 5,775 tons. These give a total European import of Cuban mahogany 
last year at 24,230 tons, which compares with 16.649 tons the year before last, 9,713 tons 
the year before that, and 17,102 tons in 1908. 



More Money Required for Roads. — Ac- 
cording to President Gomez' message there 
has been spent between Xovember 1911, 
and March. 1912. the sum of $318,619.42 in 



repairs and other work on 1,702 kilometers 
of roads and its complementary buildings. 
He asks Congress to vote more money, and 
tliinks $850 per kilometer sufficient. 



18 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



CUBAN WRAPPER DUTY INCREASES 



Tlirough the publication of the semi- 
annual tobacco import and export tables on 
April 2d, it was disclosed that in the last 
year there has been a 100 per cent increase 
in the amount of Cuban wrapper leaf, on 
which full wrapper duty is paid by Ameri- 
can importers. 

The tables mark the first practical sta- 
tistical account of tobacco imports under 
the new regulations of the Treasurj' De- 
partment, made after the country-wide in- 
vestigation of the tobacco importation 
business by the customs officials. 

"A year ago," says the New York 
Tribune, "the wrapper tobacco imports, 
especially from Cuba, from which comes 
by far the greater bulk of the tobacco im- 
ported, were very small, and the basis of 
the government's investigation was the 
allegation that much of the tobacco leaf 
that was actually used as wrapper for 
Havana cigars came into this country as 
filler tobacco, and hence paid a much 
smaller duty than it should. 

"The final result of^ the country-wide 
investigation was an order to customs 
officials that tobacco should be subjected 
to a 100 per cent examination. Before 
that, it had been the rule to examine only 
one bale in every ten. Tobacco importers 
scoffed at the complete examination, claim- 
ing that the custom's force would have to 
be increased to an impossible degree." 

In an interview on April 1st with Wm. 
Loeb, Jr., collector of the port of New 
York, which, with Tampa and Key West, 
imports the bulk of the Cuban leaf, he 
said that the 100 per cent examination had 
been accomplished, with nothing more 
than a negligible increase of employees, 
and the increased duties accruing to the 
government had far more than paid for 
the trifling increase in cost of examination. 
In figures, the tables show that there 



were 6,638 pounds of Cuban wrapper leaf 
tobacco imported in January, 1912, as 
apainst 1,407 pounds in the same month 
of last year. The valuation of the 1,407 
pounds on which wrapper duty was paid 
in 1911 was $2,743, while the valuation on 
the 6,038 pounds on which wrapper duty 
was paid in January, 1912, was $17,715. 

During the seven months ended with 
January, 1912, according to The Tobacco 
Leaf, 31,848 pounds of Cuban wrapper leaf 
was levied upon as wrapper and was 
valued at $64,170, whereas during the seven . 
months ended with January, 1911, before 
the Treasury Department's investigation 
and new ruling, 19,009 pounds came into 
this country as tobacco upon which wrap- 
per dutv was paid, and its valuation was 
set dovvn as $30,466. 

Comment upon these figures by leading 
importers of Cuban leaf was all to the 
effect that they are now paying wrapper 
duty on Cuban leaf which they cannot use 
for wrapper, and some importers asserted 
that the maximum percentage of wrapper 
leaf in the bales they import from Cuba 
was not above 40. 

The tariff law specifies that if more than 
15 per cent of the leaf in a bale is found 
to be "suitable for cigar wrappers," the 
whole bale shall be assessed as "wrapper 
leaf." Before the investigation the custom 
of examining only one bale in ten was held 
by the government officials to make the 
examination almost farcical. 

Collector Loeb's only comment upon the 
claim of the importers that under present 
conditions they were paying duty on 
wrapper leaf that they had to use for 
filler was that his records disclosed that 
such bales were usually invoiced at some- 
thing in the neighborhood of $250, and 
that it was highly improbable that importers 
would pay wrapper prices for filler leaf. 



PIANOS IN CUBA 

Hardman, Peck & Co., the piano manu- 
facturers, recently decided to enter the 
piano trade in Cuba, and with a view to 
creating agencies in the larger cities of the 
island, will send J. H. Parnham, of the 
sales staff, to Havana to establish head- 
quarters. He expects to reach Cuba in 
the latter part of this month and arrange 
for a dozen agencies. 

Cuba as a field for the retailing of 
pianos has not been explored to any great 
extent by American piano manufacturers, 
says Music Trades, of Xew York. The 
greater number of sales of American 
pianos there have been made through 
commission houses having extensive busi- 
ness connections there. 



Spaniards in Havana are petitioning the 
government to permit the return to Cuba 
of Francisco Arnal, who was deported sev- 
eral months ago on the charge of being an 
anarchist. They declare the expulsion 
unjust. 

Congressman Hobson in an interview in 
the Knoxz'ille (Tenn.) Sentinel recently 
said regarding the necessity for a larger 
navy: "Take as an illustration the question 
of Cuba. If we had had control of the 
sea, liberal policies toward Cuba would 
have prevailed without war. The reforms 
in Cuba would have been prosecuted and 
policies settled by diplomacy, but as we 
were not in control of the sea, war resulted. 
Three more battleships and there would 
have been no war." 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



19 




Tiulustries of ("uha. --First and onlv nianufacturer of rattan gooils in the i.sland, at Cardenas 




Industries of Cuba. — Ice plant at Cienfut 



20 T H E C U B A R E V I E W 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD, THE HAVANA ELECTRIC, ETC. 
The Cuba Railroad Company's Earnings 

The report of the Cuha Railroad for the month of February and for eight months 
ended February 29th compares as follows : 

1912 1911 1910 1909 

February gross $367,375 $315,921 $254,598 $223,089 

Expenses 183,907 166,647 132,259 108,133 

February net $183,468 $149,273 $122,339 $114,955 

Charges 65,125 59,625 36,666 33,759 

February surplus $118,343 $89,648 $85,672 $81,195 

Eight months' gross $2,318,512 $1,893,640 $1,530,657 $1,288,957 

Net profits 1,060,035 818,369 596,629 540,962 

Fixed charges 491,000 339,250 288,543 261,119 

Eight months' surplus $569,035 $479,119 $308,085 $279,843 



Earnings of the United Railways of Havana 



Weekly receipts : 1913 

Week ending March 9th £43,740 

Week ending March 16th 41,216 

Week ending March 23d 43,604 



1911 


1910 


1909 


£42,875 


£43,986 


£38,647 


42,765 


41,370 


36,719 


43,041 


38,608 


37,316 



Earnings of the Havana Electric Railway 



Weekly receipts : 1912 

Week ending March 3d $48,384 

Week ending March 10th 51,297 

Week ending March 17th 49,102 

Week ending March 24th 49,408 



1911 


1910 


1909 


;48,976 


$42,893 


$41,516 


48,631 


41,969 


39,596 


46,785 


40,290 


38,323 


44,190 


38,591 


36,692 



March Quotations for Cuban Securities 

Supplied by Lawrence Turnure & Co., New York 

Bid Asked 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (interior) 99 99% 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (exterior) 103 i/i 103% 

Havana City First Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 106 108 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 103 106 

Cuba Railroad First Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds 102 103 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 88 93 

Cuba Company 6 per cent Debentures 95 100 

Havana Electric Railway Consolidated Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds .... 99 99% 

Havana Electric Railway Preferred Stock 120 140 

Havana Electric Railway Common Stock 110 125 

Matanzas Market Place 8 per cent Bonds — Participation Certificate.... 104 106 

Cuban-American Sugar Co. Coll. Trust 6 per cent Gold Bonds of 1918 97 97% 

All prices of bends quoted on an "and interest" basis. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



21 



VIEWS ON THE TOBACCO HARVEST 



BIG CUBAN TOBACCO CROP 

The present season's crop of Cul:ian to- 
bacco will exceed the largest crop pre- 
viously recorded by close to 75,000 bales, 
according to J. L. Kendrick, editor of The 
Tobacco World, who recently returned 
from an extended visit to the Cuban mar- 
kets. 

"For the first time in a number of years 
weather conditions have been uniformly 
of such a character as to promote the 
growth of a bumper number of plants," 
said Mr. Kendrick on March 15th to a 
Nezv York Times reporter. "Farmers 
throughout the island have apparently 
taken advantage of the opportunity offered, 
and have utilized it to the utmost. 

"Predictions are freely made in and 
around Havana that the present crop will 
total over 700,000 bales. As last year's 
crop amounted to only 350,000 bales, these 
preliminary figures, if verified, should 
prove very favorable to the industry at 
large. The largest crop of Cuban tobacco 
previous to the present season was raised 
in 1900, and amounted to approximately 
625,000 bales. 

"The quality of the tobacco in the grow- 
ing is perhaps not up to the superlative 
standard of Cuba, being generally pro- 
nounced rather light, and in some instances 
washed out. 

"There is a general feeling of optimism 
in Cuba regarding the tobacco industry." 




Professional men of Cuba.— Ricardo de la Tor- 

riente, director of La Politico Co mica. —From 

Bohemia, Havana. 

The United States imports and exports 
of jewelry during the fiscal years 1909 and 
1910 to Cuba were as follows : 



1909 



Imports $630.00 

Exports (domestic) 21,598.00 15,387.00 



1910 
$789.00 



TOBACCO PROSPECTS BRIGHTER 

The latest advices from Havana in re- 
gard to the outlook for the Cuban tobacco 
crop are even more favorable than those 
that reached the trade a little earlier in the 
season. 

It has been pretty generally understood 
for some weeks past that the 1912 crop 
as a whole will be one of the largest, if 
not the largest, ever grown upon the island 
of Cuba, but at the same time it had been 
strongly hinted that the crop as a whole 
would be lacking in quality. These state- 
ments as to the quality are now declared 
to have been greatly exaggerated. 

Earlier reports were to the efTect that 
the yield in the famous Vuelta Abajo 
would not only be considerably below the 
normal in quantity, but that such as was 
produced would be below the average in 
quality. 

But now comes the welcome news that 
the tobacco produced in the Vuelta Abajo 
this year is turning out much better than 
was anticipated only a few weeks ago. It 
not only promises to be of better aroma, 
and better burn, but the colors are said 
to be much more to the liking of the 
cigar manufacturers than seemed possible 
at an earlier date. 

It was feared for a time that this year's 
Vuelta tobacco would cure badly, and with 
so many green spots that really desirable 
wrappers would be scarcer than they have 
been before in several years. 

Happily it is now probable, according to 
later reports, and there seems to be good 
grounds for these reports, that there will 
be a far less proportion of the tobacco 
with the green spots than had been ex- 
pected, and that while good wrappers are 
by no means likely to be a drug on the 
market, on the other hand they will not 
be so scarce as to cause serious difficulty 
to the trade. 

This is most welcome news, for while 
it does not mean any immediate change 
in the prevailing high prices for Cuban 
tobacco, it does mean that conditions will 
be less difficult than the clear Havana 
manufacturers had been looking forward 
to. — Tobacco of New York. March 28th. 



PITCH PINE MARKET CONDITIONS 

Export of lumber from gulf ports to 
Cuba for the first quarter of 1912 com- 
pares as follows with the same period for 
1911: 

1911 1912 

37,092,691 feet 31,839,107 feet 

Shipments latterly have been small. 



22 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



FIANANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL 



NIPE BAY COMPANY DIVIDEND 

A dividend of two per cent on the capital 
stock of the Nipe Bay Company was de- 
clared payable April 15th at the office of 
the treasurer at Boston, Mass., to the 
holders of the stock of record at the close 
of business, March 22, 1912. 



HAVANA ELECTRIC DIVIDEND 

The regular quarterly dividend of $1.50 
of the Havana Electric Railway has been 
declared on the common and preferred 
stocks, payable May 18th. Books close 
May 1st and reopen May 29th. 



A NEW ILLUMINATING GAS 

The Blaugas Company of Cuba owns 
outright basic patents free of restrictions 
and royalties for the manufacture and sale 
of Blaugas in Cuba and the Isle of Pines, 
and has its offices in the Times Building, 
New York. 

It is stated by the president of the com- 
pany that because Cuba has to import all 
its coal and oil and has no natural gas, 
it is a most favorable field for the com- 
pany's operations. 

Blaugas, says the same authority, is 
made entirely (including all necessary 
power) from gas oil, a residue from crude 
petroleum, after all the commercial oils 
and by-products have been removed, costs 
less than three cents per gallon and one 
gallon makes three pounds of Blaugas. It 
is claimed to be non-explosive and non- 
asphyxiating. 

The Havana office is in the National 
Bank Building in Obispo Street. The 
officers are: Charles H. O'Neill, president; 
Edw. P. Coe, vice-president ; Louis H. Hol- 
loway, treasurer ; R. H. Grunies, secretary. 

The companv was organized December 
12, 1911. 



The railroad commission on April 13th 
ratified the authorization previously given 
the Cuban Central Railways to run a mixed 
train during the sugar harvest between 
Sagua und Concha, and vice versa. 

The Cuban Academy of Sciences has ap- 
proved a request to the Caroline Institute 
of Stockholm that the Nobel prize for 
scientific discoveries be awarded to Dr. 
Carlos Finlay, the discoverer of the fact 
that the mosquito was the only means of 
transmitting yellow fever, and Dr. Aris- 
tides Agramonte, who helped to demon- 
strate the truth of the theorv. 



MAY HURT FLOUR TRADE 

Huntington Wilson, assistant secretary 
of state, testifying before the Senate 
Finance Committee on April 9th, said the 
free sugar bill would mean the abrogation 
of the agreement between the United 
States and Cuba, which gives the United 
States an advantage of 20 per cent prefer- 
ential in Cuban sugar exports ; that it 
would seriously affect the Cuban market 
to which the United States now exports 
$00,000,000 of products annually, American 
flour being the principal item affected. He 
referred to the pending negotiations in 
Ottawa, through which Canada expects to 
extend its trade with the West Indies to 
the detriment of the large market there 
for American flour. 



CUBAN CENTRAL RAILWAYS, LTD., 
EARNINGS 

February :kl £1.3,268 Decrease £3,015 

February 10th . . . 14,020 Decrease 2,706 

February 24th ... 14,823 Decrease 1,172 

March 2d 16,459 Decrease 1,329 

March 9th 16,317 Decrease 943 

March 16th 17,091 Decrease 993 

]\Iarch 23d 17,802 Increase 178 

March 30th 17,634 Increase 1,291 



WESTERN RAILW.AYS OF HAVANA, LTD., 
EARNINGS 

February 3d £4,953 Dtjcrease £321 

February 10th ... 4,583 Decrease 496 

February 24th . . . 4,992 Increase 19 

March 2(1 4,958 Decrease 451 

March 9th 4,748 Decrease 209 

March 16th 4,744 Decrease 980 

March 23d 4,951 Decrease 614 

March 30th 5.401 Increase 357 

For earnings of other railroads see page 
20. 

TUNNEL NEARING COMPLETION 

The tunnel under Havana harbor, con- 
necting the city "end of the sewer with the 
Casa Blanca sewer, which leads to the sea, 
is now about finished. 

It was begun from the Casa Blanca side 
in Alay 1910. Its extension, including the 
decline on the other side of the harbor, is 
about 280 meters long, and was liegun six 
meters below the surface. 

It has the record of not having suffered 
any casualties to men actually engaged in 
tunneling. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



23 



FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL 



CUBAN CAR LINE FINANCED 

The Havana Electric Railway and Power 
Company, with an authorized capital of 
$30,000,000, was incorporated in Trenton, 
New Jersey, on March 26th. The company 
is authorized to construct, acquire and 
operate an electric railway, light and power 
plant both in the West India Islands and 
in the United States. 

The company is also authorized to ac- 
quire $5,000,000' of the preferred stock and 
$7,500,000 of the common stock of the 
Havana Electric Railway Company ; also 
to acquire $6,000,000 of the capital stock 
of the Compania de Gas y Electricidad de 
la Habana. The capital of the company 
is divided into $15,000,000 preferred stock 
and $15,000,000 common. 

The incorporators are Henry A. Bing- 
ham, Jersey City ; Cornelius A. Cole, 
Jersey City, and Henry T. Letts. 

The Havana Electric Railway, Light 
and Power Company, says the Neiv York 
Times, is a holding concern which is ex- 
pected to acquire a large part of the stock 
of the present Havana Electric Railway. 
The latter is incorporated in New Jersey 
under a perpetual charter. It has $12,- 
500,000 of stock, of which $5,000,000 is 
preferred and the rest common. Warren 
Bicknell of Cleveland is president of this 
company. 

Before March 29th sufficient stock of 
the Havana Electric Lighting Corporation 
of Havana had been deposited in Havana 
and New York to insure the amalgamation 
of the two companies. Plans of the merger 
were printed in the ]\Iarch issue of The 
Cuba Review. 

It was announced on April 4th that the 
plan for the consolidation had been de- 
clared operative, a very large majority of 
the stock of each issue having been de- 
posited, but as some of the stock is held 
in Europe, the time for depositing stock 
was extended until April 22d. 

Havana advices are to the efifect that 
the new company proposes to expend at 
once nearly $4,000,000 in improving its 
street car lines and its generating plant 
and will place modern gas-making ma- 
chinery in its gas plant, thereby reducing 
the cost of gas materially, encouraging the 
use of gas ranges, in place of the small 
charcoal stoves now universally used 
throughout Cuba, and which are imported 
from Germany. 



FREE SUGAR AND ANNEXATION 

Representative Julius Kahn, of Califor- 
nia, regular republican, who has made a 
study of the sugar tariff, is of the opinion 
that if the free sugar bill should become 
a law, an agitation would start in Cuba 
with the object of forcing the United 
States to annex the island. 

"The Cubans want to have the opportu- 
nity to send their sugar into the United 
States free of duty," said Mr. Kahn. 

"They know that they can compete with 
the rest of the world successfully in fur- 
nishing sugar to this market," he said 
further, "for they have the cheap tropical 
labor. Once they get free sugar, they will 
be afraid of some future action of Con- 
gress putting a tariff on it, and therefore 
they will try to clinch the matter, in my 
opinion, by becoming a part of the United 
States." 

Representative Ollie James, of Kentucky, 
one of the democrats who led the fight for 
free sugar, scouted the theory of Cuban 
annexation. "Annexation of Cuba? That's 
all rot." he said. 

"I believe we will some day have to 
annex Cuba, much as I regret it," said 
Representative Clark, of Florida, democrat, 
"but I do not think free sugar will have 
anything to do with it." 

Representative Burleson, of Texas, said 
that it looked to him as if free sugar might 
help to bring about annexation of Cuba. 
"But," he said, "that does not make any 
difference, because we, sooner or later, 
will have to annex the island anyhow."-^ 
Interviews in the Ahtv Orleans States. 



The Cuban Central's plans for a new 
station, to be called Chinchila, have been 
approved by the railroad commission. It 
is on the line from Sagua to Caguaguas. 



REQUESTS FROM OUR READERS 

To the Editor The Cuba Review, Nev/ York, N. Y. 

Dear Sir: Do you know of anyone in Cuba who 
could furnish us with mangrove tree roots, in 
quantities of 10 to 50 tons? 

If so, we would be pleased to have you put us 
into communication with them. 

The price, of course, would have to be ex- 
tremely low, or we could not use it. 

To the Editor The Cuba Review, New York, N. Y. 

Dear Sir: We are interested in learning the 
names of New York exporters doing business in 
chemicals in Cuba. Any information you give us 
will be very much appreciated. 

We, of course, want to get in touch only with 
houses in the best credit standing. 

For the names of these firms address Depart- 
ment L, The Cuba Review. 



The Cuban Central Railway plans for 
the construction of a road of standard 
guage from kilometer 4 on the line from 
Caibarien to Placetas, to the Pinta del 
Pastelillo in the Bay of Xuevitas. 



24 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



COMMERCIAL AND FINANCIAL 



HAVANA S CUSTOMS COLLECTIONS 

The March collections of tiie Havana 
custom house compare as follows: 

1912 $1,746,462 

1911 1,705,843 

1910 1,662,338 

1909 1,562,486 

1908 1,445,400 

The custom house collections throughout 
Cuba in 1911 aggregated the sum of $25,- 
972,349.48, as published in the official bul- 
letin of the Chamber of Commerce, In- 
dustry and Navigation of Cuba. According 
to the same authority the collections were 
received as follows : 

Havana $18,380,392.88 

Matanzas 859,749.03 

Cardenas 519,286.36 

Sagua 520,636.55 

Caibarien 601.796.84 

Nuevitas 209,271.03 

Gibara 140,985.33 

Banes 68,537.24 

Baracoa 6,345.09 

Guantanamo 293,546.52 

Santiago 1,580,948.28 

Manzanillo '. . 480,090.11 

Santa Cruz 24,243.26 

Tunas 2,053.40 

Trinidad 1,504.39 

Cienfuegos 1,500,081.80 

Batabano 2,941.64 

Nueva Gerona (Isle of Pines) 14,778.65 

Puerto Padre 263,371.32 

Nipe 495,647.80 

Jucaro 6,141.96 

Total $25,972,349.48 



NEW TERMINAL NEARLY READY 

The new station of the Havana Terminal 
Company on the arsenal grounds will be 
ready on August 1st, and on and after that 
date all trains belonging to the United 
Railways, the Western Railways and the 
Havana Central will have their terminus 
there. Seventy-eight trains will leave and 
enter every day. The old Cristina Station 
of the Western Railways will then be used 
as a warehouse for local freight. Offices 
of the several lines will be in the upper 
rooms of the new station. 

Officers of the company, a few weeks 
since, while on a visit of inspection to the 
work being done, approved of General 
Manager Orr's proposal to extend the rail- 
road in Pinar del Rio from Guane Station 
to the town of Guane, a distance of three 
kilometers, and also to extend their lines 
in Santa Clara Province between Esles and 



Cienfuegos, a distance of seven kilometers. 
This work will be pushed at once and the 
company expects to have a daily train di- 
rect from Havana to Cienfuegos by the 
end of the present year. 



THE RAILROADS OF CUBA 

The roailroads in public service in the 
republic, according to the Avisador Co- 
inercial of Havana, are owned by 18 com- 
panies and their varying distances are given 
as follows : 

Distance in 
Name Kilometers 

Unidos de la Habana 1,114 

De Cuba 950 

The Cuban Central 423 

The Western Railway of Havana.... 238 

Guantanamo y Occidente 121 

Havana Central 112 

De Pto. Principe y Nuevitas 74 

De Gibara a Holguin y Chapara 83 

De Jucaro y S. Fernando 77 

De Juragua 58 

De Guantanamo 56 

De Caracas 71 

De Tunas de Zaza a Sti-Spiritus. . . . 39 

De Rodas a Cartagena 23 

De la North American Sugar Co. . . 12 

De Yaguajay 12 

Insular 9 

De Dubrocq 5 

Total 3.477 




Wireless station at Santiago de Cuba. 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



OPENING FOR MODERN VEHICLES 

[Correspondence of the Hub, of New York] 



CUBA A GROWING MARKET FOR AMERICAN CARRIAGES, WAGONS, 
AUTOMOBILES, ETC. METHODS OF SELLING 

Although Cuban vehicles have been greatly improved during the past few years, 
there is ample room for the introduction of some of the latest types of American 
carriages, wagons, automobiles and transportation conveyances in general. A cor- 
respondent, returned from Cuba recently, noted the aspects of domestic transportation 
as seen in various parts of the island. In the city of Havana, and in all of the 
principal thoroughfares of the country, one may find some high grade vehicles in 
use, most of which were imported. In the towns and along the country highways, 
the lack of effective transportation facilities is marked. There are numerous con- 
trasting scenes. You will observe the crude, bulky, oxen cart struggling slowly along 
the roadside, while the swift up-to-date motor vehicle goes speedily by. The movers 
of freight in Havana have not been at all backward in getting hold of modern patterns 
of motor vehicle express wagons. But outside of Havana there are numerous old- 
fashioned rigs still in use. After looking over the field quite thoroughly, the cor- 
respondent concluded that there must be a valuable and encouraging opening for the 
sale of modern vehicles in Cuba. There is a demand for light rigs throughout the 
commercial centers. There are express wagons wanted of the American type, as 
many of the wagons of local manufacture are rather awkward in design and heavy 
for the animals to haul. There are first class blacksmiths to be found in some of 
the larger places in Cuba, as well as shops in which a good grade of vehicles is 
turned out. But the lack of proper tools and devices for manufacturing a superior 
pattern of vehicles in Cuba is seriously felt by all engaged in the work. Hence, the 
inflow of imported conveyances continues to be large. No doubt, in time the carriage 
and wagon works of the country will be properly equipped with all of the machinery 
necessary for the production of a high grade of modern vehicle, in which case the 
manufacturers of carriages and wagons of the United States will not have the oppor- 
tunity to supply the Cuban vehicle market as at the present time. 

Therefore the writer concluded that the present is a good time for the exporter of 
vehicles to cater to the Cuban markets. A very good way to reach the consumers in 
Cuba is through the commission houses. There are Americans in practically all of 
the leading commercial centers of the island who handle American made goods. Each 
of these central firms has a sub-agent in the form of an enterprising tradesman in 
the leading cities and towns of the island. Carriages could be seen in the rear 
exhibition room of certain shoe stores, as the shoe dealer was simply the agent of 
the main commission house of the island. 

The sub-agents of the cities and towns scattered throughout Cuba in turn have 
their drummers out. Cuban enterprise is telling now. and business in all directions 
has taken a start. Some of the agents and drummers are Americans. The local 
agents of the towns send out their salesmen with samples of the goods. One plan 
involves the hauling of the vehicle for sale along in the rear of the conveyance in 
which the drummer is riding. The drummer goes from one party to the other who 
is likely to want a vehicle, until a bargain is made. Sometimes the vehicle is well 
spattered with mud when the buyer finally gets it. but there is no serious objection to 
that. The drummer simply explains that he is hauling out a sample buggy for show 
purposes. The buyer figures that the sample is better than the new vehicle back in 
the store may be, and accepts the dusty vehicle at hand. 

As soon as the vehicle is sold, the drummer returns for another. Often he goes 
out with the horse attached to the rig direct and bargains off both the horse and the 
rig at a good price. 

Another line of service for the vehicle folks of Cuba is the fitting up of conveyances 
for the traveling stores. Cuba is a great land for portable mercantile conveyances. 
The dealer in vehicles has numerous demands for second-hand carriages or wagons 
refitted to carry shelves of goods and exhibit the same to the people along the wayside. 
The refitted conveyance is made so that shoes, confectionery, tinware, dry goods, 
bottled stuffs and the like may be placed in tiers so that the articles can be seen. 

If I desired to sell conveyances in Cuba I would correspond with the interested parties 
who deal in vehicles and do the business through them. The average Cuban trades- 
man is as reliable as the average tradesman of other countries. The leading dealers 
in goods in the cities and towns are as a rule men who have been tested and can 



26 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



be trusted. These men know just how to get the vehicles placed on the market to best 
advantage and can effect sales where you cannot. I mention this because while I 
was in Cuba I met a number of vehicle salesmen in the hotels in Havana who were 
waiting for the next boat home, claiming that they could do practicj^lly no business 
in Cuba. They tried to work independently of the local dealers and accomplished 
nothing. The individual buyers of carriages in Havana have to be taken in a certain 
way in order to close a bargain even if the buyer really wants a conveyance. He has 
to be coaxed into making the tinal deal. The local dealers know this, and have 
canes to present, and various methods adopted to get the buyer in the right mind to 
seal the bargain. 



CUBAN IMPORT OF MULES 

rproni Consul General James 1,. Uodgers, Habana] 

The importation of mules into Cuba 
from the United States — the country which 
for many years has enjoyed a monopoly 
in the trade — has long been an established 
and profitable business, since of all draft 
animals, except oxen, the mule is probably 
adapted after acclimatization, for work in 
this country. It has been found that 
American-bred mules quickly become ac- 
customed to Cuban climatic conditions and 
will get along upon the native food supply, 
although they are maintained in better con- 
dition upon American forage and grain. 
The animals, moreover, seem to enjoy com- 
parative immunity from diseases and to re- 
tain all their natural vigor if given good 
treatment, which is usually the case, since 
they are regarded as an expensive animal. 

In Cuban cities heavy hauling is done 
almost exclusively by mules, and while the 
undersized animal predominates, many are 
fine examples of the best types. In the 
country, except on certain American sugar 
and tobacco plantations, few mules are in 
use, due to their cost, which is beyond the 
means of the ordinary farmer, and to the 
national custom of using oxen. However, 
mules are steadily supplanting oxen in farm 
work, and those who can afford to purchase 
them do so, realizing that a team of mules 
means economy in time and great efficiency 
in work in comparison to the service of 
oxen. 

In Havana, naturally the main port of 
entry for this American importation, ac- 
climated mules command from $150 each 
for the smaller sizes to $300 for the large, 
and it is not uncommon to see an extra fine 
pair bring $800. 

The duty on mules of over 150 centi- 
meters (nearly 5 feet) in height is, from 
the United States, $10 each, and from other 
countries, $12.50 each. On sizes less than 
that given the duty is respectively $5 and 
$6.25 each. In 1909 the importation of 
large mules was 349 ; in 1910, 34G ; of the 
smaller the importations in the years given 
were respectively 1,057 and 1,454. These 
figures appear to represent about the aver- 
age annual importation and the classes. 
The larger mules are from 1,000 to 1,200 
pounds in weight and the smaller from 600 
to 1,000 pounds. 



There has not been much effort in breed- 
ing mules in Cuba, although at the Central 
-Agricultural Station, at Santiago de las 
Vegas, in Havana Province, a stud is 
maintained, and there are one or two other 
places where the services of jacks can be 
obtained. It has been stated, however, that 
several American plantation and ranch in- 
terests are contemplating establishing 
breeding farms on a large scale and with 
good stock. As far as known there has 
been no materialization of this announced 
intention. 



CUBAN CONSUL S PLANS 

Crescendo de Varona, the new Cuban 
consul at Chicago, recently visited the 
commission houses in that city and priced 
vegetables and fruits. 

"It shall be the purpose of my office here 
in Chicago," he explained later to a Chi- 
cago Record-Herald representative, "to 
open a market for Cuban produce. We are 
raising vegetables in abundance and can 
deliver them to you in Chicago within three 
days on shipment from Havana. We can 
way undersell the high prices you are 
quoting. 

"I held a conference with merchants in 
Havana just before I departed, and they 
urged me to see what chance there may 
be to place their food products in Chicago." 



The Havana Chamber of Commerce is 
opposed to the granting by the Cuban gov- 
ernment of any conclusive right to manu- 
facture cotton goods in Havana for a 
given number of years. The chamber 
recommends that the government amend 
the tariff to admit at a larger duty the 
raw material used in the manufacture of 
cotton goods. 



GILTNER BROS., Eminence, Ky.,U.S. A. 

Dealers and breeders of 
Kentucky Stallions, Mares 
and Jacks. 

Hereford, Shorthorn, Hol- 

tein and Jer.'-.ey bulls. Well 

iiroken mules in car let" for 

sugar planters. 

Export Trade a Specially. 

Prices named on animals 

.^1. delivered anywhere in the 

' ' world. Write its your wants. 




THE CUBA REVIEW 



27 



CUBA RICH IN MINERALS 



In a recent article published in Mining 
Science. Prof. H. S. Nicholson gave an 
interesting discussion of the mineral re- 
sources of the island of Cuba. According 
to Professor Nicholson, Cuba possesses a 
wealth of minerals that to-day remains 
practically untouched, although some of 
her mines have been in occasional opera- 
tion for centuries. 

Though it has been known for over 400 
years that the island was rich in iron ores, 
it has only been within the last thirty years 
that these ores have been mined. In 1884 
several American companies became inter- 
ested. Many millions have been invested 
and their plants are among the most ex- 
tensive and up-to-date in the world. Their 
ores are quarried, rather than mined in 
the ordinary sense. The output is smelted 
in the United States. 

Professor Nicholson says that from the 
mines on the south coast the shipments in 
1909 amounted to about a million tons. 
Apparently the supply is practically inex- 
haustible, as immense beds of ore have 
been discovered in various portions of the 
island, and English and American investors 
are busy possessing themselves of them. 

Professor Nicholson discusses one copper 



mine, the only one on the island, located 
at Cobre, near Santiago, which was dis- 
covered and opened in 1514. It was not 
until sixteen years later, however, that 
systematic mining was begun. It has con- 
tinued, with varying fortunes, until to-day. 

Tradition has it that copper was pro- 
duced here even before the coming of the 
Spaniards. This idea is based on the fact 
that copper implements and images found 
in the ancient mounds of Florida have 
been identified as having been made from 
Cobre copper. 

In 1S.30 an English company came into 
possession of the property and developed 
ore bodies through a number of shafts to 
a depth of 1,000 or 1,200 feet vertically, 
and laterally for several miles. During 
the "ten years' war" it filled with water. 
After the Spanish-American war an Amer- 
ican company acquired it. This company 
unwatered it to a depth of 500 or 600 feet 
and is now shipping" 6,000 tons of ore 
monthly. From 1830 to 1860 this mine, 
official records show, produced $50,000,000 
in copper. 

Professor Nicholson's investigations have 
convinced him that in many other sections 
Cuba is marvelously rich in copper. 



With Our Advertisers 



INSURANCE IN CUBA 

The Liverpool & London & Globe Insur- 
ance Company binds risks in the island of 
Cuba at its New York office. 45 William 
Street, where Ricardo P. Kohly is Cuban 
general agent. It issues policies of insur- 
ance against fire and boiler explosion, loss 
of profits following fire, boiler explosion 
and engine breakdown. 

The disastrous efifects of a fire are not 
to be measured by the actual value of the 
property destroyed. For example, the 
destruction of the engine house of a mill 
or of delicate and complicated machinery 
would involve losses far in excess of the 
actual damage done to the property. 

A fire policy, although valuable and in- 
dispensable, fails to replace the above 
losses, and the only remedy in such cases 
is a "loss of profits" policy, which not only 
maintains the net profit of a mill, but pro- 
vides for the payment of standing charges 
during the stoppage, which otherwise 
would have to be met out of capital, or 
from reserves intended for other purposes. 
A Liverpool & London & Globe loss of 
profits policy provides full compensation 
by a simple contract at a small premium. 

It is expedient to insure as net profit the 
average annual dividend paid on the or- 



dinary share capital, and in addition, the 
standing charges, the latter usually com- 
prising rent, rates and taxes, interest on 
mortgages, debentures or loans, directors' 
fees and salaries to stafif, depreciation, etc. 
A sugar estate factory having an annual 
output of 100,000 bags of raw sugar insures 
its gross profits for $50,000. The sum re- 
coverable would therefore be 50 cents per 
bag on the shortage in output as per agreed 
compensation, whether of the profits of 
the current or previous year, or of the 
average of a number of years. 

L. J. Martholomew has been appointed 
agent for Porto Rico by the Lytton Manu- 
facturing Co., with headquarters at San 
Juan. 

]\Ir. William Hammond. President of the 
Hammond Iron Works, Warren, Pa., has 
recently returned from a business visit in 
Cuba, and while there placed an agency for 
his line with Sussdorff, Zaldo & Co., 
26 O'Reilly Street, Havana. 

A splendid residence in New York State 
is advertised on another page as for sale. 
It is called the show place of the Catskills. 
The owners guarantee that everything about 
the house is as it should be, and that it is a 
great bargain. 



28 



THE CUBA R E \- 1 E W 



HENEQUEN-FIBER SEPARATORS 

Tlie Cuban customs authorities, in 
response to the petition of importers, have 
been instructed by the secretary of the 
treasury to admit the machinery to be 
used for the separation of henequen fiber 
at the reduced rate of duty applicable to 
agricultural machinery and apparatus. The 
duty on such machinery will, accordingly, 
be levied at the rate of 3 per cent 
ad valorem upon importation from coun- 
tries other than the United States, and at 
the rate of iVa per cent ad valorem upon 
importation from the United States. 

To secure the benefits of this reduced 
rate, certain regulations have to be com- 
plied with, most notable among which are 
the requirements that the machines must 
be imported complete and must be im- 
ported in a single shipment, unless special 
authorization has been granted by the 
customs authorities for the importation to 
take place in two or more shipments. — 
From Cuban Customs Circular, February 
7, 1912. 

A fire on March 30th destroyed the home 
office of Bea, Bellido & Co., large hardware 
and sugar merchants of Matanzas. The 
origin of the fire is unknown. 



CUBA S COFFEE IMPORTATIONS 

Official statistics of the Culian govern- 
ment regarding that country's importation 
of coffee during the eight fiscal years end- 
ing June, :iO, J 910, are as follows: 

Fiscal year Pounds 

1902-03 21,6.j2,507 

1903-04 19,007,436 

1904-05 24,002,236 

1905-06 20,690,539 

1906-07 24,749,381 

1907-08 22,600,649 

1908-09 24,749,381 

1909-10 25,197,444 

The first six months" figuring for the 
fiscal year 1910-11 showed importations of 
14,389,428 pounds. 

The production of coffee in Cuba, ac* 
cording to the statistics of the Santiago 
Chamber of Commerce, increased from 
30,000 quintales (3,000,000 lbs.) in 1902 to 
68,339 quintales (6,833,900 lbs.) in 1905, and 
to 191,600 quintales (19,160,000 lbs.) in 
1908. 

The crop estimate for 1911 is for 20 or 
21 million pounds. 

Oriente Province has a large number of 
coffee plantations, especially in the Guanta- 
namo Vallev. 




Constructio'i work in Cuba. Plant of Snare iS; Trie.st at Casa Blanca on Havana Harbor for 
making reinforced concrete piles. 

Trabajos de construccion en Cuba. Instalacion de Snare y Triest. en Casa Blanca, en el 
Puerto de la Hahana. para constrnir pastes de rormigon rejorzado. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



29 



X'ALUE OF CANE SUGAR 

In July last a summary was given in 
these columns of an article which appeared 
in the Britisli Medical Journal by Dr. 
Goulston on the beneficial effects of the 
ingestion of cane sugar in certain forms 
of heart disease. Some remarks by Sir 
James Sawyer, M. D., the eminent consult- 
ing physician of Birmingham, advocating 
the use of cane sugar, were also published. 
Dr. A. H. Carter, of Wolverhampton, has 
since contributed a paper to the British 
Medical Journal, in which he states: "I 

had under my care a case of cardiac 

muscle failure which seemed to have 
reached its high-water mark of improve- 
ment. The result of the cane sugar treat- 
ment was so satisfactory that it is worth 
recording. My patient was a lady aged 
sixty-two years. Her symptoms were 
marked. She had no energy, although 
naturally a most energetic person, and she 
was now incapable of the slightest exertion, 
either mental or physical. Sir Lauder 
Brunton, the eminent heart specialist, was 
consulted, and confirmed my own view that 
the patient had reached her limit of im- 
provement. Shortly after this 1 saw 
Dr. Goulston's paper, and it occurred to 
me that my case was just one for a trial 
of his treatment. Immediately on adopt- 
ing the 'Glebe' pure cane sugar diet her 
improvement began to be advanced after 
the middle of the second week, and by the 
end of the fifth week it was remarkable. 
At the end of this time she could walk 
three miles without a rest or undue fatigue, 
her mental vigor was quite re-established, 
and her feeling of well-being and 'fitness,' 
after months of weariness and lassitude, 
was really extraordinary. At the end of 
the sixth w'eek Sir Lauder Brunton again 
saw my patient, and, in a letter to me,... 
he wrote : 'She has improved enormously 
on the diet you gave her. Her improve- 
ment is simply miraculous.' " — IV est India 
Coinniittee Circular. Februarv 27. 1912. 



GIVING PROPER CREDIT 

A description of a British Guiana cane 
hoist and an illustration of its operation 
were printed in The Cuba Review for Jan- 
uary last, without credit to our esteemed 
contemporary, the ]Vest India Coiiuiiiftee 
Circular, of London, in which valual)le 
publication the article first appeared. 



Louisiana cane sugar, unrefined, actually 
costs .^.7.5 cents a pound to produce : in 
Java it is produced for 1..50 cents a pound ; 
in the Philippines for 1.75 cents a pound ; 
in Cuba for 2 cents a pound, says the 
American Cane Growers' Association of 
New Orleans. 



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30 



THE C U B A R E \' 1 \-. W 



TODAS LAS FERRETERIAS EN CUBA 

TIENEN SURTIDO DE LA GENUINA 

EMPAQUETADURA "EUREKA" 



porque en los ingenios de azucar se ha visto no solo que es la mejor 
maquinas de vapor y bombas, sino tambien que es la empaquetadura que 
mas tiempo y cuesta menos. 



TENGASE ESTO PRESENTE : 

La envidiabie reputacion que desde hace 30 
afios tiene la empaquetadura "EUREKA" ha 
inducido a muchos a imitarla con un producto 
que tiene buena apariencia exterior pero que es 
de material muy inferior. 

La empaquetadura genuine se vende en cajas 
de carton rojo con este rombo en rojo en la 
etiqueta de la caja y en la empaquetadura misma. 



para 
dura 



.VN' 



,*t^^ 



"EUREKA' 



"Vc 



TRADE MARK. ^,^^ fH\^ 



Hagasele al fer- g 
retero local un J 
pedido de ensayo, f 
6 nosotros lo'^: 
despacharemos di- 
rectamente. 




EUREKA PACKING CO., ts-somurrayst., nuevayork 



TERRENOS PROPIOS PARA CAnA 



Segun algunos autores los terrenes para la caiia deiaen tener humus }■ cal y una 
proporcion media de arena. Los terrenos medianos son los mejores, mas preferibles 
que los muy ligeros y arenosos. La mucha cantidad de humus trae por consecuencia 
una caha vigorosa, pero de jugo pobre y dificil de labor. 

Segun algunos autores novedosos, parece que las sales de mar de que hablamos 
al principio solo f avorecen el crecimiento vegetativo sin aumentar el contenido de 
azucar ni la pureza del jugo. 

En esto estamos de acuerdo si se habla con exageracion, de lo contrario pensamos 
como Phipson. 

Segiin Boname la caha necesita un suelo franco y profundo, ni muy seco ni muy 
hiunedo ; nosotros estamos de acuerdo con Boname, pues como el mismo lo dice, 
en estos suelos la caha se desarolla con vigor y produce jugos ricos dc azticar. 

Que los suelos tienen que marchar con el clima y con la tecnico es muy logico y 
esta es la unico manera de saber utilizar todos los suelos y de hacer las cosas 
racionalmente. 

Dice Boname que las tierras de las Guadalupe son arcillo-siliosas y casi arcillosas 
y que siempre que la proporcion de este ultimo elemento no este en exceso, las tierras 
son execlentes. En la Guadalupe llueve el doble que en Tucuman y los rendimientos 
son mucho mas altos. Conviene a la caha, dicen otros autores, un terreno rico en 
humus, sustancioso, profundo, facil de trabajar y que conservan una buena humedad ; 
los terrenos de aluvion de naturaleza arcillosa, fecimdados por la presencia de detritus 
organicos, son los que responden mejor a esta graminea. 

Segun don Alvaro Reynoso (y estamos con el) la cal es un elemento de primer 
orden en un suelo y es en estos donde, como dejamos dicho mas arriba, se consiguen 
buenas cosechas y riquisimos jugos. Habiendonos preocupado ya de la cal en el 
suelo, pasaremos de largo los comentarios que pudieramos hacer al respecto. Masset 
resume su manera de pensar en esta forma : yo creo que la caha puede vivir bien y 
crecer en todos los terrenos profundos, permeables y frescos, siempre que las sustancias 
humiferas sean suficientes y que no escaseen los elementos minerales necesarios. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



31 



Nosotros pensamos que el terreno destinado al cultivo de la cana, ha de ser rico y si 
es posible con una constitucion de suelo franco, con drenaje propio, prof undo }" replete 
de sustancias de reserva. 

No debe dejar estacionar las aguaS; pero debe aprovecharlas convenienteniente y 
su exposicion ha de responder a las exigencias del cultivo. 

La cafia vive muchos aiios y produce mucho. ademas lleva una existencia fatigosa, 
llena de grandes exigencias por parte del agricultor a quien sostiene, sin que este 
le preste a veces el mas insignificante cuidado. 

Anualmente sacan del terreno enormes cantidades de sustancias que al cabo de 
los aiios es necesario devolverlas como veremos mas adelante para cumplir con la 
justa y racional disposicion de la ciencia agraria : restituir al suelo los elementos 
extraidos por las plantas. La cana es una graminea de potentes raices, que no se 
contenta con rastrear la superficie sino que a veces desarrollandose en todas direc- 
ciones busca sus alimentos en las capas profundas del suelo. Todos estos antecedentes 
nacen de una especial manera de ser de la planta, de su fisialogia, de su dinamica 
funcional y de su mision como individuo, como ser destinado a producir algo que de 
ganancias y beneficios oportunos. 

Por esto, que no escapa a vuestras preparadas inteligencias, termino aqui este capi- 
tulo, en la seguridad de que siempre sabreis consultar planta y ambiente para iniciar 
agricultura y hacer progresar la existente. — Julio Storni (hijo). El Hacendado Mexicano. 



AQUi LA TENEIS. 

LA VALVULA DE REDUCCION 
DE LA PRESION QUE NO FALLA 

PARA VAPOR AIRE 




Y.iXa. es la valvula que evita el desperdicio cuaiido el con- 
sumo cesa. 

Un simple resorte regulador y un diafragma equilibrado 
permiten una variacion ilimitada de la presion en el lado 
en que se verifica la reduccion desde cere hasta muy cerca 
de la presion inicial. 

Puede regularse a cualquiera reduccion de la presion con 
solo dar vuelta al tornillo regulador mientras este 
funcionando. 



lABRICADA POR 
LYTTON MANUFACTURING CORPORATION 

Escritorio para la venta : 
1159 Hudson Terminal Building, Nueva York E. U. A 

Escritorio central y fabrica : FRANKLIN, VA. 

Agente en Cuba: J. E. Hernandez, Inquisidor 5, Habana. 



MAGNIFICENT RESIDENCE FOR SALE 



FOR SALE, at a great bargain — a 
regular presidential year price — one of 
the finest residences in the Catskills. 
Address for terms, plans, views, etc., 
P. O. Box 339. Madison Square 
Branch, New York City. 



DE VENTA, a un precio que es una 
verdadera ganga, una de las mas lindas 
residencias en la region de Catskills. Para 
precio, condiciones, pianos, etc., dirijanse 
a P. O. Box 339, Madison Square 
Branch, New York City, E. U. A. 



Please mentio.v THE CITB.V REVIEW when writi.vg to advertisers 



32 T H E C U B A R E V I E W 

FUSEL OIL FROM SUGAR WASTE 

[From Consul (leueral .himcs L. Rodgeis, Havana, 



Inquiry is made regarding the production of fusel oil in Cuba. After careful 
inquiry it is evident that no attempt is made to save this valuable by-product by the 
distilleries of Cuba, which run on the large supply of molasses coming from the sugar 
mills. As far as 1 can ascertain this is more the result of lack of knowledge in the 
matter of the production of fusel oil rather than any intention to sacrifice value. 

Among the distilling interests to which this matter has been submitted one company 
is very anxious to open correspondence with a view of securing the technical advice 
and assistance which would be necessary in developing this new feature of their industry. 

The price of molasses in Cuba fluctuates from year to year, but it can be averaged 
safely at about 3M> cents per gallon. All the available supply finds a ready market 
in Cuba, as it is used in local distilleries and is also shipped abroad in large quantities. 
In 1910 (the latest statistics available) the exportation of molasses from Cuba was 
in value $1,477,756, of which over 60 per cent went to the United States and very 
nearly all the remainder to England. 

Roughly estimated, the present-day distillation of alcohol of all grades in Cuba 
would be about 1,000,000 gallons annually. There are no accurate statistics available. 

Fusel oil is a by-product produced in the distillation of alcohol from various sub- 
stances, including grain, beet and cane molasses, and wood. Its chief use in the 
United States is in connection with the manufacture of explosives. It is also used 
in making artificial fruit essences. The total output of this oil in the United States 
was 110,792 gallons during 1910, the last year for which figures have been compiled 
bv the United States internal-revenue officials. — United States Bureau of ^Manufactures. 



FINDING THE CAPACITY OF TANKS capacity of a boiler. Find the area of the 

AND BOILERS end of the boiler by the rule for area of 

c 1 • 1 . 1 o r i. a circle and multiplv this area by the length 

_ Suppose we have a circular tank 8 feet ^f ^j^^ ^^-^^^ /^'^ ^ fire-tube boiler, first 

in diameter and 6 feet in height, how many ^^^ ^^^ ■ ^^ ^^^ ,,^ji^^ ^^ ^1^^ h 

gallons of water will it hold? A gallon ■ ,^^j „o tubes, then find the capacity 

equals 231 cubic inches. We must, there- ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ fr^,„ t,^^ -^ 

fore, find how many cubic inches there ^^ ^,^^ ^^-^^^ ^^ ^^^ ■ ^f ^^^es 

are in the tank and divide this number ^,,itjpiy ^he area of the end of a tube by 

^rJ A , ., , r u- • u its length and this product by the number 

1 o find the number ot cubic inches, we f f K 

must first find the number of square inches ° r, , ^^i-^^ ^o^^^;^,, ^( ,;,-^,,i-,f ^n^i- ^r 
,, , ,. r i-u .L 1 I 1^-1 Rule tor capacity ot ciicular tank or 

in the bottom of the tank and multiply , •, r^^ ■. :„ „„ii^„- „^,,^ic n.-o^ ^f 

4.U- k iU u • U4. f 4.U t 1 -ru 1, 4.^ boiler: Capacitv in gallons equals area ot 

this by the height of the tank The bottom ^^ -^ ^^^^^^^ -^^^ ^-^^^ 1^^ ^^ or 

of this tank IS a arc e. Its diameter is ^^.^^ in inches divided bv 231.— From 

LerofJdrSewV^uaJrlheJa^dirthat g;%«^ ^^-^--■'-^' -"^ Engineering, 

is, multiply the radius by itself and mul- ° ' ^ 

tiply the result by 3.1416. »,^. ,„.^,,.,r-»,^ .k, on/- An 

Example-4 feet equals 48 inches, and NOURISHMENT IN SUGAR 

this multiplied by itself gives 2,304 square Referring to the sugar harvest in the 

inches, which multiplied in turn by 3.1416 West Indies, the West India Committe 

gives 7,238 square inches as the bottom of Circular says: "It is interesting to recall 

the tank. Multiplying this sum by the that John Hunter, the celebrated anatomist 

height of the tank, 6 feet or 72 inches, and surgeon, in one of his Treatises pub- 

we have 521,136 cubic inches in the tank. lished in 1788, dilated as to the advantages 

Dividing this by 231 to reduce to gallons, of cane sugar, which he described as 'one 

the result is 2,256 gallons as the tank's of the best restoratives of any kind we 

capacity. are acquainted with.'. .. 'There are suffi- 

The same method is used in finding the cient proofs of its nutritive quality over 



EQUIPO ELECTRICO para INGENIOS DE AZUCAR 

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE COMPANY 

205-7-9 CHARTRES STREET NUEVA ORLEANS, La., E. U. A. 

EL ALMACEN MAYOR EN AMERICA DE APARATOS Y ENSERES EI.ECTRICOS 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



almost every other substance. It is a well- 
known fact, that all the negroes in the 
sugar islands become extremely lusty and 
fat in the sugar-cane season, and they 
hardly live upon anything else.' After 
commenting on the advantage which 
horses, cattle and birds derived from 
sugar, he continued : 'When we consider 
that a whole swarm of bees will live a 
whole winter on a few pounds of honey, 
keep up a constant heat, about 95 to 96 
degrees, and the action of animal economy 
equal to that of heat; we must allow that 
sugar contains, perhaps, more real nourish- 
ment tlian any other known substance.' " 

According to the Avisador Cumcrcial 
of Havana, deeds were signed in that city 
on April 1st conveying some 2,000 caballe- 



rias ^ (about 67,000 acres) in Oriente 
Province, municipality of Victoria de las 
Tunas, to unnamed buyers, who will build 
a sugar mill to be called the Manati. Its 
initial capacity will be 150,000 bags, thougii 
this will be increased to 300,000 bags. 

Attention is especially directed to the 
fact that the new mill will lie capitalized 
with Cuban money. 



The people of the United States do not 
regard the destruction of the "Maine" as 
a closed incident, says the Washington 
Star. They still feel that it remains to 
be nunished. From the twisted meml)crs 
of the hull have been now gained unmisf.k- 
able evidences that the ship was destroyed 
by a blow from the outside, and there re- 
mains a determination to clear the mystery. 



Determinacion del zumo extraldo 



Llamamos la atencion de nuestros lec- 
tores que esten interesados en todo lo re- 
lativo a la fabricacion de azucar, hacia la 
Balanza Automatica para Fluidos de 
Richardson, cuyo grabado aparece en el 
anuncio respective inserto en la pagina 37. 

Este aparato de destina expresamente 
para pesar y registrar, automaticamente, el 
zumo extraido de la cana de azucar, y se 
viene empleando muchisimo- para pesar la 
cantidad de zumo que se extrae de la caiia. 
Esta balanza y registro se halla instalada 
en varios de nuestros grandes ingenios en 
Cuba, y tambien ha sido adoptada por gran 
numero de hacendados en la islas Hawaii, 
en Puerto Rico y en otras partes. 

Como quiera que los procedimientos em- 
pleados hasta ahora para determinar la can- 
tidad de zumo extraido de la caiia han sido 
solo aproximados y enganosos, la intro- 
duccion de este aparato viene a satisfacer 
la necesidad que existe de un medio exacto 
y seguro para determinar el rendimiento 
de la cana. Es indudable que cuando este 
aparato sea mas canocido, se uso habra de 
generalizarse por las ventajas que ofrece. 



Este aparato no debe confundirse con 
ningiin otro nuevo y aun sujeto a experi- 
mentos. Fue construido por sus fabrican- 
tes, que son prolialmente los mas expertos 
y mayores fabricantes de aparatos automa- 
ticos para pesar en el mundo, despues de 
varios anos de detenido estudio de las ne- 
cesidades en los ingenios de azucar, y su 
utilidad y exactitud ha sido demostrada 
hasta la saciedad durante el tiempo que 
lleva usandose, pues todos los que se han 
instalado desde su introduccion estan fun- 
cionando perfectamente y a completa sa- 
tisfaccion de los que los han adoptado. 

Es posible acercarse a esta balanza y 
mirar su brazo en perfecto equilibrio a 
cada carga. No es necesario, por lo tanto, 
tomar una muestra de la esta balanza y pe- 
sarla en un tanque sobre una bascula. va- 
goneta ni otra balanza, pues este aparato 
es de comprobacion automatica y su exacti- 
tud no puede ponerse en duda. 

Los fabricantes garantizan que este 
aparato registra el peso exacto y absoluto del 
zumo de cana 6 guarapo que pase por el mis- 
mo, con una variacion maxima de 1 en 1000. 



METAL AGUILA BABBITT 



EL METAL BAB- 
BITT "AGUILA" ha 
demostrado cuali- 
dades e.\ccpcionak'S, 
en cuanto i. la fric- 
cion y el desgaste, 
bajo una presion 
extraordinaria y en 
servicio riido. 




Lo reconiendamos 
niuchisinio para nia- 
quinaria de nioler 
caiia de azucar. 



Precio, 15 cts la 
libra. 



HOYT METAL COMPANY - - NUEVA YORK 



34 T H E C U B A R E \' I E W 

REVISTA AZUCARERA 

Escrita expresamente para la Cuba Review por Willett & Gray, de Nueva York 



Nuestra ultima revista azucarera para esta publicacion estaba fechada el 15 de marzo 
de 1912. En ese periodo las cotizaciones para los azucares centrifuges polarizacion 
96° eran 4.53c. la libra, y ahora es de 3.98c. la libra derechos pagados, el punto mas 
bajo en la campafia azucarera. 

La tabla aqui impresa muestra el curso de los precios durante el primer trimestre 
del ano, y es interesante, pues indica muy claramente lo que puede llevar a cabo la 
agitacion arancelaria en lo que se refiere a la poca estabilidad de precios durante el 
tiempo de su discusion en el Congreso. Durante enero y febrero, sin agitacion aran- 
celaria, los precios fluctuaron muy satisfactoriamente, bajo el punto de vista de otras 
condiciones, pero con la presentacion y adoptacion de una clausula por la Camara de 
Representantes, aboliendo todo derecho sobre el azucar y eliminando la ventaja de la 
Reciprocidad con Cuba sobre los azucares extranjeros, los vendedores de azucar de 
Cuba y Puerto Rico fueron poseidos y con fundamento de temor y desmoralizacion, 
cosas que se ban hecho aun mas intensas desde que se hizo esta tabla. Al presente, 
la mas grande mejoria en precios sobre los del ano pasado, como se muestra en la 
tabla, se ha perdido casi por completo, siendo actualmente 3.98c. por libra el precio 
de los Centrifugos polarizacion 96°, contra 3.86c. por libra en igual epoca el aiio pasado. 

Respecto a la perspectiva arancelaria sobre que se basa la desmoralizacion, no hay 
la mas minima probabilidad de que el Senado apruebe ni de que el Presidente ponga 
su firma a una tarifa arancelaria que no de a Cuba un derecho preferencial de 20 
por ciento. 

Una tarifa tal, sobre la base de Ic. por libra polarizacion 96°, con .80c. sobre el azucar 
de Cuba, es la reduccion maxima que tiene probabilidad alguna de convertirse en ley, 
y la reduccion en derechos por tal clausula ya esta descontada en los precios actuales 
de los Centrifugos. 

La diferencia comparativa entre el azucar de Cuba y el de remolacha es ahora .S2c. 
las 100 libras ; .30c. las 100 libras es la diferencia anual acostumbrada, y los restantes 
.52c. por 100 libras tiene que acreditarse al descuento de esa cantidad en la tarifa. 
Si finalmente resulta que en esta sesion del Congreso no tiene lugar cambio alguno 
en la tarifa, entonces este descuento de %c. sera recobrado mas tarde en la estacion, 
con tal que los mercados europeos continuen sosteniendose firmes. Ahora parece 
que la Gran Bretaiia ha comprado de 100,000 a 12.'), 000 toneladas de azucar de Cuba, 
y que esta cantidad es todo lo que probablemente requerira de Cuba, dejando el resto 
de la cosecha para los Estados Unidos. 

Todos los indicios ahora se inclinan en favor de una zafra completa, que llegue 
al calculo primitive de 1,800,000 toneladas. 

Nuestros refinadores van llegando al mercado mas libremente a causa de la actual 
cotizacion bajo la base de 3.9Sc. por libra, y los vendedores podran pronto recuperar 
su perdida confianza. 

El azucar de remolacha europeo, que en nuestra v'lltima revista era 15s. %d., se 
cotiza ahora a 13s. 2i/4d. (4.80c.), despues de haber tocado el punto mas bajo de 13s. 
El azucar de cafia de Java se cotiza ahora a 14s., paridad de 2%c. costo y flete por los 
Centrifugos de Cuba. 

Las siembras de remolacha para la nueva cosecha, segun calculo que nos envia por 
cable F. O. Licht, ascienden a un aumento de cinco por ciento sobre las del ano pasado, 
de Alemania solamente. 

Los compradores de azucar refinado, basandose en las cifras de la tabla de febrero, 
han tenido grandes perdidas por las bajas sucesivas. 

Los abastecedores al por mayor agregaron compras especulgtivas a sus requerimientos 
normales, y como resultado, en algunos casos han pagado grandes sumas de dinero 
a los refinadores, cubriendo la diferencia entre el precio alto de la contrata y las 
cotizaciones corrientes, para que se les cancelaran los contratos. El estado de este - 
mercado azucarero es bastante diferente al ,de aiios atras, en que los refinadores 
sobrellevaron ellos mismos tales perdidas ocasionadas por las bajas en el mercado, 
concediendo al comprador todo el beneficio de los precios bajos del mercado el dia 
de la entrega. 



THE CUBA R E V I E W 



35 



CABLE ADDRESS: Tu«nu«i 



NEW YORK 
64-66 Wall Stkbit 



LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

BANKERS 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of Collection and Remittance 
of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale 
of Letters of Exchange. CollecHon of Drafts, Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Paymenti 
by Cable and Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, Spain, 
Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo. Central and South America. 

CORRESPONDENTS: 

HAVANA— N. Gelats y Ca. LONDON— The London Joint Stock Bank, Ltd. 

MEXICO— Banco Central Mexicano. Paris — Heine et Cie. 




Bomba de Vacio Seco de Marsh 



Bombas de Marsh 

Del mas alto grado 
de eficacia para el 
servicio de Ingenios. 

Garantizamos menor 
consume de vapor que 
cualquier otro fabri- 
cante de bombas de 
accion directa. 
Pidase un catdlogo. 

AMERICAN STEAM PUMP CO. 

BATTLE CREEK, MICH. 



SUGAR TESTING APPARATUS 



FUNDADA EN 1851 




POi^aRISCOPIO SOBRE "BOCKSTATIV" L.\ FORMA MAS MODERNA 
Con caja a prueba de polvo, parte de prisma, y engranaje prolongado. 

EIMER & AMEND, 205=211 Third Avenue, New York 



Hace una especiali- 

dad de surtir 
Todos los Instru- 
mentos para la 
Prueba de Atucar 
y Habilitacidn dt 
Laboratorio. 
Unices Agentes en 
los Estados Unidoi 
y Canada para loi 

STANDARD 

POLARISCOPIOS 

Su triple 6 doble 
campo de vision ba 
sido adoptado por 
el Gobierno de loi 
Estados Unidos co- 
mo norma. 

Toda la maquina- 
ria experimental y 
los aparatos descri- 
tos en ((Agricultural 
Analysis,)) del Prof. 
H. W. Wiley. Se 
suministran con 
gusto todos los in- 
formes pedidos. 

Pidanse Listai de 
Precios Ilustradas. 



Please me.nttox THE CUBA REVIEW when writixg to advertisers 



36 T H E C U B A R E V I E W 



Ahora precisamente todas las transacioncs son de poco fruto. 

La lista de precios de todos los refinadores es de 5.10c. por libra menos 2 por ciento, 
excepto la Federal y Arbuckle que son de 5.05c. menos 2 por ciento. Bajo la base de 5c. 
menos 2 por ciento, no calK- diula que las compras de azucar refinado aumentaran 
considerablemente. 

SUGAR REVIEW 

Specially Written for The Cuba Review by Willett & Gray, of New York 



Our last review for this magazine was dated March 15, 1912. 

At that time the quotation for centrifugals 96 degrees test was 4.53c. per lb., and 
is now 3.9Sc. per lb. duty paid, the lowest point of the campaign. 

The chart printed herewith" shows the course of prices for the first quarter of the 
year, and is interesting, as indicating very clearly, what a tariff agitation can do in the 
way of unsettling values, during the time of its discussion in Congress. During 
January and February, without tariff agitation, prices moved very satisfactorily, from 
the standpoint of other conditions, but with the presentation and passing of a sugar 
schedule through the House of Representatives, removing all duty on sugar, and doing 
away with the Cuban reciprocity advantage over foreign sugars, well founded scare 
and demoralization came to both sellers of Cuba and Porto Rico, which has grown 
even more intense since the chart was made. At the present writing, the greatest 
improvement in prices over last year, as shown by the chart, has been nearly lost, 
present value of 96 centrifugals being 3.98c. per 11). against 3.S()C. per lb. at the cor- 
responding time last year. 

As regards the tariff prospects on which the demoralization is based, there is not 
one chance in a thousand of a tariff passing the Senate, and receiving the signature 
of the president, that does not give a preferential of 20 per cent to Cuba. 

Such a tariff on basis of Ic. per lb. 96 degrees test with .80c. on Cuba sugar, is the 
maximum reduction, that has any chance of becoming a law, and the reduction in 
duties by such a schedule is already discounted in the present price of centrifugals. 

The parity difference between Cuba and beet sugar is now .82c. per 100 lbs. ; .30c. per 
100 lbs. is the usual yearly difference, and the remaining .52c. per 100 lbs. must be 
credited to the discounting of that amount in the tariff. If it finally results that no 
change in the tariff is made at this session, then this ^-jc. discounting will be recovered 
later in the season, provided that European markets continue to hold their own. It 
now appears that Great Britain has bought some 100,000 to 125,000 tons from Cuba, and 
that this amount is all that she will probably require from Cuba, leaving the balance 
of the crop for the United States. 

All signs now point to a full sized crop, up to the original estimate of 1,800,000 tons. 

Our refiners are coming into the market more freely at the current quotation of 3.98 VL'C. 
per lb. basis, and sellers may soon recover their lost courage. 

European beet sugar, which was 15s. %d. by our last review, is now 13s. 2%d. 
(4.80c.), after having touched the lowest point of 13s. Cane Java sugar is now 14s., 
the parity of 2%c. c. & f. for Cuba centrifugals. 

Beet sowings for the new crop are estimated by cable to us, from F. O. Licht, at 
5 per cent increase from last year for Germany alone. 

Refined buyers, based on the chart figures for February, have been heavy sufferers 
from the succeeding declines. 

Jobbers added specualtive purchases to their legitimate requirements, and as a result 
have in instances paid large suins of money to refiners, covering the difference between 
the high contract price and current quotations, to have the contracts cancelled. This 
is quite a different market condition from former years, when the refiners took all 
such losses from market declines onto themselves, and gave the buyer the full benefit 
of the lower market prices on day of delivery. 

Just now all business is on the hand to inouth basis. 

All refiners' list prices are at 5.10c. per lb. less 2 per cent, except the Federal and 
Arbuckle at 5.05c. less 2 per cent. At the 5c. less 2 per cent basis the buying of 
refined sugar will, no doubt, be considerably increased. 

* See chart on page 29. 



THE CUBA RE\'IEW 



37 




que mtiestfa la vistalacion cii la Xipc Bay Ci 



SR. INGENIERO DE INGENIO DE AZuCAR: 

Cuanto guarapo extrae Vd. de su cafia? Si no lo sabe con 
CERTEZA en todas ocasiones, use la 

BALANZA AUTOMATICA DE RICHARDSON 

PARA JUGO DE CAN A 

Esta Balanza se lo dira. 

Es realmente exacta, con garantia de que pesa hasta 1/10 de 1 /f . 

Es realmente automatica, no requiere trabajo, y pesa y registra por si sola. 

Es realmente durable, todos los tanques estan hechos de cobre, y todas las 
partes funcionantes son de un bronce especial ; por tanto, es a prueba de acidos 
y duradera. 

Ninguna refineria de azucar debiera pasarse sin ella. 

BALANZAS AUTOMATICAS PARA PESAR 

AZUCARES CRUDOS Y REFINADOS 

Se garantiza la satisfaccion. 

RICHARDSON SCALE COMPANY 

3 PARK ROW, NEW YORK, N. Y., E. U. A. 

GALBAN & CO., Agentes, Apartado 83, Habana, Cuba 



I'l-E-Ast MLN-TjoN- THE CL'BA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



38 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HAVANA 



CUBA 

National Bank of Cuba 

Government Depositary 

CAPITAL, SURPLUS AND 
UNDIVIDED PROFITS 

$6,250,000.00 



Head Office — Havana 

20 BRANCHES IN CUBA 

N eiv York Agency 
I WALL STREET 



COLLECTIONS 



THE 

TRUST COMPANY OF CUBA 

HAVANA 



CAPITAL «Rd 
SURPLUS 



$580,000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TR JST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT 

EXAMINES TITLES COLLECTS RENTS 

NEGOTIATES LOANS ON MORTGAGES 



Correspondence 
Intending 



Solicited from 
Investors 



OFFICERS 

Norman H. Davis President 

O. A. Hornsby - Vice-President and Treas. 
Claudio G. Mendoza - - Vice-President 

Rogelio Carbajal Secretary 

J. M. Hopgood - - - Assistant Treasurer 

Offices: Cuba, 31, Havana 



The Royal Bank of Canada 

INCORPORATED 1869 

Fiscal Agent of the Government of the Republic of 
Cuba for the Payment of the Army of Liberation 

Paid-up Capital 

and Reserve ,013,100,000.00 

Total Assets $95,000,000.00 



Head Office 



MONTREAL 



New York Agency 

68 William Street 

Branches in Havana: Obrapia 33, Galiano 92; 

Matanzas, Cardenas, Manzanillo, Cienfuegos, 

Camaguey, Santiago de Cuba, Mayari, Sagua, 

Caibarien 



Established 1844 

H. UPMANN & CO. 

BANKERS 

TRANSACT A GENERAL BANKING BUSINESS 
Correspondent! at All Principal Placet of th* Island 

Safe Deposit Vaults 

Manufacturers of the Famous H. Uptnann 
Brand of Cigars 

OFFICE: 
Amariura l-S 



FACTORY: 
Paiee d* Tacon 159-163 



Established 1876 

N. GELATS & COMPANY 

BANKERS 



Transact a general banking business 
Correspondents at all the principal 
places of the world 



Safe Deposit Vaults 

Office: Aguiar 108 



Secretary of State Knox, while in San 
Juan, Porto Rico, recently, is said by La 
Luclia of Havana to have informed the 
sugar grov^^ers of the island that the ad- 
ministration did not favor the free sugar 
bill, and that he did not believe it v^^ould 
pass the Senate. Even if it did, he said, 
President Taft would not sign it. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



THE CUBA RE\'IEW 



39 



ROOMS FOR THE SUMMER 



Habitaciones claras y con sol para hospedaje, 
conectadas si se desea. Agua fria y caliente, 
mesa excelente y buen servicio. Cerca de los 
ferrocarriles elevados y de cuatro lineas de tran- 
vias. Situado en parte centrica y de facil acceso 
a cualquier parte de Niieva York, de Brooklyn y 
de las playas de mar. Casa abierta todo el ano. 
Escriban pidiendo precios a A. E. CLARK, 459, 
461, 463 Tompkins Avenue, Brooklyn, New York. 



Light sunny rooms, connecting if desired; hot 
and cold water. Excellent table and good service. 
near "L" and four lines of surface cars. Cen- 
trally located and easy of access to any part of 
New York, Brooklyn and the beaches. Open 
all the year round. Write for terms to 

A. E. CLARK 
459-461-463 Tompkins Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



HAVANA 



The United Railways of Havana 

in conjunction with the Cuba Railroad, maintain a service of 
two trains daily between Havana and the growing Eastern 
city of CAMAQUEY, and one Express Train daily between 
Havana and SANTIAGO DE CUBA, the "Dream City of the 
West Indies." Buffet lunch is served on these trains. 

FOUR TRAINS DAILY 

in both directions between Havana and MATANZAS, which latter city because of its picturesque 
situation and tne charm of its principal attractions (Yumuri's famous valley and the wonderful 
caves of Bellamar) has long enjoyed distinction as the great "Mecca" of the tourists, and it 
continues to gain in populaiity. EXCELLENT TRAIN SERVICE is maintained to many other 
places of great interest to tourists, all of which are fully described in "Cuba — A Winter 
Paradise," a profusely illustrated 80-page booklet with six complete maps and 72 views illustrative 
of this wonderful island, sent postpaid on receipt of 3 cents in stamps. 

Frank Roberts, General Passenger Agent 
United Railways of Havana -------- us, Prado, Havana, Cuba 



FRED WOLFE ^^i calzada de vives, havana 

Cable, "Wolfe" 

Negociante en Todas Clases Dealer in all Classes of 
de Ganado Live Stock 

Especialmente en Mulos Especially in Mules 

Always on hand Large Stock of All Classes of Mules — All Mules Sold Are 
Guaranteed as Represented — Can Furnish Any Number Desired on Short Notice 



^ 



isd^mof^^BAw THE LIVERPOOL & LONDON & GLOBE INSURANCE CO, 

This Company will issue Binders on risks in the Island of Cuba 
at theii New York ofTice, 45 William Street. Tel., 3097 John. 
FIRE LOSS OF INCOME BOILER EXPLOSION 

FIRE AND BOILER EXPLOSION FOLLOWING FIRE ENGINE BREAKDOWN 

Havana Office: 106 Cuba Street 



P. RUIZ ® BROS. 

ENGRAVERS 

FINE STATIONERY 

Obispo 22 P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA, CUBA 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

Established 1836, at 105 Wall St. 

Cable Address, "Tide, New York" 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



40 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



INTERESTING TO MILL OWNERS 

Said a United States manufacturer re- 
cently : 

"We often wonder if the average owner 
or administrator of a mill looks into the 
small items of cost in the development 
of his steam power — or does he consider 
such items too small to call for his atten- 
tion? If he would summarize them at 
the end of a season's run, his eyes would 
be opened, and he would realize the im- 
portance of taking a more active interest 
in the selection of goods that give the best 
results. 

"Take the small item of packing for th»e 
engine, pump and compressor. It may 
seem to him hardly worth his consideration, 
but a more careful look into even that small 
item would satisfy him that it represents 
much more in dollars than he would sup- 
pose. 



"Poor packing means excessive friction 
on the engine and pump rods. Friction 
means more consumption of power and 
that in turn means more consumption of 
fuel. Friction also means wear on the 
rods and expense in repairs. Poor packing 
seldom gives half the service of a good 
quality, for it needs frequent renewing and 
entails considerable loss of time, thus 
making it a dear product. 

"A really good packing is not expensive. 
The engine moves more freely, more power 
is developed without extra cost, it needs 
but seldom renewing and saves labor." 

This manufacturer, whose product is the 
Eureka packing, has but recently returned 
from a visit to Cuba, and was deeply grati- 
fied to lind in his journeyings throughout 
the island his own products on nearly all 
merchants' shelves. 



WILLETT St GRAY, SroRers and Agents 

FOREIGN AND ^^XT^^^ TV ^K^ ^^ ^^^ ^^° 

DOMESTIC l^^-l^ VZM'^tr^.JC^I^^ REFINED 

82 W^ALL STREET, NE>V YORK 

'ublishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal^ the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED. 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

Engines, Boilers andMacKinery 

Alanufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass 
Castings. Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

Staamal&ip IVortc a Spwcialty^ 
A. KLING. Prop. MORII^P A T^ A 



The Sugar News of Cuba 

is given in the very interesting corresiiondence from the tropical island appearing in 
every issue of the 

AMERICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY 

The latest and most reliable sugar news from every part of the World is gathered 
by our own Special Correspondents, and apjiears exclusively in this jjaper. 

PRINTED IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH 

A Spanish Section has been recently added for the benefit of our readers in Cuba, 
Porto Rico and other Spanish speaking countries. 

Monthly, $2.00 per year in the United States, Cuba, and Mexico. In foreign 
countries, $3.00 per year. Subscribe for it if you want to keep posted. 

SAMPLE COPY FREE. SEND FOR ADVERTISING RATES. 

Address: BEET SUGAR GAZETTE COMPANY 

Hearst Building, Chicago, 111. - 140 Nassau St. New York 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



41 



Telephone, 83 Hamilton 
Night Cftll, All Hamilton 



Cable Addreai: 
"Abiworkf," New York 



Atlantic Basin Iron Works 

Engineers and Boiler Makers 

Mkchinista. Plumbers, Tinsmiths, Pipe Fitters, Blacksmiths, Copperamiths, 
Pattern Makers, Sheet Iron Workers. Iron and Brass Castings. Steamship 
Repairs a Specialty. 

Cor. ImJay and Summit Streets 



Brooklyn, JV. Y. 



John Munro & Soa 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

722 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address : Kunomale, New York 

Telephone, 2492 South 



Telephone 
215 Hamilton 



Box 186 

Maritime Excbaoga 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

CauIkefSy Spar Makers 

Boat Builders, Etc. 

No. 9 SUMMIT STREET 
Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 



THE AMERICAN PHOTO COMPANY 



:: COMMERCIAL :: 
PHOTOGRAPHERS 



OBISPO No. 70 



HAVANA, CUBA 



The best equipped plant in the Island of Cuba. Our photographers will go on your order to 
any part of Cuba and do your photographic work — any size. Panorama work a specialty. 
Developing and printing for amateurs receive the same care as our professional work. Largest 
and best collection of Cuban and Isle of Pines views in existence. 



THE CAPTURE OF A FLAG"^ 

From General Fiinston"s book, the fol- 
lowing recital of a daring feat in Cuba by 
a Cuban lieutenant is taken : 

"The capture of Guaimaro blockhouse was 
a vigorous piece of fighting, the value of 
success being all the greater for the store 
of food and water found in the place. A 
box of biscuits was found with its upper 
half saturated with blood, but it was no 
time to be fastidious, so the damaged 
layers were removed and the uninjured 
contents thrown to the hungry tnen out- 
side : 

"In the meantime several officers of 
General Garcia's staff had reached us, and 
called attention to the fact that the Spanish 
flag was still floating from the pole on the 
blockhouse. This would never do, and it 
must come down. But it could not be 
lowered, being nailed to the staff. One of 
these officers, Lieutenant Luis Rodolfo 



"Memories of Two Wars," by Frederick 
Funston. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons; 
$3 net. 



.Miranda, said he would bring down the 
flag, and several of us went out and from 
the safe side of the structure watched the 
operation. With assistance Miranda 
reached the roof, and slowly and painfully 
began drawing himself up the pole, which 
was about eighteen feet high and four 
inches in diameter. Every Spaniard in 
Guaimaro could see him, and I believe, too, 
a man tried to bring the gallant fellow 
down. Bullets hissed and crackled all 
about, and beat a constant tattoo on the 
blockhouse. The pole above or below 
him was hit several times. For a few 
moments that seemed endless we looked 
on in an agony of suspense, expecting 
every moment to see him come crashing 
down on the tiled roof. We begged him 
to give it up and wait for night, but he 
kept on, reached the flag, cut it loose with 
his pocket-knife, slid down the polg with 
it. ran to the eaves, and leaped to the 
ground fifteen feet below. It would be 
difficult to imagine a feat of more reckless 
daring, and yet I have heard some of my 
own countrymen damn the whole Cuban 
people as a race of cowards.'" 



42 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HENRY E. BROWN Shipping and Ex- 
port Chemist and 

Pharmacist Druggist. 

Ships' Medicine Chests furnished and re- 
plenished. Prescriptions compounded by a 
Graduate in Pharmacy. 

Trusses, Surgical Appliances, etc. 

Office and Laboratory, Room 36 

116 BROAD STREET, NEW YORK 



Bottled at the Brewery 




For Sale at all Dealers 
and on the Munson Line 



Sobrinos De Bea & Co. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 
lmportaci6n directa de todas los 
centros manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, 
New York and Mobile; James E. Ward & 
Co., New York; Serra Steamship Company, 
Liverpool; Vapores Transatlanticos de A. 
Folch & Co. de Barcelona, Espaiia Indepen- 
dencia Street 17/21. 

MATANZAS. CUBA 



JOHN w. McDonald 

COAL, WOOD, LUMBER 
AND TIMBER 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

112 Wall Street, New York 

Near South Street 

Yard; 56-58 Beard Street, Erie Basin 

Telephones: 

Office, 1905 John Yard, 316 Hamilton 



M. J. CABANA 



COMMISSION 
MERCHANT 
P. O. Box 3, Camaguey 
Handles all lines of mercluindise either on a commission 
basis or under agencj arrangements. Also furnlslies all 
desired information about lands in eastern Cuba. 

A telegraph station has been opened for 
pubUc service in connection with the post 
office at Cueto, between Alto Cedro and 
Antilla, Oriente Province. 



WHEN CANE WAS NOT CLOSELY 
GROUND 

When the West Indies became the 
source of the chief commercial cane sugar 
supply of the world, says the Louisiana 
Planter, and the West Indians preferred 
not to grind their cane too closely because 
thus they diminished the fuel capacity of 
their sun-dried bagasse, Louisiana sugar 
engineers, impelled by West Indian com- 
petition to obtain the greatest possible juice 
extraction out of their cane and the highest 
poss, ^ immediate fuel value out of their 
bagasse almost simultaneously invented 
multiple mills and furnaces for the steaiu- 
generating combustion of green bagasse. 
In time the West Indies, and every other 
cane sugar country of the world, followed 
this progressive step started in Louisiana. 



SILENCERS PROHIBITED 

The importation into Cuba of silencers 
of any description for fire-arms and the 
use and sale thereof have been prohibited 
bv the government. It was ordered that 
any persons in Cuba having in their pos- 
session such silencers should turn them 
over to the government. 

Journal d' Agriculture Tropicale 

Founded by J. VILBOUCHEVITCH 
164 Rue Jeanne d'Arc Prolongie, Paris 



SuBsc«iPTiON, One Yea« 



20 Fbancs 



Deals with the leading questions of the hour 
agricultural and commercial, of interest to tropica 
countries. International in character. Illustrated 
Monthly. Descriptions of machines for tropica 
crops a specialty. Complete review of new agri 
cultural publications. Commercial part intelligible 
for every one and always interestmg ISO con- 
tributors in West and East Africa, East and West 
Indies, Java, Mauritus, Central and South Amer 
ica, and throughout the tropical world. 



THE SNARE AND TRIEST COMPANY 

CONTRACTING ENGINEERS 



STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 



We are prepared to furnish plans and estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 



New York Office 
143 Liberty St. 



Havana Office 

Zulueta 36 D. 



W. H. Bennett 



F. W. HVOSLEF 



Bennett, Hvoslef & Co. 
Steamship Agents and Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 

Cable: "Benwalsh" 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE 

GENERAL OFFICES 

82 BEAVER STREET, NEW YORK 
NEW YORK-CUBA SERVICE 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT SERVICE BETWEEN NEW YORK 
AND ANTILLA.NIPE BAY, NUEVITAS, PUERTO PADRE, GIBARA 

Special Through Rates to Camague}) via Nuevitas 



PROPOSED SOUTHBOUND SAILINGS 

S.S. Olinda - May 1st 

S.S. CuRiTYBA - - _ May 15th 

S.S. Olinda May 29th 

Steamers sail from Pier 9, East River, at 1 2 o'clock noon 

PROPOSED NORTHBOUND SAILINGS 

S.S. CURITYBA ....... NUEX'ITAS, MaY 3rD 

S.S. Olinda - Nuexitas, May 17th 

S.S. CuRiTYBA Nuevitas, May 31st 

Note : Steamers do not call at Nipe northbound. 
The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 

NEW YORK— CUBA SERVICE 

freight only 

New York to Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua and Caibarien 

MOBILE— CUBA SERVICE 

freight only 

Regular Sailings Mobile to Havana; Mobile to North Side 
AND South Side Cuban Ports 

BALTIMORE— COLON SERVICE 

freight only 

Regular Sailings Baltimore to Colon 



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G TO ADVERTISERS 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Lillie Multiple £.vaporators 



Model of 1904-1905 (Patented) 




"One of three Lillie quad- 
ruple effects installed is 
1907, in sugar factories in 
Formosa, belonging to the 
Taiwan Seito Kabushiki 
Kwaisha, of Tokio, Japan. 
Two more quadruple effecta, 
one to handle 550,000 gallon/ 
of cane juice per twenty-four 
hours, and the other to 
handle 325,000 gallons in the 
same period, are now (July 
ist, 1909) being built for 
the same Japanese Company, 
also for St vice in Formosa. 
These quadruple effects arc 
arranged for reversing the 
course of the vapors and 
heat at will, a mode of op- 
eration peculiar to the Lillie 
and which has proven of 
great value for solutions de- 
positing incrustations on the 
evaporating tubes." 



The Su^ar Apparatus Manufacturing Co. 

328 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



«. MORRIS LILLIE. President. 



LEWIS C. LILLIE. Secretary and Treasumt 



THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS 

Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A. 

LOCOMOTIVES 



BROAD AND 
NARROW GAUGE 



SINGLE EXPANSION 
AND COMPOUND 




'"'orj^n^'cT' PLANTATION LOCOMOTIVES D^Tio^^^o/sS^Src^' 

specifications Furnished on Application 

American Trading Company, Calle de Cuba 78a, Havana, Cuba 

Cable Address: "Baldwin, Philadelphia" 



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THE 



CVBA 




.ir««* 



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--^**jrr* 


•"^ 




'T."' 








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THE CUBA REVIEW 




jXi^l^S&- 



liiiliirij Hagusse Feeders Kcmhj j'lr Shipment 

BAGASSE FEEDERS 

"Link Belt" Bdgasse Feeders are so constriicled as to prevent efjeetuallij 
the escape of sparks or hot air, or the entry of cold air into the fur- 
nace. Temperature cannot be lowered or combustion interfered unth. 



Write for Book No. 9(5 



LINK -BELT COMPANY ^^ewvorkcitv 




ALL 

ABOUT 

Cuba ' 



COPYRIGHT, 1912 



IT COVERS THE ISLAND'S 

INDUSTRIES AND ACTIVITIES 

ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR POSTPAID 



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PAi-BNTE PELAEZ 



Esta raaza puede colocarse fadlmenteen cualq'.ner trapiche, sea de dos 6 tres mazas. Machuca bien 
la cafia desmenuzAndola y extrayendole al niisrao t empo las dos terceras partes de su guarapo. dejando 
la caiia bien preparada I>ara el seguiido trapiche. Ejecuta todo el trabajo de una desinenuzadora de 
primera clase y sin mas gasto que cuando se opera con una maza lisa. Esta maza es de acero y se ha 
sacado privilegio para ella en todas las partes del mundo donde se cultiva la catia de aziicar. Puea 
envienos un dibujo de la maza superior que usan V is , asi que de su eje, y les cotizaremos precios bajos 
por una maza completa para desmenuzar la cana d,- este trapiche. 

NEWELL MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 149 Broadway, New York, E. U. A. 

PIERRE DROESHOUT, Agt., Apartade 861, Havana, Cuba 



EPPING-CARPENTER COMPANY 

HIGHEST GRADE PUMPkS FOR 
SUGAR AND POWER HOUSE 

Factory: Pittsburg, Pa., U. S. A. = New York Office: 90 West St. 



/^ A DD/^C PARA TODOS uses v dc todos tamafios, de los para caiia con cuatro ruedas y capa- 

^•^r^r^^"^ cidad de 1 '/2 toneladas a los con juegos dobles de ruedas y capacidad de 30 tonelaaas 

tiacemos una especiahdad de juegos de herrajes, incluyendo los juegos 

de ruedas, completamente armados. con todas las piesas de metal, y pianos 

completes para construir los carros i su destino de maderas del pais 




RAMAPO IRON WORKS, 30 Church St., New York, N. Y. 



Cable Address: 
Ramaliam 



ABOUT THE PLANTATION 

Dixon's Silica-Graphite Paint will be found to preserve all buildings. Laid up 
machinery will not rust and corrode if protected with Dixon's Paint. 

Cuban Agent: CHAS. BLASCO, HAVANA 
JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE COMPANY .... JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



DON'T OVERLOOK THE 
ADVERTISING PAGES 

OF 

THE CUBA REVIEW 



They form not the least interesting portion of the publi- 
cation, and there is sufficient variety of Investment propo- 
sitions and valuable merchandise announcements to mest 
everyone's need. 1 Get In correspondence with CUBA 
REVIEW advertisers for the goods you want. 



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FARQUHAR 

Todos los comerciantes y agricultores 
en la Isla de Cuba saben de que el nom- 
bre de FARQUHAR es el solicitado para 
Arados, Implementos de Agricultura y 
Maquinaria. — Orandes partidas estan 
proveidas constantemente por los comer- 
ciantes de todas las ciudades de la Isla. 



Se envian Catalogos Ilustrados 
a previa peticion 



Agentes: AMERICAN TRADING COMPANY. NUEVA YORK Y HABANA 

A. B. FARQUHAR & CO. 

Cotton Exchange Building New York, U. S. A. 




Prensas de 

Filtrar 

para Ingenios 

SHRIVER 

FILTER PRESSES 

Write us for 
Catalog, Prices 
and Information 

T. Shriver & Go. 

814 Hamilton St 
Harrison, N. J 

Represented in Lout 

siana by E. A. SAM 

MONS CO.. Ltd. 

New Orleans, La. 

Represented in Porto 
Rico by McMUR- 
TRIEGUILER CO.. 
Inc., San Juan, P. R. 



FOR MOLASSES u s e 

STEEL TANKS 



BUILT BY 



HAMMOND IRON WORKS 

WARREN, PA., U. S. A. 

MATERIAL FABRICATED OR ERECTED COMPLETE 



W. B. HAMMOND, Sales Agent 
2630 Whitehall Building, New York 



REPRESENTATIVE IN CUBA 

SUSSDORFF, ZALDO & COMPANY 
26 O'Reilly Street, Havana 



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THL CUBA RLVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 
An IIIiisI rated Monlhlij Magazine, 82-92 Beaver Street, New York 



MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Editors and Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 
$1.00 Per Year --------- lo Cents Single Copy 

Advertising Rates on Application 



Vol. X 



MAY, 1912 



No. 6 



Contents of This Number 



Tlie cover page shows the beautiful building of the Spanish Club at Matanzas. 

riie coming presidential election is naturally, the uppermost subject of discussion through- 
out the island at the present time and a very full description of the opposing parties 
and candidates will be found on page 7. There are further cabinet resignations and 
there are some interesting discussions of Cuba's finances on page 8. The register of 
electors shows a Iialf million voters, but these figures are questioned by some of the 
Cuban nevvs])ai)ers. Tliese articles will be found on page 9. 

The jjresent conditions in Cuba are causing wide spread comment in the United States 
newspapers and the most important opinions are given on pages 10 and 11. 

The health of Cuba is beyond criticism according to Dr. Uarnet's statement on page 12. 

Recent new enterprises in Cuba, including a milk pasteurization plant at Cardenas, with 
an illustration, are described on page 13. 

The completion of Havana's harbor tunnel, an American criticism of Cuban schools, 
and a description of Cuba's best baseball player are on page 14. 

The churches of Camaguey, the scarcity of Havana's water supply and Cuba's meteorolog- 
ical service are described on page 15. 

The beautiful golf course, recently opened just outside of Havana, will add mucli to the 
pleasure of residents and tourists. It is described on pages 16 and 17. 

.\n address, by a former Secretary of the Treasury of Cuba, on tlie Panama Canal and the 
Republic, is on page 18. 

The new Palace of Justice in the City of Matanzas and an illustration of the new Sjianish 
Club shortly to be erected in Havana are on page 19. 

Traflic receipts of Cuban Railroads are given on pages 20 and 21. 

Some commercial paragra])hs are on page 22. 

Some reports of Cuba's financial institutions and other items of interest will be foinid 
on page 23. 

Some interesting illustrations of new railroad construction work are on page 24. 

Some agricultural notes and an interesting United States (iovernment chart sliowing the 
enemies of the cotton boll weevil are on page 2,S. 

The United States Government has analyzed Cuban honey and the rejiort of the Bureau 
of Chemistry will be found on page 27. 

An interesting article on the results achieved to date in making paper from bagasse is 
on page 28. 

.\ description of a great sugar mill in Oriente Province and some interesting news notes 
tlescribing the development work of the sugar mills in Matanzas Province are on 
pages 29 and 30. 

Spanish notes regarding tlie su{,'ar industry are on jiages 31 and 32. 

The usual valuable review of sugar prices at New York by Messrs. Willett and (iray, 
printed in Spanish and English, will be found on ])ages 33, 34 and 36. 

H.\NDS0ME1.Y ILLI'STR.XTED TllROUCITOUT 



THL 
CUBA RLVILW 



-ALL An(3UT CUHA" 



Copyright, 1912, by the Munson Steamship Line 



Volume X 



MAY, 1912 



Number 6 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 



Cuba is preparing to elect 
Opposiiu/ a president, and the Xcz^' 

Parties and York Herald prints the 

Candidates following concise descrip- 
tion of parties, platforms 
and candidates. 

There are two political parties in Cuba — 
the Conservative and Liberal. Both pro- 
mulgated platforms in the preceding presi- 
dential campaign, but in an interview with 
the Herald correspondent recently, Enrique 
Jose \"arona. president of the Conserva- 
tive Party, remarked that all he remem- 
bered of the Conservative platform was 
that it proposed certain amendments of 
the constitution — on just what points he 
could not say off hand. General Zayas, 
leader of the strongest faction of the 
Liberal Party, said that the Liberal Part}' 
represented decentralized administration 
and unrestricted suffrage. 

So the presidential campaign is being 
waged, as usual, on personalities. The 
Conservative presidential candidate, re- 
cently nominated by- acclamation in con- 
vention, is General Mario jNIenocal, with 
a business record as manager of the big- 
gest sugar plantation in the world, Cha- 
parra, in Oriente Province. 

General Menocal's running mate is 
Senor Enrique Jose Varona, an older man, 
an "intellectual." This party is, in fact, 
the old moderate party, which went down 
and out with Palma's overthrow. A 
leader in it is General Freyre de Andrade, 
member of the "militant cabinet"' of the 
August revolution. 

The Liberal Party consists of three prin- 
cipal factions. Their disagreement is 
pregnant with serious mischief. Four 
years ago, when the party united under 
General Gomez as presidential candidate, 
it was agreed that General Gomez should 
step out at the end of one term, in order 
that Alfredo Zayas, now vice-president, 
but then a warring candidate for the 
presidency within the disrupted party. 



might succeed him. General Gomez was 
elected, and at no time in the last four 
years has Senor Zayas permitted hiin to 
forget that agreetnent. Neither has 
General Gomez ever succeeded in induc- 
ing \'ice-President Zayas to imagine he 
had an}' intention of keeping it. 

The veterans, while all this is going on. 
are marking time. They declared at Cama- 
guey they would vote for either party's 
candidate who embodied their ideals — a 
clean Cuban record and a Cuban platform. 
General Nunez has informed the Herald 
correspondent that they will declare for 
neither IMenocal nor Zayas until they know 
the program of each. Neither, to date, 
has announced any program. Neither the 
conservatives nor the liberals believe the 
Veterans' Association can control the 
veteran vote en masse. General Nunez 
thinks otherwise. 

General Juan Alario ]\Ienocal, the Con- 
servative candidate for the presidency, 
arrived in Havana from his home at Cha- 
parra, Oriente Province, on May 5th. 

Thousands of his followers escorted him 
from the railroad station to his hotel. 

The bitter discussions among the fac- 
tions of the Liberal Party will help the 
election of the Conservative Party can- 
didate. 

Followers of General Asbert, the gover- 
nor of Havana Province, who aspired to 
be the candidate of the liberals for the 
presidency, are protesting against the ac- 
tion of the Liberal Convention in nomi- 
nating Alfredo Zayas, the present vice- 
president, for president. They want a 
new convention. May 6th despatches 
were to the effect that the Asbertistas 
were approaching the Conservative Party 
for an agreement. The basis of the agree- 
ment to be that the Asbertistas support 
General Menocal, the conservative, for 
president, while the ^lenocalists support 
General Asbert for re-election as governor 
of Havana. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Secretary of the Interior 
Cabinet Gerardo Macliado and Sec- 
Rcsig)iatioiis retary of Public Works 
Jose M. Balie. in President 
Gomez's Cabinet, tendered their resigna- 
tions April 24th, which were accepted. 

Secretary Machado's successcfr is Dr. 
Federico Laredo Bru, formerly fiscal of 
the Audencia of Havana and latterly the 
registrar of property in Cienfuegos. 

Secretary Babe resigned because of ill- 
ness, and Seiior Machado felt bound to 
resign having avowed his intention of 
supporting the presidential candidacy of 
Alfredo Zayas. 

Regarding these appointments, President 
Gomez has the following to say in a letter 
to Ex-Secretary Machado : 

"I have refused to appoint as secretaries 
of government and public works, persons 
who have figured in party politics, select- 
ing instead Messrs. Laredo Bru and Rafael 
Carrera, who, as is well known, have not 
mixed in politics and are men of un- 
doubted rectitude, who will come to the 
Cabinet to manage affairs, starightcning 
out the tangles, without inj.uring any po- 
litical faction with acts which are not 
strictly just, nor favor, directly or in- 
directly, any candidate to the injury of 
the others. This is what the public wants 
and this is what I will continue to do, and 
from this attitude no one shall remove me." 

Senor Rafael Carrera, appointed to suc- 
ceed Secretary of Public Works Jose 
Babe, who resigned recently, assumed the 
duties of his new office on May 1st. ^ He 
was chief of public works of Santa Clara 
Province. 

Senor Babe was on the same day ap- 
pointed to be consulting engineer for the 
government in the construction of the new 
million-dollar presidential palace. His 
salary is stated to be $500.00 monthly. 

Three associates of Hugh 

Contractors Reilly in the construction 

JVant of the water works system 

, Payment at Cienfuegos returned to 

Havana May 5th to look 
after the collection of $650,000 which they 
say is still due on their contract. The 
delegation was headed by Hugh J. Reilly, 
Jr., son of the contractor. 

This is the second protest which the 
Reilly firm has made to President Taft. 
The "first was made two months ago, and 
the Cuban Secretary of the Treasury, Sr. 
Manuel Sanguily, was accused of "hold- 
ing up" the final certification of the work, 
which was complete seven months ago. 
According to one of Mr. Reilly's asso- 
ciates, the work was to cost $3,080,000, 
which, with the exception of the final pay- 
ment of $650,000, was paid from time to 
time as the work progressed. 



When the water works were completed, 
he said, application was made to the Ha- 
vana officials for a final certification, so 
that the final installment might be collected, 
but this certification was delayed so long 
that protest was made to Washington. 
President Taft instructed Arthur Beaupre, 
American minister at Havana, to inpuire 
into the delay, and ^Ir. Beaupre reported 
he could obtain no satisfaction. Then the 
contractors decided to come to Washing- 
ton, and obtained an interview with Presi- 
dent Taft. Mr. Taft, they said, expressed 
surprise that the claim had not been paid, 
and assured them he would take the matter 
up with President Gomez direct. — New 
]'ork Herald. 

The JJ'ashini/ton Post says on this sub- 
ject that inquiry at the State Department 
on May 2d developed the fact that com- 
plaints of American contractors in Cuba 
are now under consideration. That there 
is delaj' in obtaining payment for them 
is admitted, but the reason governing 
Cuba's tardiness is not explained. The 
L^nited States government has not yet 
reached a stage in pressing the contract- 
ors' claims where it is possible to ascertain 
whether Cuba is short of the needed 
funds. 

Under the Piatt amendment the United 
States has a supervisory interest in Cuban 
finances, particularly in regard to floating 
of new loans. 

By January 1st last, says the Nezv York 
American, the budget provisions were ex- 
hausted to the end of the fiscal year and 
transfers of funds had somewhat disguised 
the situation. Late in lon, Speyer & 
Co. paid over the final installment of the 
$15,500,000 loan negotiated for the pay- 
ment of sewering, paving and improving 
of the water system in Havana and instal- 
lation of such a system in Cienfuegos. 
Of that loan, about $3,000,000 remains on 
deposit in New York and is being drawn 
against at the rate of $300,000 a month. 

About $600,000 monthly is required to 
carry on the work in progress. The 
sewering company has renew^ed pressure 
on the treasury and obtained $402,000. 
Unless the paving company gets its share 
it will quit work. 



Major Armando Andre, editor of El 
Dia. was acclaimed candidate of the Con- 
servative Party for governor of Havana 
Province on April 21st, when the provin- 
cial convention gathered in Havana to pro- 
ceed with the nomination of the provin- 
cial ticket. 



Colonel Justo Garcia Velez, Cuban 
minister in Spain, who has had a leave 
of absence, has returned to his post, sail- 
ing from Havana on May ist. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Statistics compiled by the 

Half a Election Bureau of the De- 

MUlio)i partment of the Interior 

J'oters show that there are 511,519 

electors in Cuba entitled to 

vote at the coming elections. Of these, 

336,900 are whites and 171,610 negroes. 

La Lucha of Havana says these figures 
"are either the result of concocted frauds 
or unpardonable errors." It says that a 
half million of electors in a country, the 
population of which is barely over 2,000,000, 
"appears to us to be somewhat exagge- 
rated." Reasoning it out, it says further: 
"511,519 votes mean in round figures 25 
per cent of the total population of Cuba, 
foreigners included. According to the 
latest data published, the number of for- 
eigners domiciled in Cuba numbered more 
than 260,000, which leaves a total Cuban 
population of much less than 1,800,000. 

"This moves us to ask. whether or not, 
it is not a bit adventurous to say that 
the women, children and adults under 21 
years of age residing in Culia, should sum 
up on sixty-five per cent of the 1,800.000 
of natives or naturalized citizens?" 



Dr. Pedro Merrera Soto- 
Opposes longo, the well-known Ha- 

.Irbif ration vana lawyer, opposes the 
idea of a court of arbitra- 
tion to decide on the war claims of Eng- 
land, Germany and France, claiming that 
they cannot be submitted to arbitration, 
as seems to be the plan, or at least as 
Secretary of State Sanguily announced 
was to be done, following his conference 
with Secretary Knox during the latter's 
visit to Cuba. 

He says that Article I of the transitory 
dispositions of the Cuban constitution de- 
clares that the republic of Cuba does net 
recognize any other debts or compromises 
than those legally contracted Iiy the com- 
manders of the Liberating Army, since 
February 25, 1895, and prior to September 
19th, of the same year, date on which the 
Jimaguayu Constitution was promulgated, 
and those which were contracted abroad 
afterwards by non-members of the revolu- 
tion or their agents. These claims are to 
be adjudicated by Congress, which will 
decide as to the payment of those declared 
legal. 

To submit the matter to arbitration, 
which implies that after a verdict the 
president and his Cabinet will order what- 
ever payment may be declared, in the 
opinion of Dr. Herrera Sotolongo, will be 
illegal on the ground that the president 
has no power to "adjusticate or order the 
payment of those claims. 

Frederico Mejer, the noted sugar expert, 
died in Havana April 14th. 



Principal Senate business 
.\''ore on April 16th was the 

Millions reading of a message from 
JJ'aiited the president, asking for 
the contracting of a new 
loan of $11,000,000 to continue the con- 
struction of the sewers and carrying out 
the paving of the city of Havana. 

The Senate listened to this message as 
well as to another, asking for the creation 
of a new consular office abroad, without 
comment of any kind, says La Lucha of 
Havana. It says further : 

"In three years of the Liberal adminis- 
tration they have had the handling of a 
little over $40,000,000 per annum, which 
sums up to about $125,000,000, and that 
without counting the products of the 
Magon loan of $16,500,000, which makes 
it $140,000,000 for the lowest that they had 
to pass through their hands. 

"Where are the colossal public works," 
it says further, "or the great progress 
made with the piles of gold that, like a 
continuous stream, has run through the 
hands of these people? 

"The country does not see them, l)ut 
instead of that we know of some men 
who are now carrying a check book in 
their pockets who a few years ago did not 
know what a bank check looked like." 



In an interview May 6th with the Xew 
York Suit's representative. General Meno- 
cal said the country needed a radical change 
in methods and an honest goxernment. 
The business men and producers, he said, 
should be relieved of the present intoler- 
able burdens, which have been imposed 
on them by the squandering of money. 

He also declared that his party would 
not submit as tamely this time as it did 
four years ago to interference at the polls. 
It will meet violence with violence if nec- 
essary. 



General Caballero, governor of Cama- 
guey Province, resigned his post April 
29th, and also resigned as provincial head 
of the Liberal Party. 

Xo other explanation than political pres- 
sure is assigned for the resignation. 



Secretary of State Sanguily called a 
conference on May 5th to consider ways 
and means of continuing the reciprocity 
treaty between Cuba and the United States. 
The conferences included Martin Rivero, 
Cuban minister to Washington, members of 
the Planters' Leaj|ue, and cigar manu- 
facturers. 

Sr. Rivero, who was calfed to Havana for 
a confereflce with local interests, left for 
Washington on May 9th to take up reci- 
procity with the State Department. 



10 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



PRESS AND INDIVIDUAL COMMENT ON CUBAN 

MATTERS 



The present conditions of Cuba's finances 
are attracting" seneral attention, and the 
Nezv York Tribune has the following to 
say editorially on this important subject: 

"There must be a clear recognition of 
the difference between the right of this 
country to intervene in Cuban fiscal affairs 
and the desirability of doing so. The 
right is indisputable, from both the legal 
and moral point of view. Tt is set forth 
in a law of the United States, in the 
Constitution of Cuba and in a treaty be- 
tween the two countries. The Cuban gov- 
ernment is specifically bound not to as- 
sume or contract any public debt 'to pay 
the interest upon which and to make rea- 
sonable sinking fund provision for the 
ultimate discharge of which the ordinary 
revenues of the island, after defraying 
the current expenses of government, shall 
be inadequate,' and the American_ govern- 
ment is empowered to intervene, if neces- 
sary, for the enforcement of that salutary 
rule. 

"Having at great cost secured inde- 
pendence for Cuba, it is incumbent upon 
this country to afford whatever protection 
mav be needed in order that independence 
may not be forfeited or impaired or its 
blessings lost. Nobody would dispute the 
right and duty of this country to defend 
Cuba against the wanton aggression of 
some foreign and hostile power. But long 
and unpleasant experience has demon- 
strated that the fiscal menace is greater 
than the military. The worst pvil of the 
republics of that part of the world has 
been that of disordered finances. It has 
been in that way, in the great majority 
of instances, that diplomatic compHcations 
and military menaces have been incurred. 
It is well, 'therefore, for this country to 
guard against the cause of trouble and not 
merely to combat the effect. 

"But the desirability of intervention is 
a very different thing. If our right to 
intervene is indisputable, it is at least 
equally certain that it is most undesirable 
for us to do so, save under extreme com- 
pulsion. Before intervention was so much 
as seriously thought of, it would be neces- 
sary to have it shown in the clearest man- 
ner that Cuba was incurring debts which 
were beyond her power to pay and which 
would therefore become a menace to her 
integrity. So far as we know, that has 
not yet been shown in the present case. 
There are hints of 'powerful influences' 
which are said to be at work toward m- 
tervention. But our government is not 
controlled in such matters in that way. 
It does not conceive it to be its duty to 



pull chestnuts out of the fire for specu- 
lators or investors who went into foreign 
engagements with their eyes open. 

"The only questions before it are two : 
Whether any Americans fail to receive 
justice in the Cuban courts and whether 
the Cuban government is incurring debts 
beyond its reasonable ability to pay. It 
is to be expected that Cuba vvill cause both 
questions to be answered in the negative. 
The pearl of the Antilles does not wish 
to lapse into the condition of Santo Do- 
mingo." 

Sydney Brooks in Harper's Weekly again 
comes to the defense of Cuba and urges 
that the republic be allowed to work out 
her own problems without interference. 
He says : 

"I do not myself regard the experiment 
of an autonomous republic in Cuba, 
hazardous as it is and must be, as neces- 
sarily doomed to failure. Every year that 
it continues to exist adds something to 
its chance of longevity and makes the 
Cubans realize more clearly the conditions 
that must be observed if its life is to be 
prolonged. The one thing that will in- 
fallibly bring about its collapse is the 
adoption by the American people and the 
American government of a too rigid and 
censorious attitude toward the republic 
they have created. If they judge the Cu- 
ban government without reference to the 
Cuban past, if they dwell persistently on 
its defects and fail to acknowledge its 
good points, if they expect from the Cu- 
bans an impossible standard of political 
efficiency and honesty, if they get into the 
habit of brandishing the threat of inter- 
vention in order to secure the removal of 
blemishes that can only be really eradicated 
by the action of the Cubans themselves — 
then unquestionably the difficulties that 
attend the Cuban essay in self-government 
will be enormously and disastrously in- 
tensified, and its final collapse will be only 
a matter of time. But if Americans over- 
look much of which they legitimately dis- 
approve, and give the Cubans the fullest 
attitude in solving their own problems as 
best they can, then the Cuban republic 
may pull through. The Cubans' 'utter in- 
experience' of self-government is a rea- 
son, not for condemning or deriding them, 
but for encouraging and sympathizing 
with the efforts that they are undoubtedly 
making to keep an autonomous republic 
in being. 

"There are plenty of elements in Cuba 
out of which a stable and orderly state 
could be evolved. And, in any case, to 
arraign a whole people as naturally and 



THE CUBA R E \' I E \V 



11 



permanently disqualilied for looking after 
their own affairs is a somewhat drastic 
proceeding. Let America make it vmder- 
stood that she will not tolerate disorder in 
Cuba and that she intends to side with 
and uphold the constituted government 
whenever a revolutionary attack is threat- 
ened against it ; let her do what she can 
to promote Cuban prosperity by reducing 
the tariff on Cuban exports of sugar, to- 
bacco and fruit, and I do not think she 
will again be compelled to intervene in 
the affairs of the island." 

Several interesting views of the situation 
in Cuba by European publications are given 
in Current Literature, which says: "A 
Cuban suspicion that Washington means 
to exert some intluence in favor of Zayas 
was denounced by Secretary Knox. ' The 
United States, he said, wishes only- a fair 
and complete expression of the will of the 
Cuban people. The speech, if local dailies 
are to guide us on the point, made an ex- 
cellent impression. The European organs 
corroborate them. Europe, in truth, has 
paid more heed to the peregrinations of 
Secretary Knox through the Latin-Amer- 
ican world than most American dailies 
have thought it w^orth while to give them. 
He was approached by the correspondents 
of London and Paris papers on the sub- 
pect of the ]\Ionroe Doctrine, but they all 
found him evasive. Disappointment is ex- 
pressed at the failure of the American 
statesman to outline the Washington 
policy in Cuba more definitely. The in- 
ference of the Paris Temps is that the 
United States government has lingering 
doubts of the destiny of the pearl of the 
Antilles as a republic. The French daily 
thinks the island will be annexed." 

"Upon one point only," says Current 
Literature further, "does there seem to 
exist the slightest agreement between 
Zayas and Alenocal. Each dreads another 
American intervention in the island. Were 
it not for this prospect, says the London 
Times, civil war might be raging in Cuba 
at this moment. General Menocal is a 
veteran of the old struggles with Spain. 
His creed is that of the soldier and all 
problems are to him essentially military. 
The election of Zayas would, in the opin- 
ion of European organs, tend to preserve 
the land from militarv upheaval. 

"The London dailies, most of which 
have careful local correspondents, predict 
a close contest between Zayas and Menocal. 
There will, in the course of the struggle, 
the Paris Matin thinks, be much denun- 
ciation of the United States for purely 
political purposes. Little heed need be 
paid to this, the French paper thinks. It 
agrees with the London Times that Cuba, 
thanks to the United States, is more 
prosperous than any other Latin-American 
region in our hemisphere . The redemp- 



tion of Cuba seems to the Paris Temps a 
triumph of the American administrative 
genius so great that it might w-ell be 
studied by European powers. 

"Xone the less, according to the Paris 
Gaulois, the island has been used by cer- 
tain foes of this country as an object 
lesson in Yankee imperialism. 

Of course, the United States cannot per- 
mit disorder in Cuba. The great island 
is altogether too near the American shore. 
American interests have always been, even 
in Spanish days, enormous. Millions of 
dollars of American capital are invested 
there. The plantations are very largely 
owned by Americans, two of the largest 
plantation owners being Boston business 
men. Beside the great sugar industry, 
which so vitally concerns this country's 
prosperity, there is the tobacco industry, 
the great fruit trade and the lesser, but 
yet important, industries such as mining. 
So the interests of the United States in 
Cuba are vital, and an insurrection, wdiich 
is always destructive and enervating, can 
no more be permitted in Cuba than could 
be permitted in one of the Gulf States. 
Indeed, an insurrection in the whole tier 
of Gulf States would be incipient in im- 
portance as compared with a revolution 
and civil w-ar in Cuba. — A'ezv England 
Grocer, Boston, ]\Iass. 

Cuba did not give visiting Secretary 
Knox the glad hand, says the Boston 
Times. One editor, commenting face- 
tiously on this fact, proffers the suggestion 
.that the mischievous boy seldom welcomes 
the visit of the schoolmaster at his home. 
Cuba does not want American interference, 
and this is all well enough, provided Cuba 
proves that she can take care of herself. 
She must, at least, try to live peaceably 
with all men, else unasked for help in 
her affairs will be provided. 

The Philadelphia (Pa.) hiquirer takes 
a gloomy view of Cuba's finances. It says : 

"France, England and Germany all have 
claims of one kind and another, which 
they are pressing with a growing insist- 
ency, and, as the Monroe Doctrine pre- 
cludes a resort to force, they look to this 
country for redress. 

"They are entitled to receive it. and the 
indications are that one of these days, and 
perhaps before very long, the United 
States will have to do for Cuba what it 
has already done for San Domingo. It 
will have to undertake the administration 
of its finances, and thus convert the pres- 
ent theoretical protectorate into an ac- 
tuality. 

"When it becomes apparant that bank- 
ruptcy is impending or inevitable, one of 
those conditions will have arisen which 
the Piatt amendment explicitly designates 
as justifying or demanding intervention. 



12 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



THE HEALTH OF CUBA 

Illy Dr. K. 15. I'.arnet. Ilavaiia] 



The state of pulilic ht-alth in Culia is, 
without doubt, adiniraljle. Xnd if to this 
we add. that in the country districts, in 
the plains, in the thickness of the woods, 
and on tlie margins of the rivers, the trave- 
ler may move and rest in confidence and 
ease, because he is not threatened by 
poisonous serpents, nor poisonous insects, 
nor dangerous animals; it is not too much 
to say that Cuba is a land of promise 
which offers to its natives and to foreigners 
who visit its shores the products and laene- 
fits of a privileged soil and the necessary 
guarantees of health and life. 

According to the official census prepared 
by the Department of Government, the 
population of the republic of Cuba, on 
June 30, 1910, reached 2,220,278, a figure 
which may be considered below the real 
number on account of the increase which 
immigration and natality produce, but 
which increase has not been fully estimated 
because it has not been possible as yet to 



obtain a complete registration of these 
two sources of growth of the population. 

The annual death rate of 15,31 continues 
to keep Cuba at the head of the two 
countries which have the lowest mortality 
in the world, with an increase in favor of 
the native population, comparing the figures 
of births and deaths, of 42,862 inhabitants. 

Smallpo.x and yellow fever, which for- 
merly were the greatest scourges of the 
island, have been practically eradicated, 
there having been no cases for a number 
of years. As regards malaria. Dr. Barnet 
said : 

"It is possible to affirm absolutely that 
malaria no longer exists in the city of 
Havana, and that each year the cases in 
other parts of the island become rarer. 
Dr. Le Roy has been able to prove that 
in 1900 the deaths in Cuba from malaria 
reached 4,107, a figure which has been 
steadily decreasing to 617, in the year 1910, 
for the entire republic." 



Xine gypsies, who recently came to 
Culja with several bears, performing mon- 
keys and dogs, have been ordered deported 
by Commission of Immigration Frank 
Menocal on the ground that they would 
become public charges and because their 
only means of support is public charity. 



Ihe plan of Cuba to erect a monument 
fashioned after the Statue of Liberty at 
the spot in Havana harbor where the 
"Maine" was sunk has been abandoned, 
says the Havana Post. The port authori- 
ties feared that it would form a bar and 
become a resultant peril to navigation. 




I'nitKl Stales Xaval Station at (uiantanamo, C'lilja. Revolver piactiLe of llie .\mencaii troops. 

Estacion Naval de los Estados Unidos en Guantanamo, Cuba. Las tropas americanas ejercitan- 

dntr ri! la prActira lirl yrToh'rr. 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



13 



GENERAL NOTES 



A CUBAN PASTEURIZATION PLANT 

Cardenas can boast of a very fine plant 
for the pasteurization of milk. Small, it 
ma}^ be, but thoroughly modern and in all 
essentials as complete as any similar 
establishment in the United States. The 
illustration on this page gives an interior 
view, but the building itself, situated at 
the edge of the city, is very attractive, and 
the premises are thoroughly clean and 
sanitary. 

The milk is delivered each morning to the 
plant by the "guajiros" or natives in the 
peculiar cans carried on their ponies which 
illustrations have been made familiar. It is 
first measured for quantity and then tested 
for quality, and payment is based on the 
conditions found. The milk is then run 
into a tank and goes through the various 
processes of pasteurization until at last 
the bottles are rilled and placed in the re- 
frigerator. The cans from which the milk is 
taken are thoroughh- cleaned first by steam 
and then by cold water and the greatest 
precautions are exercised to prevent con- 
tamination. The plant is young and like 
all new enterprises, especially in Cuba ,which 
run counter to the methods which have pre- 
vailed more or less for centuries, it is slow 
work to induce the people to use the 
product. But the sanitary labors and in- 



structions of the United States authorities 
during the several interventions have had 
their effect in realizing the great value of 
hygienic precautions and they are ready to 
accept methods new to them. Those using 
the milk in Cardenas, especially in house- 
holds where there are young children, 
speak of it in terms of high praise. 

The milk is delivered in bottles, in quarts, 
pints and half pints and sells for 13 cents, 
7 cents and 4 cents, respectively. 



The city council of Havana voted re- 
cently to change the name of Bernaza 
Street to Placido, after the Cuban poet 
and patriot. The motion was unanimously 
approved. 

Mariano Corona, congressman from 
Oriente Province, died in Havana April 
ISth. after an operation for appendicitis. 

The Cuban Telephone Company has de- 
clared a one-per-cent dividend, payable on 
July l.jth, for the first three months of 
1912. 

An important change in the personal of 
the company, says the Post, is the early 
election to the board of directors of a 
London bank president. English capital 
is largely interested in the company. 




Interior view Oi the ])Iant for the pasteurization of milk in Cardenas. 



14 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



NOTES FROM ALL SOURCES 



HAVANA S TUNNEL FINISHED 

The IGO-meter tunnel, dressed with con- 
crete, which connects the sewer outlets 
in Havana, ending at the foot of Ena 
syphon, which will he necessary for the 
purpose of conveying to Casa Blanca, 
across the harbor, and then through the 
tunnel under the Cabaiias hill to the Playa 
del Chivo, Havana's large amount of 
sewer disposal in Havana, was finished 
April 20th, says La Lucha. 

Over at Casa Blanca, the work which is 
now to be done is the construction of a 
syphon, which will be necessray for the 
purpose of connecting the underground 
tunnel with the tunnel built about two 
j^ears ago under Cabaiias fortress. Three 
electric pumps, absorbing 1,000 gallons 
per minute, will be installed at the top of 
the syphon and this will drive the sewer- 
age through the Cabaiias tunnel and out to 
a great distance in the sea at the Playa 
del Chivo. 



SPECIAL VIGILANCE ORDERED 

According to the United States Tobacco 
Journal, a stricter and uniform standard 
of classification has been ordered for Ha- 
vana tobacco imports at Tampa and Key 
West. It says : 

"As a result of the recent conference, 
which was held by Assistant Secretary of 
the Treasury Curtis, Chief Wilkie of the 
Secret Service, and the tobacco examiners 
of the Treasury Department at the va- 
rious ports of entry, steps have been taken 
by the secretary of the treasury to insure 
a general uniformity in the inspection and 
appraisal of imported Havana tol)acco. 
A circular has been sent to the collectors 
of cucjtoms at Tampa and Key West, ad- 
vis'ng them of the adopted basis, which 
has been approved by the Treasury De- 
partment for the making of all appraisals. 
This basis is generally that which has been 
in force at the port of New York, where 
satisfactory results are claimed to have 
been secured by Collector Loeb in the 
classification of wrapper and filler tobacco. 
For the future, examinations will be more 
rigid and strict and the uniform basis in- 
sisted upon at all ports of entry for Ha- 
vana tobacco." 



A BLACK MATHEWSON 

The well-known Cuban liaseball player 
Mendez is known in Havana as a modest 
and well-behaved gentleman at all times, 
both on the field of play and off, as he 
seems to apparently realize that his color 



bars him from many of the privileges ac- 
corded to the white baseball hero. While 
l»itching he is constantly smiling, showing 
his teeth in a broad grin, their whiteness 
forming a vivid contract with his black 
skin. Every cent ^Nlendez earns through 
his baseball playing goes to the support 
of his mother, whom he can now afford to 
give every pleasure of the wealthy class 
of Cubans. 

Baseball affairs in Cuba are operated on 
the co-operative basis, the players dividing 
among themselves and the management the 
receipts of the games, the batteries getting 
a half share more than the other pla\-ers. 
Mendcz's share in these receipts for the 
month of November of last year was $584, 
as every time Mendez works down there 
they play to capacity, the fans in Havana, 
white as well as colored, idolizing their 
"Black ^lathewson" much in the same way 
as New Yorkers idolize their white one. 



CUBAN SCHOOLS CRITICIZED 

"The poorest little school in Hennepin 
County is better than any school in Ha- 
vana, or in any other city in Cuba." said 
S. J. Race, who was the principal speaker 
at the morning" session of the Hennepni 
County Teachers' Association, which op- 
ened its annual meeting in the assembly 
hall at the courthouse. More than one 
hundred teachers and their friends attended 
the meeting. In discussing social and 
educational conditions in Cuba. Mr. Race 
asserted that "Cuban schools have abso- 
lutely no equipment whatsoever and are 
poorly taught." Mr. Race recently com- 
pleted an extended tour of inspection of 
Cuban schools. — Neiu Orleans Planter. 



The Cuban Treasury Department has 
ordered $50,000 put aside to pay for 899 
acres of land which were appropriated in 
Bahia Honda in 1902 for a United States 
coaling station. 

The land was ceded to the United States 
by treaty, but the Washington government 
later decided to abondon it in favor of 
the station at Guantanamo, which it ac- 
quired at the same time. A treaty is now 
pending to exchange the Bahia Honda 
concession for additional lands at Guan- 
tanamo. 

The warehouse of Valentin Serrano and 
Co., importing liquor merchants in San- 
tiago de Cuba, was destroyed by fire on 
April 16th. The loss is estimated at 
nearly $100,000, $70,000 of which is covered 
bv insurance. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



NOTES FROM ALL SOURCES (Continu 



ed) 



THE CHURCHES OF CAMAGUEV 

In Camaguey as in other cities of Cuba, 
there are a large number of churches, and 
from whatever direction the city is ap- 
proached, its church towers stand out con- 
spicuously above the tall palm trees against 
the sky. Most of these editices are old, 
some of them having been built many 
centuries ago, their time-worn walls con- 
tributing in no small degree to the ancient 
appearance of the city. The church of 
Xuestra Senora de la Caridad is one of 
the most picturesque old edifices in the 
West Indies. La Pierced is, however, 
the most important one, and was built 
away back in 162S, and its walls are from 
four to eight feet thick, while its tower 
is constructed of a species of Cuban hard- 
wood, which lasts for centuries. It was 
erected by the missionaries of Our Lady 
of Mercy, a Spanish order, founded at 
Barcelona early in the thirteenth century. 
The order finally died out in Camaguey, 
until only one priest was left; just before 
his death he turned the church over to the 
care of the Barefooted Carmelite monks, 
who also came from Spain. A dozen or 
more of these good men live at the monas- 
tery attached to the churcli, and one of their 
number always accompanies the visitor 
about the sacred edifice. — Correspondence 
Nezvburgh (N. Y.) Nezvs. 



CUBAN PLANTS IN BUFFALO 

The live plants brought from Cuba by 
Professor John F. Cowell, director of the 
South Park botanical gardens, at Buft'alo, 
N. Y., who searched the island for nearly 
seven weeks for uncommon varieties of 
plant life, already are being put in the 
ground. Many have been planted. Pro- 
fessor Cowell brought back more than ISO 
live plants. 

The three new species of the palm have 
been planted in the conservatory devoted 
to this variety of plant life. The cacti 
discovered on the trip, completing the 
collection of cacti at the gardens, also 
have been gut in the ground. 

At present the gardeners are busy plant- 
ing the orchids brought home. Professor 
Cowell brought three h\g bo.xes of these 
and some of them are very rare. All 
will bear flowers of beautiful shades. The 
flowering shrubs have been planted. 



During the past year Havana's popula- 
tion has increased 4,262, according to the 
figures of the commission charged with 
the correction of the local census. 



HAVANA SHORT OF WATER 

Havana has been suffering from a short- 
age in its water supply for some time, 
and in the first weeks in May this prom- 
ised to be acute. Several factories were 
forced to shut down. 

Vento Springs is supplying the usual 
quantity of water, which is quite enough 
for Havana and its suburbs. The trouble 
appears to lie in the pumping station, 
which does not do the work needed. 

The New York Herald correspondent 
says that "the situation has given rise to 
an ugly rumor that the intention is to make 
Havana so tired of the present service that 
the public will consent to the lease of the 
water works to a private company, a pro- 
posed 'deal,' which was defeated some time 
ago." 

Results of some recent analyses by gov- 
ernment chemists, which have been made 
of Vento water, with which the city of 
Havana is supplied, shows it to be of great 
purity. 



CUBA S METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE 

The Secretary's Office of the Ministry 
of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce in 
the island of Cuba publishes every week 
a Bulletin of Agricultural weather reports. 
This bulletin consists of two large pages, 
and comprises a general and a special part. 
In the general part are published the 
average, maximum and minimum figures 
relating to the rainfall and temperature, 
together with detailed information on the 
general condition of the principal crops 
(sugar-cane and tobacco) and farm work. 

The second part is devoted to the ob- 
servations of correspondents in the various 
provinces and districts. It deals with the 
local conditions in relation to various 
crops, and endeavors to bring out clearly, 
the action on the latter of one or another 
weather factor. 



A modern ice plant has been installed at 
Guanabacoa, across Havana harbor, and 
the town will not be dependent upon Ha- 
vana for its ice supplies. 

The decoration of the "Order of Military 
Merit" has been asked of the Cuban gov- 
ernment for Captain Parker as a recogni- 
tion of his valuable services for the past 
three years. 

The bill to investigate the Gomez ad- 
ministration died an ignominous death in 
the Lower House on April 30th. It was 
defeated bj' the overwhelming vote of 40 

to 8. 



16 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



GOLF INTRODUCED INTO CUBA 



NINE HOLES IN COMMISSION THE FIRST GOLF COURSE IN 

THE ISLAND 



In a land where frost is unknown and 
growth never ceases, where grass is ever 
green and flowers bloom perpetually, ex- 
tends the golf course of the Country Club 
of Havana in its embryonic state, says the 
Xe7c York Sun. During the past year a 
corporation was formed in the city of Ha- 
vana for the purpose of acquiring the 
necessary land and developing it, to meet 
the necessities of a social country club, 
along lines customary in the United States. 
Suitable land near Havana was soon found 
and the property purchased is being con- 
verted rapidly into a completely furnished 
club organization with all the accessories 
for recreation and enjoyment. 

As an illustration of this it may be said 
that, although active work was not begun 
until last October, nine holes of the course 
are now in commission. The seaston, 
while lasting all the year around, will in 
a way be reversed as compared with the 
North. Down there the dry season is dur- 
ing the W'inter months, making the condi- 
tions at that time most favorable for play. 
While Xorthern golfers are trudging over 
baked-out links in summer, nature in Cuba 
through rain and warmth will be doing 
her best to keep the greenkeeper busy cut- 
ting the prolific growth of grass on fairway 
and putting greens. 

Almost as increditible as it may seem up 
to this time there never has been a golf 
course in the island of Cuba. Americans 
introduced baseball there and it is now the 
national game. During the intervention 
the American army did maintain a few 
holes on sand greens within the limits of 
the army reservation at Camp Columbia, 
but that was the only attempt at golf on 
the island and it grew- no further. The 
reason for this was that the Anglo-Saxon 
residents who naturally would promote the 
game on the island are mostly busy men, 
many of whom know little of the game, 
and that is also true as to the knowledge 
of the resident Cubans and Spaniards, 
although quite a proportion of the younger 
generation have acquired an acquaintance 
with the ancient game while at school in 
the United States or abroad. The predic- 
tion already has been made that a brood 
of clever golfers will spring from these 
young men when they have opportunity 
for regular practice and play. Xearly a 
hundred golfers played over the Havana 
links on Easter Sunday. 

In the course of a conversation with a 
member of the Country Club of Havana 
a book of rules printed in Spanish was 



produced. "La pelota" stands for ball and 
"hoyo" for hole. "Linea de putt" means 
line of putt, while on the tee is "sobre el 
tee" in Spanish. There are a number of 
legal holidays. "Grito de Baire," rhean- 
ing the beginning of the revolution, falls 
on February 24th. Holy Thursday and 
Good Friday are of course observed there, 
and the Cuban Independence Day is 
celebrated on Alay 20th. Alaceo Day falls 
in March, and on October 10th is "Grito 
de Yara," which also means the beginning 
of a revolution. December 7th is Memorial 
Day there. The last holiday of the year is 
Christmas. It was explained that golf would 
be certain to flourish on all these holidays. 

There have not been any hotel interests 
in Havana strong enough to promote the 
building of links for commercial results, 
nor has there been any need from that 
point of view, as the hotels are always full 
during the tourist season. Many reasons 
exist why golf should boom in Cuba. The 
climate, especially from November to May, 
is superb, and for that matter midsummer 
is not objectionable. The intense heat of 
the Northern cities is missing, sunstroke 
is unknown and breezes blow almost as 
regularly as the days come. The worst 
that can be mentioned of a Cuban summer 
is its monotony. 

The soil and grass and rain and warmth 
all will work harmoniously in favor of 
golf links, and there is no time or discus- 
sion or experiment to be wasted to deter- 
mine the kind of grasses to be used, be- 
cause it is already known that the reliable 
and hardy Bermuda grass is the only va- 
riety that will grow either in fair or putting 
greens in the West Indies, so that problem 
is quite simple. 

Life in Culia by reason of climate, house 
construction and habit is practically all in 
the open air, l)ut physical exercise is just 
as essential to health in Cuba as elsewhere 
and the city of Havana has been deficient 
in this respect. This applies to visitors 
as well, and is commented upon by them 
to the effect that while there are sights to 
set there is little to do through personal 
effort for recreation and enjoyment. There 
are unique architecture, a strange language, 
different customs, a magnificent climate, 
open air life, beautiful roads running in 
all directions from Havana through sugar 
and tobacco plantations, pineapple groves 
to cities and towns not far distant, with 
tropical flora always in view. These in- 
digenous and varied attractions, combined 
with opportunities for playing golf and en- 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



17 



joying the facilities for the recreation af- 
forded by a country club, will give life in 
Havana a different aspect. 

The grounds of the club are located in 
the suburbs of Havana on a tract of 125 
acres, known as Finca Lola, situated mid- 
w^ay on the Calzada between Camp Colum- 
bia and the Playa of Alarianao. from which 
a private driveway leads to the clubhouse. 
The Acevedo station of the Marianao Rail- 
way also is conveniently located within a 
short walking distance. The approach to 
the property along the Calzada is past a 
hedge .500 feet long planted in henequin, 
or hemp, and the driveway is entered 
through gateposts built on rough stone, 
surmounted by electric globes. The road 
follows the northerly boundary of the 
property across the railway dividing it, 
through a picturescjue gateway of Spanish 
design, over which is the old name of 
"Lola." 

Immediately upon passing through this 
entrance the panorama of almost the en- 
tire property comes into view. On the 
left is the low level and the ^larianao 
River, which is reallj' a small brook and 
flows through the property. The brook 
is scarcely ever affected in flow by dry 
weather, as it is fed by active springs. 
From the level the ground slopes up on 
the north to the railroad in variable un- 
dulations and on the southerly side of the 
river for 1,500 feet is a grove of full grown 
royal palm trees interspersed with other 
trees of tropical growth, such as the Santo 
Domingo mamey. On the right the com- 
paratively level plateau reaches out to the 
extreme boundary of the property. On 
this level to the right and between the 
entrance and the clubhouse are the first 
tee of the golf course and the eighteenth 
green, and also the tennis courts, which 
have been built with especial care on a 
rock foundation covered with clay firmly 
rolled. 

In the effort to oljtain the best results 
in the top dressings of these courses an 
experiment has been made by using ground 
or decomposed rock from native quarries, 
which, it is believed, will give the same 
satisfactory results as have been obtained 
in the States in the use of similar material 
from \\'est Roxbur}', Mass., and if success- 
ful further courses will be Iniilt in the 
space reserved for extension. 

Further on, and directly across the drive- 
wa}' from the clubhouse, is the nine hole 
putting green and next a clock golf green. 
In front of the clubhouse is the croquet 
ground. Ample room on the lawn near 
the building is reserved for the addition 
of other outdoor games. 

Active work on the new cln])house is 
under way. The plans, which are being- 
perfected, provide for a spacious 1)uilding 
to be completed this fall. The popular 



quarters will be centered on the second 
fioor, from which on all sides are magnifi- 
cent views. Almost the entire club prop- 
erty can be seen. The natural undulation 
of the ground and the winding course of 
the river, the palm groves and foliage of 
the property are all in view, while beyond 
is the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of 
^larianao, popular for sea bathing, and 
quite near. Camp Columbia and the town of 
Marianao are in full view and, as a visitor 
has expressed it, the country club property 
has all the elements of privacy of a country 
estate, yet in view and seemingly in the 
clear atmosphere of the tropics, almost in 
touch is the architecture and life of a 
busy suburban district interspersed with 
views of the sea and country. 

When the eighteen hole course is in 
operation and the other outside activities 
of the club are in full swing, it is doubtful 
whether one will be able to. see more of 
interest from any point than from the up- 
per veranda of the clubhouse. The plans 
for the building are extensive. The 
veranda is broad and extends around three 
sides. One section will be reserved for 
dining purposes, which can be enclosed in 
I)ad weather. Twenty bedrooms will be 
provided, several of them being en suite 
with private bathrooms. These will be 
available throughout the year for club 
members and their friends and those in- 
troduced to the club. Reading and loung- 
ing rooms are provided in the pfans, also 
a cafe, and it is contemplated to have the 
men's locker room, bowling .alleys and 
swimming pool in detached buildings. 
There will be a parlor and locker room 
for women in the main building. The 
servants' quarters, cooking department, 
stores, etc., will be in the basement. A 
garage for automobiles also will be provided. 
The rolling, natural ground has made 
the laying out of the golf links a com- 
paratively easy matter, and in this work 
advantage has been taken of the tortuous 
stream running through the property. 
While the ground is undulating and some 
holes are located on plateaus and others in 
bowls, yet the extreme variation in levels 
on the entire property is only fifty feet. 
Xo two boles are alike. The contour of 
the ground is perfectly natural for golf 
and little work is being done to create 
artificial hazards. P'or all that, it is prob- 
able that few links provide more definite 
variety and interest. 

Mr. Frederick Snare, of Snare & Trieste 
of New York, is regarded as one of the 
best players. Among British settlers in 
Cuba, however, are several expert players, 
among them Mr. F. ]\I. Orr, at present 
in Scotland. Mr. Orr resides on his plan- 
tation at Taco Taco. but spent this winter 
abroad. He has won numerous medals. 
for .golf. 



18 



T H E C U B A RE V I E W 



THE PANAMA CANAL AND CUBA 



Culia will receive no benefit by the 
building of the Panama Canal, according 
to Leopoldo Cancio, former secretary of 
the treasury of Cuba. The statement was 
made in .Mr. Cancio's fifth lecture before 
the Cuba chapter of the American Insti- 
tute of Banking at its last regular meet- 
ing in Havana in April. The lecture was 
entitled : "The Panama Canal and Its 
Efifect on Cuba." 

Among other things the speaker said : 

"By a strange paradox, Cuba, a country 
in close proximity to Panama, will fail 
to benefit by this new boon to civilization. 

"Logically speaking, Cuba is going to 
meet a rival in the opening of the Panama 
Zone to the markets of the world, but, 
fortunately, her position with respect to 
the United States' will offset the conse- 
quent disadvantage and insure her contin- 
ued growth. 

"A glance at the chart shows that Cuba 
is practically in the same isothermal belt 
as the countries bordering on the Canal. 
Our foreign trade will naturally show the 
financial bearing of the canal on Cuba, so 
the question arises, what conunodities will 
this country export and import as a result 
of its inauguration? The answer in both 
cases is, none, according to present indi- 
cations. 

"The advantages gained from reduced 
freight rates to Xew Orleans and other 
shipping centers in the United States will 
be a stimulus to the production of the 
Panama Zone and a detriment to Cuba. 
Commerce always seeks a market and mar- 
kets follow the line of consumption, and 
the outlet for those products will be 
through the warehouses of North America 
and not those of Cuba. 

"The impression that Cuba is in the di- 
rect line of travel from Europe to Panama 
is erroneous. Vessels of deep draught 
from Western Europe will continue to 
follow the present routes as marked by the 
ocean currents, and after sailing down the 
west coast of Africa will shape their 
course westward to the Carribean Sea, by 
way of the Windward Islands. 

"As speed will be an important element 
in shipping, vessels will not be likely to 
deflect from their course to visit Cuba, 
even as a coaling station. 

"Nevertheless, despite all these draw- 
backs, the progress of Cuba," said the 
speaker, "is destined to be as remarkable 
in the future as it has been in the past. 

"In Cuba the combined forces of nature, 
man and capital have found a remarkable 
theatre of action, and the markets of the 
United States will more than absorb the 
wealth of our fertile soil. We must 



recognize that the United States is still 
a young and undeveloped nation. Texas, 
with an area greater than Austro- Hungary, 
contains only four million inhabitants, as 
compared with fifty millions in that em- 
pire: California, whose territory is greater 
than that of Prussia, has but 2% millions 
of people, as against forty millions in 
that kingdom. As the wealth and popula- 
tion of the United States increase, the 
demand for Cuban products will more 
than grow apace, thereby assuring the 
economic future of our island. 

"The importance of Cuba to New York 
and other Northern markets is apparent. 
When we consider London and the cities 
of Northern Europe, which depend for 
their tropical supplies on colonies thou- 
sands of miles across the sea, accessible 
at a great expense of time, labor and capi- 
tal, w'e are filled with a sense of admiration 
that nature should have so blessed this 
hemisphere as to place Cuba, a land re- 
ferred to recently as the garden of the 
earth in a Cuban banking report, at the 
very portals of the United States, with 
a capacity to stock the markets of her 
great wealthy neighbor with tropical 
sui)plies in a few hours." 

This address was rendered in Spanish 
and translated by W. H. Morales, vice- 
president of the Cuba Chapter, A. I. B. 

Spain's new minister to Cuba, who takes 
the place of Sr. Cristobal Fernandez Vallin, 
who left Cuba some months ago, is Sr. 
Julian de Arroyo y More. 

Senor Fernandez Vallin, the former 
Spanish minister to Cuba, will be sent to 
Egypt. This action by the Spanish State 
Department. sa\s the Post, is taken as a 
reprimanil to Sr. \'allin for the interview 
which he gave in Havana and in which 
he criticized Cuban conditions. 

The Veterans" Association has selected 
100 caliallerias (?.3,.'];!3 acres) in the Man- 
zanillo and Guantanamo districts in Oriente 
Province for division among farmers who 
are veterans. The lands will be reserved 
by the state and delivered to the veterans, 
provided Congress authorizes the transfer. 
President Gomez, it is said, favors the idea 
of dividing the lands among the veterans 
who will agree to cultivate them. 

Colonel Rafael Manduley. Liberal nom- 
inee for vice-president, resigned April 
.'iOth, following a disagreement with Dr. 
Orestes Ferrara over the methods to be 
followed to bring harmony in the Liberal 
Party. The resignation was not accepted, 
and Manduley later withdrew it. 




Spanish Club Imililing to be built on the Piailo, Havana 
Rdificio l^ani cl "Casino Espailol" cv. c! PiOt!o. <!c la llahaiia. 




Public Buildings of Cuba. The new palace of justice in the city of Matanzas. It is a beau- 
tiful building and occupies a most prominent position near the harbor front. 
Edificios piiblicos en Cuba. El nitevo Palacio de Justicia en la ciudad dc Matanzas. Es un 
magnifico edificio y ocitfa una posicion muy prominentc cerca dc la parte frontal del pucrto. 



20 THECUB A REVIEW 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 

EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD CO., THE HA\ANA ELECTRIC, ETC. 
Earnings of the Cuba Railroad Company 

The report of the Culia Railroad for the month of March and for nine months ended 
March 31st compares as follows : 

1912 1911 1910 1909 1908 

March gross $404,344 $334,366 $291,486 $251,305 $235,415 

Expenses 186,098 169,1 12 136,750 127,575 129,.542 

March net $218,245 $165,253 $154,736 $123,7.30 $105,873 

Charges 65,125 59,675 :!6,666 34,239 31.845 

March surplus $153,120 $105,578 $118,070 $89,491 $74,028 

Nine months' gross . . $2,722,856 $2,228,006 $1,822,142 $1,. 540,263 $1,510,027 

Net profits 1,278,281 983,622 751,364 664,693 521,184 

Fixed charges .■>.56,125 398,925 325,210 295,358 296,726 

Nine months' surplus.. $722,156 $584,697 $426,154 $369,335 $251,458 



Earnings of the United Railways of Havana 

Weekly receipts: 1912 1911 1910 1909 

Week ending March 30th £44,788 £37,916 £37,080 £37,341 

Week ending April 6th 40,393 31,604 40,178 31,087 

Week ending April 13th 39,276 31,683 37,730 25,353 

Week ending April 20th 43,440 28,400 36,418 28,538 



Earnings of the Havana Electric Railw^ay 

Weekly receipts : 1912 1911 1910 1909 

Week ending April 7th $50,381 $47,649 $41,280 $37,951 

Week ending April 14th 50,382 44,661 42.606 37,345 

Week ending April 21st 49,553 44,040 40,623 . 37,208 

Week ending April 28th 48,305 43,756 40,463 38,237 

April Quotations for Cuban Securities 

Supplied by Lawrence Turnure & Co., New York 



Bid Asked 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds Cinterior) 99 ggi'o 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (exterior) 103 103^ 

Havana City First Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 106% 108^'^ 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 103 106 " 

Cuba Railroad First Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds 102 103 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock .' 00 

Cuba Company 6 per cent Debentures 95 iqo 

Havana Electric Railway Consolidated Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds 99% 99% 

Havana Electric Railway Preferred Stock 120 

Havana Electric Railway Common Stock 118 

Matanzas Market Place 8 per cent Bonds — Participation Certificates.... 103 104 

Cuban-.A.merican Sugar Co. Coll. Trust 6 per cent Gold Bonds of 1918 96% 97 

All prices of bonds quoted on an "and interest" basis. 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



FINANCIAL AND, COMMERCIAL 



MANGANESE IMPORTS 

United States imports of manganese 
from Cuba for 1909 and 1910 were as fol- 
lows : 

Tons 



1909 
1910 



3,019 



\'alue 

$12,689 



There were no importations in 1911. 
The manganese deposits in Cnba which are 
of importance are in the province of 
Oriente, where the ore is chietly pyrolusite, 
but other oxides of manganese occur. — 
United States. 

Sir W'ilHam Van Home, when inter- 
viewed by representatives of the Havana 
Liiclni recently, had the following state- 
ment to make regarding the proposed 
railway between Caibarien and Xuevitas : 

"I know nothing about the plans of any- 
one for the building of a railroad in the 
district east of Caibarien, and it will make 
no difference at all to the Cuba Railroad 
whether such a railroad goes north or 
south of the Bamburanao Hills. The 
statement so frequently made that the 
Cuba Railroad has objected to the route, 
one way or the other, is unwarranted." 



The United Kingdom's importations of 
unrefined sugar from Cuba for 1910 and 
1911, according to the International Sugar 
Journal, were as follows: 

1911 3,859 tons 

1910 96,336 " 



HAVANA S CUSTOMS COLLECTIONS 

The collections of the Havana custom 
house for the month of April, 1912, were 
$1,696,91S.1<.). 

A telegraph office has been established 
at Antilla, Oriente Province. 



General Alanager Frank Steinhart of the 
Havana Electric Railway Co. made formal 
application for a permit to begin the con- 
struction of two new important electric 
lines within the city. 



THE WESTERN RAILWAY OF HAVANA, 

LIMITED 

April Gth i.'),035 Increase. i518 

April i:!th 5,418 Increase. 1,121 

April 20th 5,259 Increase. 1,123 

April 2Tth 5,266 Increase. 1,118 

THE CUBAN CENTRAL RAILWAYS, LTD. 

April fith il3,476 Decrease. i2,525 

April 13th 15,726 Increase. _ 3,472 

April 20th 18,223 Increase. 4,948 

April 27th 18,714 Increase. 6,732 

A treaty of friendship, commerce and 
navigation between Peru and Cuba was 
signed April 27th by the Peruvian foreign 
minister and the Cuban minister to Peru. 




Industries of Cib.a.— Electrical Plant of Santa Clara. 



22 



THE CUBA R E \M E \V 



FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL 



THE GERMAN PINEAPPLE TRADE 

[From Conr.ul (leneral K. P. Skinner. Hamburg] 

Tliere is a large and growing demand 
in CJermany for pineapples, the trade in 
which, as in the case of substantially all 
fresh fruit imported into this country, is 
centralized in Hamburg. Nearly all the 
pineapples shipped to this city are sold at 
auction, the supplies, as a rule, coming 
from the Azores. The annual importation 
from these islands amounts to 130,000 cases. 

Some attempts have been made to import 
pineapples from Porto Rico and also from 
South America, but without much success, 
as the fruit arrived in bad condition, owing 
to the length of the journey. The high 
freight rates also discouraged importers 
who, nevertheless, are entirely willing to 
receive goods on consignment from San 
Juan and to dispose of them on the market 
under the most favorable conditions pos- 
sible. It is suggested that beginners in 
the trade would do well to send a sample 
consignment of perhaps 20 cases. The 
fruit should be assorted so that each case 
contains pines of the same size. 

The prices obtained for pineapples run 
from 70 to 90 pfennigs ($0.16G6 to $0.2142) 
per German pound (half kilo or 1.102 
pounds). 

For names of Hamburg importers of 
pineapples address Department L, The 
Cuba Review. 



DUTY ON LUBRICATING OILS 

[From Cuban Customs Circular No. 12] 

A decision has been rendered by the Cu- 
ban customs officials to the effect that 
April 1, 1912, all lubricating oils, whether 
derived from shale or from petroleum, 
excepting crude oils ( as defined in the 
tariff) mixed with vegetable or animal 
oils, shall be dutiable under tariff No. 7. 

It appears that under the accepted inter- 
pretation of a previous decree shall or 
petroleum lubricating oils have been 
treated as dutiable under tariff No. 6 
(crude oils), even when not mixed with 
other oils. In the tariff "crude oils" has 
been defined as covering, in the case of 
shale oils, only obtained from first distilla- 
tion, with a density of 0.9 to 0.92° : and 
in the case of petroleum oils, those in the 
state in which extracted from the well, 
having undergone no operation whatever 
whereby the chemical composition has been 
altered or modified. 

In the present circular it is held that 
there can be no such thing as a crude shale 
lubricating oil, because if a shale oil be a 
lubricant it cannot conform with the re- 
quirements of density given in the defini- 



tion of crude oils; and if the lubricating 
oil be derived from petroleum, it cannot 
lie in the natural state in which it was ex- 
tracted from the well. Hence shale and 
petroleum lubricating oils are to be dutiable 
as refined lubricating oils under tariff No. 7 
at a general rate of $.3.-50 per 100 kilos 
(220.46 pounds) and at the rate of $2.80 
per 100 kilos if imported from the United 
States. 

Crude shale oil and crude petroleum oil, 
as included under the definition of those 
products given in the tariff, if mixed with 
animal and vegetable oils, for lubricating 
purposes, remain dutiable under tariff No. 6 
at $1.40 per 100 kilos, general rate, and 
$1.12 per 100 kilos, preferential rate to 
United States. 



CUBAN MAHOGANY AND CEDAR 

Tlie demand for Cuban mahogany in 
London continues to be .good. The sta- 
tistical position for the three months of 
1912 is as follows : 

Delivered Stock 

January 1,404 7,689 

Februarv 1,525 6,164 

[March " 1,776 7,388 

With regard to cedar, there is very little 
of any description upon the London market 
and further arrivals woi^ild meet with a 
good demand. 

There have been no arrivals or deliveries 
for the past three months, but stock, at 
London docks have remained unchanged 
at 21 logs. 



THE CUBA SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH 

The report for the half-year ended De- 
cember 31, 1911, of the Cuba Submarine 
Telegraph Co., Ltd., shows a profit of 
£12,191, to which has to be added £7,294 
brought forward. After placing £2,000 to- 
reserve, the directors recommend a divi- 
dend at the rate of 6 per cent per annum 
on the Ordinary shares, leaving £7,655 to- 
be carried forward. — London Standard. 



President Gomez signed .^pril 16th a 
resolution annulling his decree of Februar_v 
15th, authorizing the Camaguey Electric 
Tramway Company to extend its lines. 

The Italian minister to Cuba, Signor 
Mondello, is urging an arbitration treaty 
between his country and Cuba. The mat- 
ter has been pending for several months. 

A market is projected for Casa Blanca 
on Havana harbor. Prominent citizens of 
the town are interested in the new enter- 
prise. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



23 



REPORTS OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



NATIONAL BANK REPORT 

The annual statement of the Banco Na- 
cional de Cuba (National Bank of Cuba) 
to December 30, 1911, is as follows: 

ASSETS 

Cash ill vaults $6,045,338.03 

Due from banks and 

bankers 3,243,746.10 

Remittances in transit 1,293,785.50 $10,582,869.63 
Bonds and stocks — 

Government bonds....$2, 540, 866.67 
City of Havana bonds 758,610.59 

Other bonds 361,220.52 

Stocks 148,838.67 3,809,536.45 

Loans, disc, time bills, 

etc 17,717,735.48 

Bank buildings and real 

estate 1,093,260.92 

Furniture and fixtures 89,416.15 

Sundry accounts 14,979.16 

Securities on deposit.... 3,043,721.45 

Total $36,351,519.24 

LIABILITIES 

Capital $5,000,000.00 

Surplus 1,100,000.00 

*Undivided profits .... 306,255.13 
Due to banks and 

bankers 

Deposits 

Deposits — securities . ... 

Total 

*Deduct $200,000.00 four per cent semi-annual 
dividend, payable January 2, 1912. 



THE TRUST COMPANY OF CUBA 

The statement of this company at the 
close of business on December 30, 1911, is 
as follows : 



ASSETS 

Cash $490,081.52 

Demand loans 403,844.27 

Bonds and shares 235,542.54 

Overdrafts (secured).... 4,710.39 

Liquid assets 

Mortgage loans 

Notes discounted 

Real estate 

Bank premises 

Bank furniture & fixtures 
Trust Department — 

Due from banks 

Bonds and shares 

Loans and investments 



$6,406,255.13 

3,378.246.15 

23,523,296,51 

3,043,721.45 

$36,351,519.24 



LIABILITIES 

Capital 

Reserve 

Undivided profits 

Dividend No. 10 

L'npaid dividends 

Deposits — 

Demand $1,448,773.41 

Time 103,442.40 

Trust 2,570,520.86 

Treasurer's checks 

(outstanding) 17,910.00 

Trust Department 



$1,134,178.72 

169,266.62 

306.688.00 

30,914,22 

49,707.43 

2,000.00 

2,466,886.02 

103,634.84 

92.220.00 

$4,855,495.85 

$500,000.00 

105,000.00 

1,780.18 

15.000.00 

849.00 



4,140,646.67 

92,220.00 

$4,855,495.85 



Cuba's Permanent Army 



"One of the worst acts of the Alagoon 
regime, which was warned against and 
strenuously opposed by many of the best 
men on the island, was the formation of 
the so-called 'Ejercito Permanente' (per- 
manent anny) at the behest of a strolling 
class of bushwhackers like Don Qui.xote, 
always looking for trouble. 

"This army is at once a heavy burden 
and a grave danger for the republic, as was 
recently illustrated by the division of the 
force into factions and the attendance, in 
defiance of the orders of the executive, of 
the officers at political meetings. 

"Putting uniforms on to an armed and 
undisciplined crowd, whose principal occu- 
pation is to kill time, is to invite danger 
and menace society — in the words of a 
Spanish adage, it is 'to raise crows to pick 
one's eyes out.' 

"It demoralizes the Rural Guard, which 
is an excellent body for service in the 
interior, whereas, the army is of no use 
there, and in case of an attack from a 
foreign foe, the army and navy of the 
United States would defend the country — 
in a word, it is an unnecessary and heavy 
burden upon the community. There are 
already serious dissensions and jealousy 
among the various factions of the Liberal 
Party, "Miguelistas," "Zayistas." etc.. and 



it is extremely probable that, sooner or 
later, quite likely on the eve or after the 
coming election, the intransigeant spirit 
that cannot brook disappointment in politics 
will reassert itself. 

"The American government, if it would 
forestall such an event, should appoint 
American inspectors of the elections, whose 
decisions should be final and binding upon 
all parties ; otherwise the chances are that 
it will again be 'obliged' to squelch another 
'manifestation of patriotism.' " — Corre- 
spondence of the Nczvark (N. J.) Xezcs. 



Fully completed, the Cuban cruiser 
"Cuba" and the training ship "Patria" sailed 
from Cramp's Ship Yard, Philadelphia. 
May 15th, for Cuba. All the way down the 
Delaware River the warships were given a 
noisy farewell by steamships, tugs and 
other craft. 

Electric light plants are projected for 
Calabazar Mata and Quemados de Gumes 
in Santa Clara Province to supply public 
and private demand for electric lighting. 

The steel bridge over the Sagua River at 
Sagua la Grande requires expert inspection, 
serious defects having been discovered. 

The United States exported last year to 
Cuba $364,030 worth of sewing machines. 



24 



THE CUBA R E V I E W 



TERMINAL STATION WORK NEARING COMPLETION 




\"ie\v of the Arsenal vard showing the great railroad construction work now under way and 
giving also a beautiful view of Havana. The illustfation is of the new train sheds. 

Vixtn del patio del Arsenal, mostrando la gran obre de construccion del ferrocarril, crora 

llevandose a cabo, mostrando iamhit'ii una linda vista de la Habana. El grabado representa 

Ins niievos cnbertisos para los trencs. 




I the Havana Terminal Co. in tlie .\rsenal Vavi. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



•25 



PRUNING AND THINNING ESSENTIAL 

[By W. T. Clarke, professor of horticulture iu the L'niversity of Califormai 



A thoughtful article contributed recently 
to the Calif oniia Fruit Grozver, on the ne- 
cessity for pruning to a low headed tree 
and for thinning of the fruit, is worth 
while reading by every citrus fruit grower 
who wants to raise the highest priced fruit 
at the least cost. The professor says in 
part : 

"The careful horticulturist will soon learii that 
one of the essential operations in the orchard is 
the thinning of the fruit and the low-headed tree 
carefully kept down by systematic pruning makes 
this operation of thinning much easier and cheaper 
to perform than would be the case were the tree 
allowed to grow long branches well in the air. 
Again, when the harvest time is reached and the 
fruit picking begins the closer the fruit is to the 
ground the more economically can it be picked 
and the less the danger of injury to the fruit 
through carelessness or through possible dropping 
from great heights." 

It is true he says further, that the low- 
headed tree means a lot of hand work in 
cultivation, but it can be done at a time 
before thinning and picking begins, when 
labor is more easily obtained. 

"The advantages possessed by the tree that has 
been well started with the low head and held back 
by careful pruning cannot be too strongly empha- 
sized and far overbalance any possible dis- 
advantages." 

He also reminds the grower that the aim 



of the pruner should be to open up the 
tree by cutting out all central leaders. 

"There has been a tendency upon the part of 
certain of our horticulturists," he says, "to prune 
so as to produce trees high in the center and 
sloping off from this center toward the sides. 
This makes a rather graceful tree, but does not 
make as useful a tree as one that has this central 
leader removed and the open form of pruning 
made the rule." 

Though all this attention takes time, it 
is time well spent, for the work of the 
primer is not alone for to-day, but leaves 
its impression upon the tree throughout 
its whole life, and all cutting implements 
used should be of the best. Any other 
kind may cause a rugged slashing _ cut, 
which would mean the dying back of the 
limb of a young tree for a very consider- 
able distance. On this point he says: 

"We have seen pruning done with an axe and 
cross-cut saw and we have also seen these same 
trees suffering badly from die-back at certain 
points and from fungus troubles which had ob- 
tained their entrance to the trees at the point in- 
jured by the careless worker. By all means, then, 
treat the operation of pruning trees at the end 
of this first year from the point of view of pre- 
serving to its very best the investment so far 
made and thus as much as may be, insuring a 
healthy tree capable of performing the tasks that 
we expect it to perform through the years to 



INFERTILE EGGS KEEP BEST 

A large part of the heavy loss from 
bad eggs can be obviated by the production 
of infertile eggs. This has been demon- 
strated beyond a doubt by the investigations 
concerning the improvement of the farm 
egg, which during the past two years have 
been conducted in the middle west by the 
Bureau of Animal Industry of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. 

About one-third of the annual loss in 
eggs in the United States alone, amounting 
to $15,000,000, is caused by heat which de- 
velops the embryo of the fertile egg, caus- 
ing what is known to the trade as a "blood 
ring." As it is impossible to produce a 
"blood ring" in an infertile egg, such an 
egg will stand a higher degree of tem- 
perature without serious deterioration than 
will a fertile egg. 

The secretary says if farmers and others 
engaged in the production of eggs would 
market their male birds as soon as the 
hatching season is over, a large saving 
would be made, as practically every in- 
fertile egg would grade a first or second 
if clean and promptly marketed. 

No more simple or efficient method for 
the improvement of the egg supply of the 
country could be adopted than the produc- 
tion of infertile eggs. 



THE BOLL WEEV/L COMPLEX. 



THE COTTOA/ PL/^A/T 

AMONG MA/}^OTf^^P:^£NCM/ES 

BoA. \lC£ ^\B£^W~uCOWP£A 

V££V/C^A/££V/L 




The above interesting chart of the L'nited States 
Department of .\griculture, Bureau of Entomol- 
ogy, shows that the boll weevil has 55 species of 
insects which are known to attack it. 




"^5 






THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



CUBAN HONEY ANALYZED 



UNITED STATES GO\ERNMENT REPORT PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 

OF THE CUBAN PRODUCT 



A report from the United States gov- 
ernment. Bureau of Chemistry, given in 
Bulletin Xo. 154. is on the chemical 
analysis and composition of imported 
honey from Cuba. Mexico and Haiti. In 
the year ending June 30th last, 601,572 
pounds of honey were imported from 
Cuba, as against 578.052 pounds from 
^lexiciT and 129,744 pounds from Haiti. 
The results were tabulated and classified. 
The physical characteristics of Cuban 
honey are given as follows : 

Color Odor and Flavor ( iranulation 

Dark amber Semisolid Strong aromatic.. 

\'ery light Liquid Mild 

Dark amber do Strong aromatic . 

Amber do Mild 

do do do 

V'ery light do do 

do do do 

Dark amber do Strong 

do do do 

do do Rank 

Amber do Strong 

Dark amber do do 

do Semisolid do 

do do do 

Amber Liquid .- do 

Brown Slight crystal do 

Amber do Rank 

Light ,olid Mild 

do do do 

Amber Liquid do 

do do do 

do do do 

Light Slight crvftal .do 

Brown Liquid Rank 

Light Slight crystal... Mild 

Amber Liquid do .. 

Dark amber do Rank 

Amber do Mild 

do do do 

do do do 

Light do do 

Amber do do 

do do do 

Further tabulations, giving the complete 
analysis, are also given in the same report. 
There was no marked ditYcrence found be- 
tween the honeys of the three countries, 
though the Haitian products resemble the 
American products more than do those of 
Cuba or Mexico, and have a milder, 
pleasanter flavor, usually accompanied by 
a lighter color. The report summarizes the 
investigation in the following language : 

"The results of this study seem to show 
that beyond a slightly greater moisture 
content and a somewhat lower percentage 
of sucrose there are no pronounced differ- 
ences in cheiuical composition between the 
honeys of America and those from the 
countries specified. Other points, how- 
ever, must be considered. In this connec- 
tion. E. F. Phillips, of the Bureau of 
Entomology, calls attention to the follow- 
ing iact.s, which have a bearing on the ad- 



mission of these honeys to the United 
States : 

"A disease of the brood of honey bees, 
American foul brood, is known to be 
prevalent in Cuba. When honey from an 
infected colony is fed to bees or when 
they get such honey accidentally from dis- 
carded receptacles the disease may be 
caused. In the past a number of out- 
breaks of this disease in the United States 
have been traced to shipments of Cuban 
honey. While honey from infected colo- 
nies is not injurious to human beings, the 
danger to bees constitutes a serious objec- 
tion to the ungarded importation of Cuban 
honey and affords additional reasons for 
barring undesirable Cuban honeys from 
importation.' 

"Furthermore, the preparation of the 
honey for shipment was very poor. The 
extraction had been carelessly carried out, 
and much dirt was present in the samples 
as received. This comes from the fact 
that modern methods of beekeeping are 
not exercised in the localities named to 
such an extent as in the United States.* 
The honey is mostly wild or that from 
wild bees, is scooped out of the trees by 
the natives, allowed to drain through 
coarse cloth, and shipped either in tins or 
barrels. In only two cases was the 
product such as could be sold for direct 
consumption, these two being comb honey. 

".Again, with few exceptions the flavor 
was rank and strong, so that it could 
hardl)- be considered palatable. There is 
some honey of good flavor produced in 
these places, but it is not exported in any 
quantity. 

"Considering the physical condition of 
the samples as received in nearly all cases 
from the three countries named, it can be 
said that they were not fit for human con- 
sumption. Re-"extraction. straining, etc., 
might improve this condition, but it is a 
question whether even under this treat- 
ment the honey is made fit for table use, 
as the dirt has become so intimately mixed 
as not to be removed by physical means.' 

* Illustrations on pages 24 and 41 show that 
up-to-date methods of collecting honey are fol- 
lowed in Cuba. — Editor The Cub.\ Review. 

The Parker Wrecking Company of Bos- 
ton on May 11th applied for permission to 
remove the wreck of the collier "Merrimac," 
the boat that was taken by Commander Hob- 
son and a volunteer squad of sailors into 
Santiago harbor when Schley and Sampson 
])lanned to bottle up the Spanish fleet. 



28 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



PAPERMAKING FROM BAGASSE 



NOT A COMMERCIAL SUCCESS AT PRESENT SEVERAL ATTEMPTS 

DESCRIBED AN EXPERT'S OPINION 



The attempts to utilize bagasse have al- 
most all been in the direction of paper- 
making, and many efforts have been made 
to perfect such a process, and to make it 
a commercial success. The writer knows 
of no single factory where papermaking 
from bagasse is being carried on as a 
commercial success. It is probable, how- 
ever, that this fact is rather due to lack 
of a proper methodical study of the prob- 
lem, to the hurriedness with which half- 
baked schemes are rushed into a commer- 
cial scale, rather than to the impossibility 
of the problem. In very many cases 
failure has been due to local conditions, 
or incompetent and ignorant management, 
etc. 

A short description of the method used 
in Texas might perhaps be of interest. 
The crude bagasse (from the diffusion 
process) contained 82 per cent water, 16.5 
per cent crude cellulose, .75 per cent carbo- 
hydrates, and .75 per cent ash. The megass 
was allowed to ferment in heaps with fre- 
quent watering, whereby the pectins were 
destroyed. After this a charge of twenty 
tons of the fermented substance was 
boiled in a rotatory vessel with 950 pounds 
dry soda and 250 pounds quicklime at a 
pressure of 90 pounds to the square inch. 
The pulp, after washing, went to the pa- 
per machine. In this way a very strong 
paper, suitable for wrapping purposes, 
was said to be produced, and 20 per cent 
of the original bagasse was given as the 
yield of paper, which sold at 2 cents a 
pound. This process was for some reason 
a commercial failure. 

Many other attempts have been made 
to convert bagasse into pasteboard paper, 
and even papiermache, and other harder 
material for barrel construction, etc. 
These schemes, however, have always 
been a failure economically. The most 
hopeful direction in which work is being 
done seems to be that of mixing bagasse 
with comparatively large proportions of 
other substances, such as para grass, wood 
pulp, bamboo, etc. The most nearly, if 
not quite successful, venture in bagasse 
papermaking was on these lines, and is 
being carried out at the Tacarigua estate 
in Trinidad. Here the para grass and 
bamboo and other grasses,- etc., are used, 
and the value of the product is given at 
$25 a ton. 



We may perhaps quote the opinion of 
William Raitt, cellulose expert to the 
India Provinces Exhiliition of 1910, on 
this question. He says : 

"Cane sugar factories are usually situated 
in localities where all manufactured goods 
have to be imported at a considerable cost 
for freight, etc., and probably import du- 
ties also. Where such circumstances 
exist, together with a sufficient local de- 
mand for unbleached wrapping and pack- 
ing papers, or even for the thin unbleached 
paper so largely used by the natives of 
India and elsewhere for correspondence 
and accounts, it is quite possible that the 
paper mill may prove a very profitable 
auxiliary to a sugar factory and that the 
bagasse may be worth considerably more 
for this purpose than its present fuel 
value." 

"A paper mill," he continues, "for this 
class of paper, to produce 40 or 30 tons 
per week, would cost roughly $100,000. 
A conservative estimate of the cost of pro- 
duction under average conditions, exclu- 
sive of the fuel value of the megass, but 
including repairs, depreciation and 5 per 
cent interest on cost of plant, amounts to 
$5.3 a ton. Under the conditions above 
referred to, the product should be worth 
$75, leaving $22 as the papermaking value 
of the two tons of bagasse required to pro- 
duce it, or say $10 per ton. The cost of 
steam and coal to replace it in the sugar 
factory furnaces would be at the outside 
$7.50 a ton. In calorific effect a ton of 
good steam coal is usually assumed to be 
equal to four tons of bagasse, so that the 
value of the latter as fuel cannot exceed 
$2 per ton. Deducting this, there remains 
an estimated profit of $S per ton of bagasse 
converted into paper." 

It may also be remarked that the new 
scheme of working up imported dried 
shredded cane is said to yield bagasse in 
a finely divided form, which is especially 
suitable for paper making. This process, 
however, is still in the experimental stage. 
These are the only two possible uses of 
bagasse which have up to now been put in- 
to practice, as fuel and for paper making. — 

From a paper on ]>y-Products of Sugar-Mai<ing, 
by Dr. William E. Cross, research chemist of the 
Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station, delivered 
April 19th before the .American Chemical Society. 
Louisiana branch, and printed in the Modern 
Sugar Planter, New Orleans. 



Credit is due Collier's U'cckly for the Review, of the funeral ceremonies at Wash- 
beautiful illustration used in the April ington over the "Maine's" dead. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



29 



THE SUGAR INDUSTRY 



THE CENTRAL DELICIAS 

On January l.j. 1912. this great Cuban 
sugar factory, having a capacity of 3,000 
tons of cane per day, began its initial 
campaign, and it is expected to crusli, 
during the grinding season, over 400,000 
tons of cane and to add approximately 
300,000 bags of sugar to the output of the 
Pearl of the Antilles. The following de- 
scription is from the Louisiana Planter. 
Delicias lies at the eastern end of Cuba, 
a comparatively undeveloped region, but 
now clustered with such leviathans as 
Chaparra. Boston. Cape Cruz, Preston. 
Soledad. Isabel. Santa Lucia and a dozen 
other factories which have either been 
constructed in their entirety since the 
Spanish war or have had their capacity 
greatly enlarged. 

Delicias is one of nine factories belong- 
ing to the Cuban-American Sugar Co. of 
Xew York, the others being Gramercy. 
in Louisiana, and Chaparra, San JManuel. 
Tinguaro. Nueva Liusa, Constancia. Uni- 
dad, Mercedita and the Cuban Sugar Re- 
finery, in Cuba, the combined output of 
the whole aggregating thousands of tons 
of sugar yearly. 

The designing and construction of the 
entire plant was done by the engineering 
department of the Cuban-American Com- 
pany. Work of erection was begun 
April 29, 1911. and the wheels began to 
revolve for the current crop January 1"). 
1912. 

Delicias has two crushing units, each a 
12-roller and crusher installation, with 
mill rolls 36"x84", and each unit has a 
capacity of 1.500 tons of cane per day. 

The five vacuum pans are each 13 feet 
in diameter and discharge into 24 crys- 
tallizers, 9 feet in diameter and 24 feet 
long. The defecation system is the open 
settling tank with steam coils The boiler 
plant consists of 21) multi-tubular boilers. 
seven feet in diameter and twenty feet 
long. Sixteen of these are equipped with 
bagasse furnaces and four with coal fur- 
naces. The smokestacks are of steel, with 
a diameter of 10 feet and a height of 
175 feet. There are two evaporating in- 
stallations, of Standard type, each with 
21,000 square feet of evaporating surface, 
and there are 28 40-inch water-driven cen- 
trifugals, these stretching for a hundred 
and fifty feet in a straight line. Wherever 
possible, electric power is utilized to drive 
the machinery and all auxiliary parts of 
the plant are motor-driven. There is an 
electric power station with three 1,000 K. W. 
turbo-generators, 4S0 volts, 3.000 revolu- 
tions per minute, and l)oth salt and fresh 



waters are handled by electric pumps, the 
pumping station being about a mile from 
the factory. 

PROPOSED CENTRAL AT MANATI 

A recent communication to The Cuba 
Review regarding this new mill is as fol- 
knvs : 

"In reply to your favor I beg to say that 
'his matter seems to be just started. I 
understand that a company has been 
formed, in which ]\Ir. Eduardo D. Ul- 
zurrum, R. Truffin and others are inter- 
ested and that they have taken over the 
land which formerly belonged to Mr. Ul- 
zurrum. They are beginning to figure out 
plans for the central, but nothing definite 
has been decided on, and probably there 
will be some time before they reach the 
stage of ordering machinery." 

Adolph Pauli. the German minister to 
Cuba, has been recalled, says La Ultima 
Hora, because he failed to press the Ger- 
man war claims ayainst Cuba. 




RECIIMIK) DEL 

CANONERO cubano 

"CUBA" 

nil peaido jiara una ifrande cantiilail de 
la CEXUIXA 

EMPAQUETADURA "EUREKA" 

t-n tamafius surtidcis. 

Si EUREKA es aceptada por la marina 
de su pais. ;. no sera buena para Vd. ? 
Se haya de venta en esa localidad. 
Tenga la seguridad de especificar "EU- 
REK.V" GENUINA. piies hay imitaciones. 

EUREKA PACKING CO. 
78=80 Murray St., New York, U.S.A. 



30 



THE CUBA R !•: \ I I-: W 



SUGAR CENTRALS OF MATANZAS PRO\^INCE 



NEW MACHINERY TO BE INSTALLED IN MANY MILLS MORE ATTENTION 

GIVEN TO IMPROVING LIVE STOCK 



llie Mantanzas correspondent of La 
Liiclia of Havana writes as follows of the 
great sugar district of Alatanzas Province: 

A little wliile ago — along in the spring 
of 1911 — w-e said the canefields were look- 
ing good, the canes were growing fast, 
and that we were to have a good zafra 
this year. Along in the following fall we 
ohserved that hecause heneficial rains had 
not fallen as usual, or hecause the fields 
themselves were not well cultivated, it 
looked as though the cane had ceased to 
grow, and we began to hear commentaries 
on premature estimates and a lot more 
about cane quedada to the very great 
detriment of the present crop. 

This crop came on. The canes were 
large, especially the spring canes, but their 
density was low and a great bulk of cane 
had to be ground to get sugar. Recurrent 
rains made transportation difficult. Some 
centrals had to stop frequently. More- 
over, some did not grind at all — like Xueva 
Luisa and Santa Rita in this district. 

This threw an extra lot of work on 
other centrals like Tinguaro and Mercedes, 
which, despite their great size have had to 
ask help. They have had to pass on part 
of their cane and every wheel of rolling- 
stock is kept humming and yet they can't 
get ahead of requirements. Colonos are 
displeased because they fear some of their 
cane will be left unground. 

It is rumored that the colossal Santa 
Rita de Baro (.}S,000-bag mill at its best, 
some years ago) will not remain idle 
longer than this year. This estate com- 
prises hundreds of caballerias of land of 
its own to which must be added many 
colonias well covered with cane, like Santa 
Barbara, belonging to Sr. Zumalacarregui, 
Sr. Peruvana's and Tadeo Brothers', to 
a great number, all cultivated in modern 
style with all kinds of fertilizers and yield- 
ing millions of arrobas of cane. Santa 
Rita's present owners, Messrs Guma & 
Soler, see all this : they are young and 
have money — and it wouldn't be strange 



if Santa Rita grinds next year in all her 
old splendor. 

It ought to be so, for the factory stands 
in fine location on the Colon plain, where, 
with motor plows like Tinguaro's, much 
and good land can be made to produce ; 
there are many excellent means of commu- 
nication and road transportation to every 
possilde point. 

Central Mercedes is running two sets of 
crushers, and turning out 1,.">"0 bags at 
;»G-degrees per diem. Production has so 
increased, and tonnage, owing to the use 
of fertilizers, that hereafter other mills 
will have to pattern after this factory. 

Central Tinguaro is making plans to 
place more machinery as Mercedes has 
hers, and so be able to double the work 
done. This duplicating of old centrals 
is equivalent to the erection of new ones. 

San Ignacio and Union are grinding 
well, doing monstrous days' work ; they 
are forcing themselves to the utmost be- 
cause of the immense quantity of cane 
available. The latter, which was the first 
mill to grind in all this region, has had 
no mishaps. This estate owns a lot of 
high-bred livestock, especially horses. 

Central Aranjo has gone in for thorough- 
bred horned cattle. This factory is turn- 
ing out a lot of sugar with fewest em- 
ployees possible. Mr. Oscar Rissech is 
owner here. 

Live stock e.xhibits at recurrent exposi- 
tions is encouraging estates, like Santa 
Gertrudis and that owned by Messrs. 
Lezama, to improve their live stock and 
they find the improved breed does good 
work. 

Don Pedro .Arrieta, at Ceiba Sola 
Perico, goes in for Jerseys : he has a model 
stable and a spotless dairy and silo. His 
cows are full bred, half and three quarters. 

Durham is a popular breed : there are 
348 head around here and crossed they 
have produced what is locally known as 
Durham-Creole. There are also more 
special plantings in the province of native 
and foreign fruits. — Louisiana Planter. 



A NEW SUGAR CENTRAL IN TUNAS 

The initial purchase of lands for the new 
sugar mill, which will be built within the 
municipality of Victoria de las Tunas in 
Oriente Province, was made a few days 
ago, says La Liic/ia of Havana. One of 
the principal pub?cribers is Sr. Marques de 
San Miguel de .Arguayo. The extent of 



tlie initial purchase comprises 611 caballe- 
rias, formerly owned by Sr. Pedro Gallo. 
It is also stated that within a very short 
time there will be a further purchase made 
of l.;,000 additional caballerias. The new 
mill is to bear the name of Dumanueco 
and will cost $2. (100,000. 00 : this will be in- 
creased if it is found necessary to enlarge 
the actixities nt the mill. 



THE CUBA R E V I E \\- 




Grabado que mttcstra la iiistalacion en la Nipe Bay Co., en Preston, Cuba 

SR. INGENIERO DE INGENIO DE AZOCAR: 

Cuanto guarapo extrae Vd. de su cafia? Si no lo sabe con 
CERTEZA en todas ocasiones, use la 

BALANZA AUTOMATICA DE RICHARDSON 

PARA JUGO DE CANA 

Esta Balanza se lo dira. 

Es realmente exacta, con garantia de que pesa hasta 1/10 de 1%. 

Es realmente automatica, no requiere trabajo, y pesa y registra por si sola. 

Es realmente durable, todos los tanques estan hechos de cobre, y todas las 
partes funcionantes son de un bronce especial ; por tanto, es a prueba de acidos 
y duradera. 

Ninguna refineria de azucar debiera pasarse sin ella. 

BALANZAS AUTOMATICAS PARA PESAR 

AZUCARES CRUDOS Y REFINADOS 

5e garantiza la satisfaccion. 

RICHARDSON SCALE COMPANY 

3 PARK ROW, NEW YORK, N. Y., E. U. A. 

GALBAN & CO., Agentes. Apartado 83, Habana, Cuba 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when- writing to advertisers 



32 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



DESINFECCION DEL AGUA EN POZOS 

Y CISTERNAS 

El doctor Hlarez, Secretario del Consejo 
de Higienc dc la Gironde, ha dado la si- 
guiente formula para la desinfeccion del 
agua en pozos y cisternas, que ha sido 
aplicada para el servicio sanitario del de- 
partamento de la Gironde (Francia). 

Permanganato de potasa 2r> gramos 

Sulfate de alumina ~.")() 

Kaolin lavado 7:25 

Total 101)0 gramos 

Estos 1,(100 gramos de mezcla, hecha 
polvo, es capaz de desinfectar r>,(i()0 litros 
de agua. 

Se calcula, pues, de antemano, el agua 
contenida aproxiraadamente en el pozo, y, 
en consecuencia, la cantidad necesaria de 
la expresada mezcla pulverulenta : se 
deslie el polvo en un cubo que se baja al 
pozo; se levanta y se deja caer alternati- 
vamente el cubo en el agua y durante tres 
6 cuatro minutos, para producir una agita- 
cion algo viva. 

Despues de cuatro dias, el agua estara 
clariticada. Si despues del tratamiento el 
agua queda algo amarillenta, es sehal de 
que tenia bastante cantidad de materias 
organicas. En todo caso, esta coloracion 
amarillenta no ofrece peligro. 

Todns los microorganismos perecen por 



la accion del permanganato ; las materias 
en suspension son coalguladas por el sul- 
fate de alumina y arrastradas al fondo por 
el Kaolin 6 arcilla blanca. — El Hacendado 

Mexico no. 

EL CENTRAL "eSPERANZA" MOLERA 
EL ANO PROXIMO 

Noticias de Santiago de Cuba, nos dicen 
que ya han comenzado los trabajos de repa- 
racion en el demolido ingenio "Esperanza", 
ubicado en la rica y fertil zona del "Cano". 

El conocido hombre de negocios, sehor 
Jenaro Fernandez Peha, administrador del 
central "San Ramon", ha dado las ordenes 
oportunas para que una division de em- 
pleados del citado central acudan al supra- 
dicho y demolido ingenio "Esperanza", a 
fin de activar los trabajos de reparacion. 
en lo que sea utilizable en la antigua casa 
de calderas y proceder a la instalacion (|e 
modernos aparatos que en breve seran em- 
barcados en el puerto de New York. 

Los trabajos se haran con toda rapidez 
a fin de quel el ano entrante se pueda hacer 
la primera zafra, lo cual redundara en 
grandes beneficios para la amplia zona com- 
prendida por el antiguo barrio de "Ingenio 
Esperanza". 

El ano pasado los E. U. .A. exportarore a 
Cuba maquinas de coser por valor de 
$:i(U.o:!0, 




Industries of Cuba. Lumber and ice plant at Cardenas. 
Industries de Cuba. Instalacion de madera y hielo en Cardenas. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



EL NUEVO CENTRAL EN TUNAS 

La primera compra de los terrenos del 
nuevo central que se levantara en la ju- 
risdiccion de Victoria de las Tunas y el 
cual es uno de los principales accionistas 
el senor ^Marques de San Miguel de Aguayo 
se ha verificado ya, ascentliendo dicha 
compra a (ill caballerias que pertenecian 
al senor Pedro Gallo. 

Sabemos que dentro de breves dias se 
otorgara otra escritura de venta de 1,300 
caballerias de terreno anexa a las ante- 
riores. 

EI capital suscrito para dar principio a 
las obras del central "Dumanueco"', a que 
nos referimos, asciende a dos millones de 
pesos, que seran aumentados a medida que 
se vavan realizando las obras. 



LA COMPRA DE LA FINCA SAETIA 

La poderosa United I*"ruit Co., ha com- 
prado la gran hnca "Saetia", de Dumois 
Nipe Co., en la cantidad de un inillon y 
medio de pesos. 

Con esta compra, puede decirse que la 
United Fruit Co., posee la parte mas im- 
portante del riquisimo literal de la bahia de 
Nipe. 

Se dice que la United inmediatamente 
establecera su tercer ingenib superior al 
"Preston". — La Lucha, Habana. 



A SUGAR MILL AT SAETIA 

It is understood that a new sugar mill 
will be built at Saetia, Xipe Bay, by the 
United Fruit Co., who have purchased the 
lands of the Dumois Nipe Co. The price 
is stated to be $1,500,000. 

The new mill, the third of tlie United 
Fruit Co., will be larger than that at Pres- 
ton. It is understood also that the Dumois 
Nipe Co. has an interest in the new enter- 
prise. 

In 1911 the United States exported 429,000 
barrels of cement to Cuba. 



Information comes from Santiago de 
Cuba that the work of rebuilding the 
"Esperanza" mill in Oriente Province has 
been begun. New and modern apparatus 
will l.e installed w-ithin a short time and 
the mill will grind next year's crop. 

SERIOUS STRIKE IN HAVANA 

A general strike of stevedores, launch- 
men, dock clerks, wharf laborers and coast 
shipping sailors began in Havana May 2d. 

Street railway employees and street clean- 
ers also threatened to go out. The strike 
was precipitated by a controversy over 
piece and day work. Under American 
occupation. Governor Wood published what 
was known as order No. 71. It was an 
agreement between stevedores and certain 
shipping companies fixing prices by the piece 
for handling merchandise on the Havana 
docks and making ten hours a day. Very 
shortly thereafter the stevedores broke the 
agreement, demanding an eight-hour day. 
The wage system was then adopted, with 
a rate of $2.50 for day work and $4.00 for 
night work. 

The companies claim that order No. 71 is 
not a military order, nor a law, but an 
agreement of private parties, despite its 
promulgation by the government under 
American occupation. It was not binding, 
they say, except for specified companies. 

On May 10th the men resumed work, but 
struck again in a few hours. An agree- 
ment was finally reached, however, before 
the day ended between the steamship agents 
and the labor leatlers, which provided for 
the appointment of a joint commission to 
arrange a wage schedule within fifteen days. 
In case of disagreement, the question at is- 
sue was to be submitted to arbitration. 

The last word on May 18th regarding the 
situation was to the effect that a committee 
appointed by President Gomez was arbitrat- 
ing the differences between the men and the 
steamship companies. A truce has been 
declared until May 25th, after which, if the 
demands of the men are not satisfied, the 
strike mav begin anew. 



METAL AGUILA BABBITT 



El Metal "AGUILA" 
BABBITT es el 
niejor metal anti- 
friccion para usos 
generates que se en- 
cuentra hoy en el 
mercado. Se nianeja 




y aplica con facili- 
dad y resiste tanto 
alto presion como 
velocidad. 

Prccio, 15 cts la 
libra. 



HOYT METAL COMPANY - - NUEVA YORK 



34 T H E C U B A R E \' 1 E W 

REVISTA AZUCARERA 

Kscrita expresaniente para la CunA Revii:w i)or Wii.li;tt & Gray, de Nueva York 

Xucstra ultima rcvista azucarcra estaba fcchada el 15 de ahril de 1912, en ciiyo 
periodo la cotizacion del a/.ucar centrifuge polarizacion 96° era 3.9Sc. al libra derechos 
pagados y aliora es 3.92c. la libra derechos pagados, el punto mas bajo de la campana 
azucarera. Entretanto las fluctuaciones ban sido pequenas y las ventas principales de 
las centrifugas de Cuba ban sido hechas bajo la base de 3.9Sc. 6 4.05c. por libra, a 4.11c. 
el punto mas alto. 

Sin embargo, las fluctuaciones de los mercados europeos ban sido en mayor escala, 
variando desde 13s 2i/4d a 14s, a 13s iV^d, a 13s 9d, a 13s 5%d, a 13s 0%d en 7 de 
mayo, bajando rapidamente a estas fechas a 12s 4^L'd, equivalente a 4.62c. por libra 
las centrifugas en Nueva York. La diferencia es ahora 70c. las 100 libras bajo par 
Hamburgo por las centrifugas polarizacion 96°. contra 82c. las 100 libras en nuestra 
ultima resena. A esta diferencia la Gran Bretana ha sido recientemente un continuado 
comprador de azucares de Cuba para embarque de un modo considerable, hasta que 
finalmente parece que dicho pais ha asegurado suficiente cantidad de azucares de varias 
procedencias para considerarse comparativamente independiente respecto a existencias 
en el futuro hasta la proxima cosecha de remolacha, y de aqui la explicacion de la 
continuada baja reciente que esta teniendo lugar alii en los precios. Asimismo, las 
noticias que se tienen de la cosecha de remolacha europea es favorable hacia un aumento 
considerable en la cantidad, y bajo esas circunstancias, los precios del mercado para 
la vieja y nueva cosecha van llegando juntos mas rapidamente de lo acostumbrado. 

La influencia en los Estados Unidos ha cesado de ser afectada por la perspectiva de 
la legislacion en pro del azucar libre de derechos. Podemos decir con seguridad que 
el proyecto de ley de la Camera de Representantes hacia el azucar libre no sera san- 
cionada por el Senado, y que si resultase alguna legislacion en esta Sesion, comprendera 
solamente una pequena reduccion comparativamente de la actual tarifa sobre los derechos 
del azucar. Tres disposiciones es probable sean discutidas en el Senado ; la primera 
el in forme de los miembors repul)licanos del Comite Financiero, reteniendo los derechos 
actuales, pero eliminando cl Tipo Holandes y el diferencial de iVjc. por 100 libras del 
azucar refinado. La segunda disposicion es la minoria democratica del Comite Finan- 
ciero reduciendo la tarifa actual del azucar 33 1/3 por ciento en todos los azucares. El 
Senador Bristow, de Kansas, ha presentado una disposicion independiente reduciendo 
la tarifa desde 1.83 ^4 c. a 1.62 VL'C. por 100 grados, asi como eliminando el diferencial 
del Tipo Holandes. El proyecto de ley del Senador Bristow tiene mas probabilidades 
de ser sancionado por el Senado, pero se dificulta el venir a un acuerdo en la conferencia 
con la Camera de Representantes, asi es que las probabilidades de que se lleve a cabo 
alguna legislacion sobre el azucar en esta Sesion son indecisas. 

No se ban recibido noticias especiales acerca de las cosechas de remolacha europea 
respecto a calculos de lo que dimos en nuestra ultima resena. 

Grandes inundaciones en Luisiana han causado destruccion en muchas plantaciones 
de azucar, reduciendo algo la perspectiva de la cosecha, pero hasta que extreme no se 
sabe al presente. 

Los azucares refinados se mantuvieron muy firmes durante el periodo bajo resena, 
entre 5.20c. menos 2 por ciento y .").0.")C. menos 2 por ciento, cerrando los precios de 
Arbuckle a 5.00c. menos 2 por ciento y por los otros refinadores a 5.10c. menos 2 por 
ciento, con una demanda muy moderada. 

- Respecto al futuro en los precios del azucar para el resto de la estacion de la cosecha, 
eso dependera mucho de si la zafra de Cuba excede finalmente nuestro calculo primitive 
de 1,800,000 toneladas y sobre la cantidad de esta zafra que pueda ser tomada eventual- 
mente per la Gran Bretana. Cualquier cantidad considerable que a mas de eso sea des- 
viada de las existencias en los Estados Unidos haria que los refinadores de este pais 
acudiesen al extranjere en busca de azucar suficiente para f rente al consume por com- 
plete, per cuya cantidad poco mas 6 menos se varian obligados a pagar los precios 
universales de Hamburgo. los cuales, como dijimos anteriormente, son ahora Tdc. las 
100 libras sobre la paridad de los de Cuba. Los plantadores cubanes podrian retener 
cierta cantidad de su cosecha para hacer frente a esta iiltima alza en case velvicse a 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



CABLE ADDRESS: Turnuri 



NEW YORK 
64-66 Wall Strut 



LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

BANKERS 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking charge of Collection and Remittance 
of Dividends and Interest. Purchase and Sale of Public and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale 
of Letters of Exchange. Collec'ion of Drafts, Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Paymentf 
by Cable and Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, Spain, 
Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo. Central and South America. 

CORRESPONDENTS: 

HAVANA— N. Gelats y Ca. - LONDON— Thb London Joint Stock Bank, Ltd. 

MEXICO— Banco Central Mexicano Paris — Heine et Cie. 




Botnba de Vacio Seco de Marsh 



Bombas de Marsh 

Del mas alto grado 
de eficacia para el 
servicio de Ingenios. 

Garantizamos menor 
consumo de vapor que 
cualquier otro fabri- 
cante de bombas de 
accion directa. 
Pidase un catalogo. 

AMERICAN STEAM PUMP CO. 

BATTLE CREEK, MICH. 



SUGAR TESTING APPARATUS 



FUNDADA EN 1851 




Hace una especial!- 

dad de surtir 
Todos los Instru- 
mentos para la 
Prueba de Atucar 
y Habilitacidn d* 
Laboratorio. 
Unicos Agentes en 
los Estados Unidos 
y Canada para loi 

STANDARD 
POLARISCOPIOS 

Su triple 6 doble 
campo de visi6n ba 
sido adoptado por 
el Gobierno de loi 
Estados Unidos co- 
mo norma. 

Toda la maquina- 
ria experimental y 
los aparatos descri- 
tos en ((Agricultural 
Analysis,)) del Prof. 
H. W. Wiley. Se 
suministran con 



POX.ARISCOPIO SOBRE "BOCKSTATIV" LA FORMA MAS MODERNA fJ'rmes*°pedidos. '" 
Con caja k prueba de polvo, parte de prisma, y engranaje prolongado. 

EIMER & AMEND, 205-211 Third Avenue, New York Pre'dosVluJradas.* 

Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertistrs 



36 THECUBAREVIEW 

tener lugar este ano, como lia sucedido siempre en anos anteriores, y como continuara 
sucediendo hasta que la produccion total de azucar de este pais y de las posesiones 
insulares ascienda a una cantidad tal de azucar, incluyendo Cuba, que llene por completo 
los requerimientos de los Estados Unidos. 



SUGAR REVIEW 

Specially Written for The Cuba Review by Willett & Gray, of New York 



Our last review was dated April ].■>, 1912. 

At that time the quotation of centrifugals 96° test was 3.98c. per lb. duty paid and is 
now 3.92c. per lb. duty paid, the lowest point of the campaign. In the meantime, the 
fluctuations have been small and the principal sales of Cuba centrifugals have been 
made at the basis of either M.OS or 4.0.')C. per 11)., with 4.11c. the highest point. 

The European fluctuations, however, have been on a wider scale, running from 
13s 2i/4d to 14s, to 13s,7V_'d, to 13s 9d, to 13s :>^ii(\. to 13s 6%d on the 7th of May, 
declining rapidly to date to 12s 4M;d, equal to 4.(i2c. per lb. for centrifugals in New York. 
The parity difference is now 7pc. per 100 lbs. below Hamburg for 96° test centrifugals 
again S2c. per 100 lbs. at our "last writing. At this difference recently Great Britain 
has been a further purchaser of Cuba sugars for shipment to a considerable extent, 
until finally it appears as if the United Kingdom has secured sufficient sugars from 
various sources to make them feel comparatively independent as regards future supplies 
up to the next beet crop and hence the explanation for the continued recent decline going 
on in prices over there. Also, the European beet crop news is favorable for a con- 
siderable increase in amount and, under those circumstances, the market prices for the 
old crop and the new crop are coming together more rapidly than usual. 

Influences in the United States have ceased to be effected by the prospects of free 
sugar legislation. We can safely say that the House of Representatives' bill for free 
sugar will not pass through the Senate and that if any legislation results at this session, 
it will comprise only a comparatively small reduction from the present schedule of 
sugar duties. Three measures are likely to be discussed in the Senate, the first the 
report of the Republican members of the Finance Committee, retaining present duties, 
but eliminating the Dutch Standard and the differential of iViC. per 100 lbs. on refined. 
The second measure is the Democratic minority of the Finance Committee reducing 
present sugar schedule 33 1/3% all through. .\n independent rneasure is introduced 
by Senator Bristow of Kansas reducing the tariff from l.S2iL'C. to 1.62V,c. per 100 
degrees and, also, doing away with the differential and Dutch Standard. The Bristow 
Bill stands the best chance of passing the Senate, but will hardly be agreed to in con- 
ference with the House, so that it is an even chance whether any legislation, whatever, 
on sugar is completed at this session. 

No further special news from European beet crops as to estimates than what we gave 
in our last review. 

Heavy floods in Louisiana have caused destruction on many sugar plantations, re- 
ducing the crop prospects somewhat, but to what extent is unknown at this writing. 

Refined sugars kept very steady over the time under review, between 5.20c. less S 
per cent and 5.05c. less 2 per cent, closing prices by Arbuckle at 5.00c. less 2 per cent, 
and by all other refiners 5.10c. less 2 per cent, with a very moderate demand. 

Regarding the future of sugar prices, for the remainder of the crop season, very 
much will depend upon whether the Cuban crop finally exceeds our original estimate of 
1,800,000 tons and upon the amount from this crop, which is eventually taken by the 
United Kingdom. Any further considerable large amount so diverted from the 
United States supplies would cause the United States refiners to go abroad for suffi- 
cient sugar to meet the full consumption, for which amount more or less they would 
be obliged to pay the world's price at Hamburg, which, as noted above, is now 70c. per 
100 lbs. above Cuban parity. Cuban planters could keep back a certain amount of their 
crop to meet this later rise should it come again this year as it always has done in former 
years and will continue to do until the total production for our domestic and insular 
possessions amount to as much sugar, including Cuba, as will meet the total require- 
ments of the United States. 



THE CUBA R E \M E W 



37 




The Progreso Mill. Matanzas Province. Spanish ownership. Average output 85.000 bags 

annually. 

Ingeiiio dc azucar El Progreso. en la Provincia de Matanzas. Propiedad espanola. Produccion 

anual. SS.IlOn sums dr nzt'ienr pi r termino medio. 




Valvula de Escape "LYTTON" 

Hecha para operar continuamente y dar buen 
servicio. 

El asiento y disco enteramente protegidos cuando 
abierta. Ambos se pueden quitar y poner. 

SIEMPRE QUEDA AJUSTADA 

LYTTON MANUFACTURING CORPORATION 

(Jficina para la \'enta: 
1159 Hudson Terminal Building, New York, N. Y. 

Oficina Principal y Talleres: Franklin, Va. 
Agente en Cuba: J. E. Hernandez, Aguacate 56, Habana. Cuba. 



MAGNIFICENT RESIDENCE FOR SALE 



FOR SALE, at a great bargain — a 
regular presidential year price — one of 
the finest residences in the Catskills. 
Address for terms, plans, views, etc., 
P. O. Box 339, Madison Square 
Branch, New York City. 



DE VENTA, a un precio que es una 
verdadera ganga, una de las mas lindas 
residencias en la region de Catskills. Para 
precio, condiciones, pianos, etc., dirijanse 
a P. O. Box 339, Madison Square 
Branch, New York City, E. U. A. 



1 10 E. 8 1st street, N. Y. CITY 

A finely furnished cool apartment of eight large 
rooms, bath, hot water, steam heat, gas range, 
electricity, parquet floors. First class, convenient 
neighborhood, near Central Park and Museum of 
Art. Will lease for summer or longer. Phone, 
5512 Lenox. Address, Mrs. M. P. Ryan, 126 East 
95th Street, N. V. City. 



Se alquila un aposento bien amueblado, fresco, 
de ocho habitaciones grandes, con bano, agua 
caliente, calentado a vapor, con estufa de gas 
para cocinar, alumbrado electrico, piso de parquet, 
todo de jirimera clase, en una vecindad con- 
veniente. cerca del Parque Central y del Museo 
de .\rtes. Puede arrendarse para el verano 6 por 
mas tiempo. Telefono: 5512 Lenox. Dirigirse a 
Mrs. M. P. Ryan. 126 E. 95th St., New York City. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



38 



THE CUBA RE\-IEW 



HAVANA 



CUBA 

National Bank of Cuba 

Government Depositary 

CAPITAL, SURPLUS AND 
UNDIVIDED PROFITS 

$6,250,000.00 



Head Office — Havana 

20 BRANCHES IN CUBA 

N ew York Agency 
I WALL STREET 



COLLECTIONS 



THE 



TRUST COMPANY OF CUBA 

HAVANA 



CAPITAL and 
SURPLUS 



$605,000 



TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRUST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT 

EXAMINES TITLES COLLECTS RENTS 

NEGOTIATES LOANS ON MORTGAGES 

Correspondence Solicited from 
Intending Investors 



OFFICERS 

Xorman IT. Davis President 

Oswald A. Hornsby - - - - Vice-President 
Claudio G. Mendoza - - - Vice-President 

J. M. Hopgood Treasurer 

Rogelio Carbajal Secretary 

W. M. Whitner - - Mgr. Real Estate Dept. 

Offices: Cuba, 31, Havana 



The Royal Bank of Canada 

INCORPORATED 1869 

Fiscal Agent of the Governinent of the Republic of 
Cuba for the Payment of the Army of Liberation 

Paid-up Capital 

and Reserve. .. .^13,100,000.00 
Total Assets $95,000,000.00 



Head Office 



MONTREAL 



New York Agency 
68 William Street 

Branches in Havana: Obrapia 33, Galiano 92; 

Matanzas, Cardenas, Manzanillo, Cienfuegos, 

Camaguey, Santiago de Cuba, Mayari, Sagua, 

Caibarien 



Established 1844 

H. UPMANN & CO. 

BANKERS 

TRANSACT A GENERAL BANKING BUSINESS 
Correspondent! at All Principal Placet cf th* Island 

Safe Deposit I 'aults 

Manufacturers of the Famous H. Upntann 
Brand of Cigars 



OFFICE: 
Amargura 1-3 



FACTORY: 
Paseo ds Tacon 159-163 



Established 1876 

N. GELATS & COMPANY 

BANKERS 

Transact a general banking business 
Correspondents at all the principal 
places of the world 



Safe Deposit Vaults 
Office: Aguiar 108 



Captain Frank Parker, U. S. army, has 
notified President Gomez that his work as 
military instructor of the rural guard is 
coinplete and that he be permitted to in- 
form his government and return to his 
own command in the United States army. 

He believes that further instruction can 
lie carried on by the Cubans themselves. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



ROOMS FOR THE SUMMER 



Habitaciones clar^is y con sol para hospedaje, 
conectadas si se desea. Agua fiia y caliente, 
mesa excelente y buen servicio. Cerca de los 
ferrocarriles elevados y de cuatro lineas de tran- 
vias. SituaOo en parte centrica y de facil acceso 
a cualquier parte de Nueva York, de Brooklyn y 
de las playas de mar. Casa abierta todo el ano. 
Escriban pidiendo precios a A. E. CLARK, 459, 
461, 463 Tompkins Avenue, Brooklyn, New York. 



Light sunny rooms, connecting if desired; hot 
and cold water. Excellent table and good service, 
near "L" and four lines of surface cars. Cen- 
trally located and easy of access to any part of 
New York, Brooklyn and the beaches. Open 
all the year round. Write for terms to 

A. E. CLARK 

459-461-463 Tompkins Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



HAVANA 



The United Railways of Havana 

in conjunction with the Cuba Railroad, maintain a service of 
two trains daily between Havana and the growing Eastern 
city of CAMAQUEY, and one Express Train daily between 
Havana and SANTIAGO DE CUBA, the "Dream City of the 
West Indies." Buffet lunch is served on these trains. 

FOUR TRAINS DAILY 

in both directions between Havana and MATANZAS, which latter city because of its picturesque 
situation and tne charm of its principal attractions (Yumuri's famous valley and the wonderful 
caves of Bellamar) has long enjoyed distinction as the great "Mecca" of the tourists, and it 
continues to gain in populaiity. EXCELLENT TRAIN SERVICE is maintained to many other 
places of great interest to tourists, all of which are fully described in "Cuba — A Winter 
Paradise," a profusely illustrated 80-page booklet with six complete maps and 72 views illustrative 
of this wonderful island, sent postpaid on receipt of 3 cents in stamps. 

Frank Roberts, General Passenger Agent 
United Railways of Havana -------- us, Prado, Havana, Cuba 



FRED WOLFE ^^i calzada de vives, Havana 

Cable, "Wolfe" 

Negociante en Todas Clases Dealer in all Classes of 
de Ganado Live Stock 

Especialmente en Mulos Especially in Mules 

Always on hand Large Stock of All Classes of Mules—All Mules Sold Art 
Guaranteed as Represented — Can Furnish Any Number Desired on Short Notice 



^ 



^slan's'' of'^cuba™! the LIVERPOOL & LONDON & GLOBE INSURANCE CO. 

This Company will issue Binders on risks in the Island of Cuba 
at theii New York ofTice, 45 William Street. Tel., 3097 John. 



FIRE 
BOILER 



EXPLOSION 

Havana Office 



LOSS OF INCOME 
FOLLOWING FIRE 



BOILER EXPLOSION 
ENGINE BREAKDOWN 



106 Cuba Street 



P. RUIZ ® BROS. 

ENGRAVERS 

FINE STATIONERY 

Obispo 22 P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA, CUBA 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

Established 1836, at 105 Wall St. 

Cable Address, "Tide, New York" 



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40 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



ESTABLISHED 1852 
BREME!^ 

Kmiciikmiaciikstu 16 \', 



ROHLIG & CO. 

FORWARDING AGENTS 
BREMERHAVEN 



AM IIaii:n- 1 13 



INQUIRIES REQUESTED 
HAMBURG 

Al.STi.KliAMM 14/15 



GENERAL AGENTS OF MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, NEW YORK 

ri\DERTAKlN(; TRAFFIC ALL OVER THE WORLD AT LOWEST RATES 
THROUGH RATES TO AND FROM EVERY PLACE PORVIDED f)N APPLICATION 




LINGUISTIC PRINTLR5' COMPANY 

NLUMANN BR05., PROP'S 

124-132 WHITL 5TRE.LT :: NLW YORK CITY 



LXCLLLLNT PRINTING OF MAGAZINES AND TRADE PUBLICATIONS 
ALL KINDS OF JOBS QUICKLY DONE AND TASTEFULLY EXECUTED 



WILLETT St GRAY, BroRer. a»d Agents 

FOREIGN AND ^^YT#^^ TV ¥^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

DOMESTIC ^^^ '€_> Vj^.^^m.XV-1^^ REFINED 

82 W^ALL STREET, NE>V YORK 

'ublishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal — the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED. 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON WORKS 

Engines, Boilers a^dMacKinery 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass 
Castings. Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

St*asnskip "Worb. m Specialty 

MOBILE ALA. 



A.. KLING, Prop. 
JAS. S. BOGX7C St&pt. 



The Sugar News of Cuba 

is given in the very interesting correspondence from the tropical island appearing in 
every issue of the 

AMERICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY 

The latest and most reliable sugar news from every part of the World is gathered 
by our own Special Correspondents, and appears exclusively in this paper. 

PRINTED IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH 

A Spanish Section has been recently added for the benefit of our readers in Cuba, 
Porto Rico and other Spanish speaking countries. 

Monthly, $2.00 per year in the United States. Cuba, and Mexico. In foreign 
countries, $3.00 per year. Subscribe for it if you want to keep posted. 

SAMPLE COPY FREE. SEND FOR ADVERTISING RATES. 

Address: BEET SUGAR GAZETTE COMPANY 

Hearst Building, Chicago, 111. - 140 Nassau St. New York 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



41 



Tel«phone, 83 H«milton 
Niiht Call, 411 Hamilton 



Cable Address: 
"Abi works," New York 



Atlantic Hasin Iron Works 

Engineers and 'Boiler Movers 

Mkchinista, Plumbers, Tinsmiths, Pipe Fitters, Blacksmiths, Coppersmiths, 
Pattern Makers, Sheet Iron Workers. Iron and Brass Castings. Steamship 
Repairs a Specialty. 

Cor, Imlay and Stsmmit Streets Brooklyn, J^. Y. 



John Munro & Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers* Suppliea 

722 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address : Kunomale, New York 

Telephone, 2492 South 



Telephone 
215 Hamilton 



Box 186 
Maritime Exchaagt 



YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

Caolfcers, Spar Makefs 

Boat Builders, Etc 

No. 9 SUMMIT STREET 
Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 




5ee-Keeping IN" Cuba. — An apiary of an American colonist near Matanzas. 



42 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HENRY E. BROWN Shipping and Ex- 
_ , . port Chemist and 

Pharmacist Druggist. 

Ships' Medicine Chests furnished and re- 
plenished. Prescriptions compounded by a 
Graduate in Pharmacy. 

Trusses, Surgical Appliances, etc. 

Office and Laboratory, Roou 36 

116 BROAD STREET, NEW YORK 



Bottled at the Brewery 




For Sale at all Dealers 
and on the Munson Line 



Sobrinos De Bea & Co. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 
lmportacl6n directa de todas lot 
centroi manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, 
New York and Mobile; James E. Ward & 
Co., New York; Serra Steamship Company, 
Liverpool; X'apores Transatlanticos de A. 
Folch & Co. de Barcelona, Espana Indepen- 
dencia Street 17/21. 

MATANZAS. CUBA 



JOHN w. McDonald 

COAL, WOOD. LUMBER 
AND TIMBER 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

112 Wall Street, New York 

Near South Street 

Yard; 56-58 Beard Street, Erie Basin 

Telephones: 

Office, 1905 John Yard, 316 Hamilton 



M. J. CABANA COMMISSION 

MERCHANT 
P. O. Box 3, Camaguey 

Handlei all Udcs of merchandise either on a commUiloD 
basU or under ageno arrangementi. Alio furniihei all 
deilred Informatioo about landi in •aitom Cuba. 

A telegraph station has been opened for 
public service in connection with the post- 
office at Omaja, an American colony in 
Oriente Province. 



THE MOST PROFITABLE POULTRY 

The United States Department of Agri- 
culture officially says that the general-pur- 
pose breeds of poultry, such as the Plym- 
outh Rocks, Wyandottes, Rhode Island 
Reds and Orpingtons, should be kept on the 
farm, rather than small-egg breeds or 
mongrel stock, and that dark-plumaged 
varieties do not, as a rule, look as well 
when dressed as poultry of other colors. 

A flock of fowls of the same breed and 
color produces a more uniform product, 
which invariably secures to the owner 
higher prices than can be derived from 
the product of a mongrel flock. 

As soon as the hatching season is over, 
all male birds should be marketed. 

As soon as the cockerels weigh three- 
quarters of a pound, they should be penned 
for 10 or 12 days and fed all they will eat 
of corn chop or a wet mash composed of 
2 parts corn meal, 1 part bran and 1 part 
low-grade flour. If this mixture can be 
dampened with skin milk, it will add much 
to its fattening and bleaching qualities. 
Birds that are being fattened should be 
fed in troughs rather than in litter, as 
exercise at this time is not conducive to 
rapid gains in weight. The birds should 
be kept as quiet as possible. 

Journal d' Agriculture Tropicale 



Founded by J. VILBOUCHEVITCH 
164 Rue Jeanne d'Arc Prolongie, Paris 



SuBsciiFTiON, One Yeak 



20 Fkancs 



Deals with the leading questions of the hour, 
agricultural and commercial, of interest to tropical 
countries. International in character. Illustrated. 
Monthly. Descriptions of machines for tropical 
crops a specialty. Complete review of new agri- 
cultural publications. Commercial part intelligible 
for every one and always interesting 150 con- 
tributors in West and East Africa, East and West 
Indies, Java, Mauritus, Central and South Amer- 
ica, and throughout the tropical world. 



THE SNARE AND TRIEST COMPANY 

CONTRACTING ENGINEERS 



STEEL AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 
Piers, Bridges, Railroads and Buildings 



We are prepared to furnish plans and estimates 
on all classes of contracting work in Cuba. 



New York Office 
143 Liberty St. 



Havana Office 
Zulueta 36 D. 



W. H. Bennett F. W. Hvoslef 

Bennett, Hvoslef & Co. 
Steamship Agents and Ship Brokers 

18 BROADWAY. NEW YORK 



Cable : "Benwalsk" 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 



MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE 

GENERAL OFFICES 

82 BEAVER STREET, NEW YORK 
NEW YORK-CUBA SERVICE 

PASSENGER AND FREIGHT SERVICE BETWEEN NEW YORK 
AND ANTILLA,NIPE BAY, NUEVITAS, PUERTO PADRE, GIBARA 

Special Through Rates to Camague'^ via Nuevitas 



PROPOSED SOUTHBOUND SAILINGS 

S.S. CuRiTYBA ------------ June 12th 

S.S. Olinda - June 26th 

Steamers sail from Pier 9, East River, at 12 o'clock noon 

PROPOSED NORTHBOUND SAILINGS 

S.S. Olinda - .- Nuevitas, June 14th 

S.S. CuRiTYBA --------- Nuevitas, June 28th 

Note : Steamers do not call at Nipe northbound. 
The Line reserves the right to cancel or alter the sailing dates of its vessels or 
to change its ports of call without previous notice. 

NEW YORK— CUBA SERVICE 

freight only 

New York to Matanzas, Cardenas, Sagua and Caibarien 

MOBILE— CUBA SERVICE 

freight only 

Regular Sailings Mobile to Havana; Mobile to North Side 
AND South Side Cuban Ports 

BALTIMORE— CUBA SERVICE 

freight only 

Baltimore to Havana 
Commencing June 1 5th and Every Two Weeks Thereafter 

BALTIMORE— COLON SERVICE 

freight only 

Regular Sailings Baltimore to Colon 

Please mention THE CUBA RFA'IEW when writing to .advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Lillie Multiple El^vaporators 



Model of 1904-1905 (Patented) 




"One of three Lillie quad- 
ruple effects installed in 
1907, in sugar factories in 
Formosa, belonging to tke 
Taiwan Seito Kabushiki 
Kwaisha, of Tokio, Japan. 
1 wo more quadruple effects, 
one to handle 550,000 gallon; 
of cane juice per twenty-four 
liours, and the other to 
handle 325,000 gallons in the 
same period, are now (July 
ist, 1909) being built for 
the same Japanese Company, 
also for St vice in Formosa. 
These quadruple effects arc 
arranged for reversing the 
course of the vapors and 
heat at will, a mode of op- 
eration peculiar to the Lillie 
and which has proven of 
great value for solutions de- 
positing incrustations on the 
evaporating tubes." 



The Sugar Apparatus Manufacturing Co. 

328 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



«. MORRIS LILLIE, President. 



LEWIS C. LILLIE, Secretary and Treasure 



THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS 

Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A. 

LOCOMOTIVES 



BROAD AND 
NARROW GAUGE 



SINGLE EXPANSION 
AND COMPOUND 



r 


^f4h 




i 


••■=^- ----7"lf 


i 


: IKT.ENIO ClENCGUlTA 






H ' - ■-^- •- — ^-Ji^aa^ss^jL-rL^ 



""of^V^raTk"' plantation locomotives o^frio^NToF'sERv^c'E 

specifications Fiiriiislied on Applicatwn 

American Trading Company, Calle de Cuba 78a, Havana, Cuba 

Cable Address: "Baldwin, Philadelphia" 



Please mention THE CUI!.\ REX'IKW when writing to advertisers 



;• J5*j:V'-v 



^' v".'/<^' 




'H. 








1 

I \ 












'U^jf> •' I 



& 



ff^^ 



" ^ij-^^f ■ 



Ml 







ems 



i^blished by theMunsohSieainsbip Line. 8Z-92 Beaver Street.NewYorkCib'- 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



BAGASSE FEEDERS 




Rotary Bagasse Feeders Ready for Shipment 

"Link Belt" Bagasse Feeders are so constructed as to prevent efjectuallij 
the escape of sparks or hot air, or the entry of cold air into the fur- 
nace. Temperature cannot be lowered or combustion interfered with. 



Write for Book No. 9f) 



LINK -BELT COMPANY 



299 BROADWAY 
NEW YORK CITY 




COPYRIGHT, 1912 



ALL 
ABOUT 

Cuba » 



IT COVERS THE ISLAND'S 

INDUSTRIES AND ACTIVITIES 

ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR POSTPAID 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 




PATENTE PELAEZ 

Esta maza puede colocarse facilmente en cualqviier trapiche, sea de dos 6 tres mazas. Machuca bien 
la cana desmenuzandola y extrayendole al mismo tiempo las dos terceras partes de su guarapo, dejando 
la cana bien preparada para el segundo trapiche. Ejecuta todo el trabajo de una desmenuzadora de 
primera clase y sin mas gasto que cuando se opera con una maza lisa. Esta maza es de acero y se ha 
sacado privilegio para ella en todas las partes del mvmdo donde se cultiva la cana de azucar. Pues 
envienos un dibujo de la maza superior que usan U is asi que de su eje, y les cotizaremoB precios bajos 
por una maza completa para desmenuzar la cana de este trapiche. 

NEWELL MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 149 Broadway, New York, E. U. A. 

P1ERK1-: DROESIIOI"!'. Agt., Apartnde 861, Havana. Ciiha. 



/^ A DD/^C PARA TODOS usos y de todos tamanos, de los para cana con cuatro ruedas y capa- 
^■^r^r^'^'-'cidad de lyi toneladas a los con juegos dobles de ruedas y capacdad de 30 toneladas 

Hacemos una especialidad de juegos de herrajes, incluyendo' los juegos 
de ruedas, completamente armados, con todas las piesas de metal, y pianos 
completos para constrttir los carros a su destino de maderas del pais 




RAMAPO IRON WORKS, 30 Church St, New York, N. Y. 



CaiUE AniiRK: 

Ramai.iam 



FOR LUBRICATION 



OF ENGINES AND MACHINERY 
OF ALL KINDS 



Dixon's Flake Graphite gives results impossible to oil or grease alone. 
Write fo<^ free booklet, "Graphite as a Lubricant." 

Cuban Agent: CHAS. BLASCO, HAVANA 
JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE COMPANY - - - - JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



DON'T OVERLOOK THE 
ADVERTISING PAGES 

OF 

THE CUBA REVIEW 



They form not the least Interesting portion of the publi- 
cation, and there is sufflcient variety of investment propo- 
sitions and valuable merchandise announcements to meet 
everyone's need. 1 Get in correspondence with CUBA 
REVIEW advertisers for the goods you want. 



President Gomez has issued a decree 
eliminating the duty upon cotton ribbon 
and yute products used in the manufacture 
of a sHpper popular with the poorer classes 
in Cuba as shoes and called "alpargatas." 
They cost 30c. Spanish silver. The presi- 
dent issued the decree to help home in- 



dustry, local capital promising to establish 
a factory if the decree was issued. Many 
thousands of "alpargatas" are imported by 
Cuba every year. The sole is of rope and 
the top of colored cloth. The wearer places 
his toe in them as a rule, though some buy 
them large enough for the whole foot. 



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THE CUBA REVIEW 




Los Instrumentos y Maquinas 
Agricolas de la Marca Farquhar 

son absolutamente modernos, bien construidos y durables. 

Todas las Maquinas, tales como las Desgranadoras de Maiz, 
Sembradoras, etc., se arman y ajustan antes de salir de la 
fabrica. 

Las Maquinas de Vapor, Calderas Trilladoras y Aserraderos, 
se prueban cuidadosamente antes de embarcarlas. 

Catalogos ihtstrados gratis o solicittiii. 
Corrcspondciicia en cualquicr idioma modcrno. 

Fabricamos Maquinas de Vapor, Calderas, Trilladoras, Aser- 
raderos, Malacates, Arados, Rastras, Cultivadoras, Desgrana- 
doras de Maiz, Sembradoras de Maiz, Excavadoras de Patatas. 
Sembradoras de Granos y Carretillas para Almacen, etc. 



FARQUHAR & GO. 



Cotton Exchange Building, Nueva Yorl( 



Direccion Cablegrafica: "FENANKLE" New York 




Prensas de 

Filtrar 

para Ingenios 

SHRIVER 

FILTER PRESSES 

W r i t f lis for 
Catalog, Prices 
and Information 

T. Shriver & Go. 

814 Hamilton St. 
Harrison, N. J. 

Rcfycscntcd in Loui- 
siana hv E. A. SAM- 
MONS' CO., Ltd., 
Neiv Orleans, La. 



FOR MOLASSES USE 

STEEL TANKS 



BUILT BY 



HAMMOND IRON WORKS 

WARREN, PA., U. S. A. 

MATERIAL FABRICATED OR ERECTED COMPLETE 



W. B. HAMMOND, Sales Agent 
2630 Whitehall Building, New York 



REPRESENTATIVE IN CUBA 

SUSSDORFF, ZALDO & COMPANY 
26 O'Reilly .Street, Havana 



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THL CUBA RLVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 
An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 82-92 Beaver Street, New York 

MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, Editors and Publishers 

SUBSCRIPTION 
$1.00 Per Year --------- lo Cents Single Copy 

Advertising Rates on Application 



Vol. X 



JUNE, 1912 
Contents of This Number 



No. 7 



The cover page is of a giant ceiba tree in Pinar del Rio Province. The tignre of a 
man an'"^ng the brandling roots will give an idea of the immense size this tree at- 
tains. The tree is "sacred" in Cuba. 

Pages 7, 8, 9 and 10 are given over to the insurrection in Cuba. The uprising is sum- 
marized and all the important happenings recorded from the beginning of the trouble 
on the 18th of May to tlie 16th of .Time. In connection with this story, on page 
10, there is an interesting map of the Guantanamo and Western Railroad. The 
activities of the rebels have been exercised very largely in the section covered by this 
road and among the sugar plantations which it serves. 

Notes from all sources are given on page 12, and incKide an interesting healtli board 
report on the mortality of Cuban children. There are also figures showing the im- 
migration into Cuba, Spain, as usual, leading with over 84 per cent. There are 
various other interesting items on this page. 

The increase in production of Cuban tobacco and figures giving the production, con- 
sumption and exportation for 1910 and 1911 are given on page 13. 

Page 14 gives a view of the Spanish-.Xmerican Iron Company's properties at Felton. 
This has been menaced from time to time by the insurgents. 

The search for rubber trees, by the editor of the India Rubber World, together with some 
fine illustrations will be foiuid on pages 15, 16 and 17. The narrative is of a sec- 
tion of Cuba very little explored and about which very little is known, as the 
mountainous character of this eastern portion of the island makes exploration diffi- 
cult. At the same time it must be remembered that Baracoa is one of the oldest 
towns founded in Cuba. Its history dates from 1511. 

A view of Havana from the harbor is very interestingly described by Elbert F. Baldwin. 

The earnings of the Cuba Railroad, Havana Electric and the United Railways, together 
with quotations of Cuban securities are on page 20. . 

Further financial notes on page 21 include a report of the earnings of the Santiago 
Electric Light and Traction Company, on this page will also be found some figures 
of the United States Department of Commerce and Labor regarding United States 
exports to Cuba. 

Some valuable items regarding reduction in duties and numerous financial items will be 
found on page 22. 

The revenues of the Cuban Government for the first four months of 1912 and the 
earnings of the Western Railroad and the Cuban Central are on page 23. 

A report of the Havana Electric Railway showing a successful year's business will be 
found on pages 24 and 25. 

Some agricultural information showing the great profits there are in peanut cultivation 
and an article on the mistake of soil exhaustion are on page 26. 

The fuel value of molasses, the prospects for cotton growing in Cuba, and the use of 
honey in cooking are on page 27. 

.\ valuable report of United States Deputy Consul General Starrett at Havana, on the 
cost and profits of a sugar estate in Cuba, is given in full on pages 28 and 29. There 
are various valuable statistics of operation expenses given in this report. 

Brief notes of the output of many plantations will be found on page 30. Almost in- 
variably the actual output has exceeded the estimate of last February. 

An interesting article to mill owners on the care of leather belting is on pages 31 and 32. 

Some further notes are on page 33. Willett and Gray's valuable sugar article is on 
pages 34 and 35. The same article in Spanish is on page 36. 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED THROUGHOUT 



1^ 







THL 
CUBA RLVILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" ^ew ■ 

Copyright, 1912, by the Munson Steamship Line 

PARC 

Volume X JUNE, 1912 Number 7 

THE INSURRECTION IN CUBA 

NEGRO UPRISING CAUSES GREAT ALARM ANOTHER INTERVENTION 

PREDICTED UNITED STATES TROOPS ON CUBAN SOIL 

The insurrection had its beginning on May 18th when negroes began to be arrested 
at Sagua la Grande, Santa Clara Province, and their homes searched for weapons. The 
same day similar arrests were made in Pinar del Rio and Oriente Provinces, the 
government having received information that an immediate uprising was threatened 
to take place all over the island. 

On May 20th there was no longer any doubt of the existence of a far reaching 
negro conspiracy extending to all the provinces to begin on May 20th, the tenth anni- 
versary of Cuban independence. 

It had been known for years that the negroes were dissatisfied at being ignored in 
the distribution of political, rewards for their services in the war, and this deepened 
into hostility against the administration by the operation of the Morua law, which 
denied the negroes the right to organize a political party along racial lines. 

Hostilities began almost immediately, clashes occurring between the rural guard and 
armed bands of negroes in parts of Santa Clara and Oriente Provinces. Telegraph 
wires were cut and several bridges burned in the former province. The government 
then became active and despatched 1,200 troops by rail to Oriente Province and 600 
more on May 21st by the new cruiser "Cuba." It was then stated that the rebels had 
600 fully armed followers in that province. Up to now there had been but little 
disturbances in the western provinces, Matanzas, Havana and Pinar del Rio, all the 
activities of the rebels being concentrated in Oriente Province, where the mountainous 
character of the country favors guerilla warfare and makes it almost impossible to 
dislodge an enemy. Complaints of destruction to property began to come in to the 
Cuban government from mining interests and appeals for protection were also sent 
to Washington. In consequence, the American Minister in Havana, Arthur M. Beaupre, 
on May 22d demanded protection for the property of the Juragua Iron Company, 
which Secertary of State Sanguily assured him would be given. Washington despatches 
at this time said that the United States government considered the disturbance as a 
mere "flash in the pan," but this opinion underwent a sudden change, for on the next 
day the State Department was seriously considering the advisability of sending one or 
more warships to the coast of the island republic. 

The situation developed quickly, the insurgent force having increased in Oriente 
Province from 600 to 5,000 unders arms and State Department reports declared that 
numerous conflicts had occurred between the forces with much loss of life. The 
organizer of the negro plot was definitely known to be General Evaristo Estenoz, 
president of the "Independent Colored Party." On May 22d armed l)ands appeared 
near the city of Havana and also in Santa Clara Province and attacked the rural 
guards. They also appeared in the vicinity of Baracoa, in the farthest eastern section 
of the island on the north coast, and a band numbering 2,000 were reported near 
Guantanamo city by the mayor. By this time almost a panic prevailed throughout 
Oriente Province, white planters and storekeepers with their families fleeing to the 
cities for safety. On the same day President Gomez cabled the Nezv York Times 
that he expected to have the situation under control "within a short time." On May 
23d the United States government issued orders to send 600 marines to the Guantanamo 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



naval station to be held in readiness for contingencies. The Cuban government at 
this time declared the uprising had collapsed, but the American" government regarded 
the situation as alarming and besides the marines ordered the gunboats "Paducah" 
and "Nashville" to Cuba. 

On May 2.jth United States Minister Beaupre sent a note to Secretary Sanguily 
notifying him of the intention of the American government to send a gunboat to 
Xipe Bay and that "in the event that the government of your Excellency cannot or 
does not protect the lives and properties of American citizens, my government, following 
the procedure it always does in such cases, will disembark troops to give the necessary 
protection." 

In rejdy President Gomez protested against such action as follows: "A resolution of this kind is so 
grave, so alarming and so injurious to the sentiments of a people loving and jealous of their inde- 
pendence, especially when such measures are only warranted by previous agreements between govern- 
ments, that it would place Cuba in a humiliating position." He asserted that the government was 
absolutely able "to put down a few unfortunates who are without right or flag." 

To this President Taft replied, saying : 

"I am sincerely gratified to learn of your government's energetic measures to put down the disturbance 
and to know that you are confident of being successful. -\s was fully explained to the Cuban charge 
d'affaires here, this government's motive in sending ships to Key West, just as sending the "Prairie" 
to the Guantanamo naval station, was merely to be able to act promptly in case it should unfor- 
timately become necessary to protect American life and property by rendering moral support or assist- 
ance to the Cuban government. As was made quite clear at the time, these ordinary measures of 
precaution were entirely dissociated from any question of intervention." 

On May 27th President Gomez answered as follows: 

"I am exceedingly grateful for your cablegram, which is appeasing to Cuban patriotism, because 
of the assurance that the action of the government under your worthy presidency is limited to 
the observation of events, in order to be ready, should it be necessary, to protect the lives and 
property of American citizens, and morally to support the Cuban Government without having to land 
American forces on our territory, unless both governments agree upon such an extreme necessity. 

"It clearly shows the sincerity of the government and the people of the United States, as well as 
noble and friendly sentiments toward the government and people of Cuba, who are determined to 
re-establii.h as soon as possible public jieace, for which purpose they will not hesitate, no matter what 
sacrifices circumstances may impose upon them." 

President Gomez promptly received a message from General Menocal congratulating 
him upon his letter to President Taft protesting against the landing of American troops. 

At this time General Estenoz. the leader of the rebels, issued a statement to a 
correspondent of El Dia, an Havana daily, stating the following : 

"The primary cause of the uprising is the failure of the government to repeal the Morua law, which 
provides that there shall be no recognition of political parties on racial lines, and which is offensive 
to the negroes. Another cause is the action of the government and the law courts in denying negroes 
their civil and political rights. The movement is not a racial one, but simjjly the action of certain 
Cuban citizens to assert their rights at all hazards. We have no hostility to the white people, and I 
have given strict orders tliat no violence shall be committed on the persons of whites under pain 
of death. ,• • , 

"If the Americans intervene they will recognize me and my followers as a political party. We are 
prepared to continue fighting, whatever happens." 

On May 25th the Cuban disturbances reached Congress and the Senate, after a brjef 
discussion, passed a resolution instructing the Committee on Cuban Relations to in- 
vestigate and report upon necessary legislation to determine when and how the United 
States should exercise the right to intervene in Cuba, under the so-called Piatt 
amendment law. 

The Senate resolution was introduced by Senator Bacon, of Georgia, who expressed 
the hope that there would be no intervention. Mr. Bacon declared that such legislation 
as he proposed would replace mere assumed authority of the president to intervene 
with a clear definite provision of law as to the manner of intervention, and would 
prevent disorders in Cuba. He said that disorders there "make the question of final 
annexation a probable one," and he never wanted to see Cuba become a part of the 
United States. 

President Taft holds the view that the executive, without further legislation by 
Congress, has ample authority for intervention in Cuba when necessary. He so advised 
the Cuban Relations Committee of the Senate on June 1st, in connection with the 
Bacon resolution designed to supplement the Piatt amendment, by enacting specific 
"authority of law" for what now would be an "assumed authority" to intervene. 

On May 30th United States marines were landed at Daiquiri to protect the property 
of the Spanish-American Iron Company. 

On June 2d the Havana Legation received reports of the partial burning of a bridge 
on the Guantanamo & Western Railway and of threats to do further damage. 

On June 4th the Cuban Senate Committee on Laws reported a recommendation for 
the passage of a law empowering President Gomez to suspend the constitutional 
guarantees, but only in the province of Oriente. The suspension of the guarantees 



THE CUBA RE\-IE W 



in the other provinces was considered unnecessary and inadvisable, especially on account 
of the approaching elections. The bill passed both Houses on June .">tli. 

When this was done, the Havana Post said editorially : 

"The president, before taking advantage of such authority, will undoubtedly consult 
with Minister Beaupre, as the moment the guarantees are suspended the Cuban question 
will automatically be put up to the United States government which, under the Piatt 
amendment, guarantees the preservation of a constitutional government in Cuba. The 
Cuban government is walking close to the border line where independent action is 
impossible." 

On June 4th uneasiness began to be felt in Havana, and extraordinary police pre- 
cautions were taken, the men being armed with machetes instead of clubsl 

On June 5th 500 United States marines w-ere landed in the Guantanamo district of 
Cuba to protect foreign property and four American battleships left Key West for 
Guantanamo, and "make ready" orders were sent to live thousand American soldiers. 

The decision to send the battleships was reached after a conference between President 
Taft and Secretary Knox. On the same day several of the large American, British, 
French and Spanish companies telegraphed to the Cuban government through the mayor 
at Guantanamo demanding that troops for their mills and cane helds be sent for their 
protection. 

This President Gomez was unable to do, saying it would require about 1,250 of his 
best troops for the protection of one group of foreign properties in a single section of 
the disaffected district. 

After warning General Monteagudo, commander in chief of the Cuban troops, that 
he did not consider American interests sufficiently safeguarded, Commander G. W. 
Kline, commander at the Guantanamo naval station, landed four companies of American 
marines at Caimanera and started them by train for Guantanamo City. Later in rhe 
day another company took train for Guantanamo, and at eight o'clock that evening 
there w-ere 570 naval fighting men on Cuban territory. 

General Monteagado issued a proclamation refusing to be responsible for conditions 
near Guantanamc>, as the Americans had landed without an invitation from the Cuban 
government. 

The Senate passed a bill on June oth authorizing President Gomez to spend $1,000,000 
for increase of the armed forces from funds not appropriated for other purposes. 

On June 6th General ]\Ionteagudo put the province of Oriente under martial law 
and issued a proclamation giving all insurgents, except the leaders, until June Sth to 
renew allegiance to the Gomez government. After that date he promised to get active. 

June 6th also saw the Cobre mines near Santiago attacked by the rebels who were, 
however, repulsed. Fifty American marines were immediately landed here, fifty more 
at El Cuero and more at Firmeza. Seven companies of the first regiment were also- 
sent to plantations along the Guantanamo and Western Railroad. 

Some definite statements of damage b\' the negroes came from Mr. M. H. Lewis, 
the president of various companies interested in Cuban enterprises, on June 7th. He said r 

"The La Maya Company has lost eight thousand tons of sugar cane, scale houses, 
cane loading derricks and cranes, small buildings and three stores destroyed by fire 
and cattle and horses, the entire value of which is $20,000. The railroad company 
has had three stations, two section houses, one bridge and several small buildings 
burned, and has had practically no passenger or freight traffic since May 20th, receipts 
having dropped from $600 daily on May 19th to $26 on May 25th."' 

On June sth General Monteagudo. the Cuban commander in chief, declared that he 
would end the insurrection within three weeks. Col. Orestes Ferrara, speaker of the 
Cuban House, passing through Key West on his way to Washington as a special 
envoy of Preisdent Gomez, made the prediction that it would take a long time to 
suppress the uprising. 

The charge that sugar interests might lie behind the present revolution in Cuba 
to force annexation and consequent withdrawal of the 40 per cent sugar duty was 
made in the United States Senate by Senator Nelson, of Minnesota, on June Sth. 

Senator Bacon introduced a resolution declaring it to be the sense of the Senate 
that the president is not authorized to intervene in any foreign country, "except when 
an emergency arises requiring protection of American citizens and property." 

On June Oth the United States government ordered two more battleships to Cuba, 
this time to Havana, and the "Washington" and "Rhode Island" entered the harbor 
on June 10th. 

Xo feeling was shown by the population other than curiosity. 

On June 10th rebels attacked the United States marines at El Cuero, Oriente Province, 
but were repulsed with no loss to the American force. 



10 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




T H E C U B A R E V I E W n 

On the same day a company of marines was sent to Baracoa for the protection of the 
people. 

Important developments came to the surface in Washington on June 10th, and the 
Cuban situation was discussed by Secretary Knox, Major General Wood, Senators 
Lodge and Bacon, of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and Representative 
William Sulzer, chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee. The suggestion 
was made that General W'ood be sent to Cuba in an effort not only to compose the 
pending difficulties, but to impress the Cubans with the fact that law and order must 
be maintained if they would preserve their independence. 

The Cuban administration, as evidenced by the reports of United States Minister 
Beaupre, was extremely sensitive and irritated by the advent of the United States warships 
into Havana harbor, but the feeling in Washington as expressed by the daily despatches 
was that the American policy sought to impress all Cubans with the fact that the United 
States supports the constituted authority of the Gomez government and that it would 
preserve order if the Cuban administration prove ineffective to that end. 

Secretary Knox issued another official statement on June 11th, in which he said : 

"The United States is not contemplating intervention in Cuba, but hopes and believes the Cubare 
government will by prompt and active measures be able to suppress the insurrection. 

"The sending of the two vessels to Havana indicates no change in this government's policy of non- 
intervention. The vessels were sent solely to provide some place and means of safety and protection, 
for .'\mericans and other foreigners in the event of disturbances that might seriously menace their 
safety." 

The distribution of the American forces on June 11th was as follows: The "Prairie"" 
with 100 marines at ]\Ianzanillo, 100 marines at El Cobre, 128 at El Cuero, 143 at 
Siboney, 50 at Guantanamo City. 100 at Bolona, 50 at Los Canos, 25 at Boqueron^ 
50 at Santa Cecilia plantation, 50 at Santa Maria plantation, 50 at Isabel plantation,, 
and 100 at Soledad plantation. 

There was a rumor on June 11th that Sagua de Tanamo on the north coast of 
Oriente Province had been burned, but this was found to be untrue, although attacked 
from time to time by rebels. 

On June 10th Orestes Ferrara. speaker of the Cuban House, made a strong plea 
before the House of Representatives in Washington for the continued independence 
of the island. A recess of five minutes was taken and Speaker Clark yielded the chair 
to the guest. 

"I want to express to the .-Xmerican Congress the salutations of the Cuban Congress and the Cuban 
people," said Speaker Ferrara. "."Xt this moment we have a little trouble, but not so much. The 
Cuban government will reduce this little revolution — if it can be called a revolution — which is con- 
fined to a little part of our territory. 

"Cuba can reduce it without outside help. We want you to remember that in the joint resolution 
adopted by the American Congress you said that Cuba was free, and I ask you to still maintain 
that position toward us." 

Reports that fault had been found with }^Iinister Beaupre by the Cubans, and that 
this government was taking sides with the complainants came out on June 10th, but 
the State Department said that Mr. Beaupre had handled the situation with exceptional 
skill. Officers of the \A'ar Department said his advices have proved entirely trustworthy, 
and he has in no instance colored or exaggerated the news he has sent. Admiral 
Osterhaus confirmed this view of Mr. Beaupre's work. 

Octavio Laredo y Bru, secretary of the interior, stated on June 12th that the 
proposition to send Major General Wood or Brigadier General Crowder on a mission 
to Cuba would be regarded with disfavor by the government, if they came with 
authority to arrange terms of settlement between the government and the insurgents. 

The Cuban government feared that if a mission from the United States were to 
have authority to arrange a settlement, it might involve recognition of some of the 
demands of the negroes. 

On June 13th the Nezv York Herald's despatch said that an attempt was made to 
destroy the Santiago electric light plant, but the rebels were driven from the city. 
Little damage w^as done. Constant firing in the suburbs and cities was heard all night 
of June 12th. There is no apparent diminuition of the effectiveness of the rebels' work. 

The American consul at Santiago reported on June 13th through the legation that 
General Monteaguado has issued an order to the eft'ect that the insurgents m arms 
v.ho will appear before and submit to the lawful authorities before twelve o'clock noon 
June 22d will be exempted from punishment and liberated immediately with the exception 
of the originators and leaders of the rebellion and those guilty of a second offence. 

This procedure, it is said, finds little favor with the officials at Washington, who 
would like to see some forceful, energetic, crushing military action. 

The last word on June IGth came from Washington to the \'eii' York Times and was 
to the effect that '"indications were strong that intervention in Cuba will be proclaimed 
in a few davs." 



12 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



NOTES FROM ALL SOURCES 



MORTALITY OF CUBAN CHILDREN 

[From the report of Dr. J. A. I.opez de! \'alle, 
local health officer of Havana, 

"In our persistent investigations concern- 
ing the causes which lead to the high 
figures observed in the mortality of chil- 
dren, we had been led to think that the 
drinking water may be one of the prin- 
cipal factors. And we found, as the re- 
sult of the constant and various bacte- 
riological analysis made by the laboratories 
■of the Department of Health and Charities, 
that pathogenic germs were present in the 
water supply of the city. Para-typhus, 
■coli-communis and pyocyaneus liacilli 
were, in effect, found in several samples 
"of water taken. Therefore, this question 
\vhich had been receiving our most devout 
attention has been given preference and 
we have alread\-, in accordance with the 
ideas and instructions from that ofhce, 
suggested to the chief engineer of the city 
and to the engineer in charge of the water 
supply, the steps which in our judgment 
should be taken to completer purify our 
drinking water. 

"There are yet two important questions 
to be settled in order to arrive at a com- 
plete and satisfactory solution in our cam- 
paign against infections. One is tuber- 
culosis, and the other that which affects 
the mortality among children, this latter 
question considered from the point of 
view that its main causes are gastro- 
intestinal infections. It is for that reason 
that we are paying close attention to all that 
which affects the supply of milk and water, 
a'l keeping in importance with our ever 
vigorous campaign against typhoid." 

COMPLETION OF THE ZANJA 

The Citbaii-.liiicricaii of La Gloria has 
the following to say concerning the com- 
pletion by the Cuban government of the 
work of deepening the Zanja: 

"The work of dredging the Zanja (Span- 
ish for ditch) is completed. It now 
assumes the more dignihed name of "The 
Sabinal Canal.' It is to our little world 
•of the Cubitas Valley v.hat the greater 
Panama Canal is to the greater world. It 
was called the Shanghai by the young men 
of the first Yarmouth and from that day 
to this it has been the despair of boatmen 
and voyagers to these co'onifs. It was 
picturesque in the extreme, with its curv- 
ing, mangrove shrouded shores, but its 
beauty is departed. Under the able and 
energetic management of Sr. Rafael Bena- 
vides, civil engineer of the government, we 
now have a deep and wide canal between 
the two bays on our route between Port 



Viaro and Xuevitas. There is remaining 
one and a half miles of channel to be deep- 
ened in the bay, west of the canal, which 
will soon be completed." 



IMMIGRATION INTO CUBA 

The total number of immigrants to Cuba 
during 1911 aggregated 38,0.53, of which 
31,055 were men and 6,998 were women. 
These immigrants brought into the country 
an average of $21.82 for each individual. 
The largest number came from Spain. 
The immigration from that country being 
84 1/3 per cent of the total, in other words. 
32,10-1: of Spanish descent migrated to 
Cuba. Of this total, 26,724 were men and 
5,380 women : 3,009 were under 14 years 
of age ; 27,232 were between 14 and 45 ; 
and 1,863 were over 45 years of age. 
According to this, about 85 V-; per cent of 
the total migration from Spain was of in- 
dividuals in the vigorous age of life. Sev- 
enty per cent of the immigration were able 
to read and write. 

PITCH PINE MARKET CONDITIONS 

During the week ending ]\Iay 25th 
steamer freights for Cuba are ruling 
higher, in harmony with the advanced cost 
of time charters for vessels engaged in the 
trade, and of the higher rates ruling for 
schooner deliver}'. Inquiry from Cuba 
continues backward, but a moderate quan- 
tity of lumber goes forward from week 
to week, averaging about the same as in 
the eariler part of the season. There seems 
no immediate prospect of improvement, 
though underlying business conditions are 
more than usually favorable. — Gulf Coast 
Record. 



NEW REGULATION FOR EXPLOSIVES 

By a decree of April 24, 1912, the Cuban 
government established new regulations for 
the manufacture, storage, transportation, 
importation, sale and use of explosives, 
arms and ammunition in Cuba. These 
regulations took effect on ^lay 24th. 

Only fish of a certain kind are allowed 
to be caught in Cuban waters, and even in 
the open season the revenue cutters are 
kept busy inspecting vessels to see that 
they have no undersized fish aboard or 
nets smaller than allowed by the fish 
commission. 

Special care is taken that dynamite is not 
used by the fishermen, and when they are 
found with that explosive severe punish- 
m;nt is alwaj's meted out. 



THE CUBA R E \- I E W 



13 



INCREASING PRODUCTION OF CUBAN TOBACCO 



In 1910, Cuba produced $25,090,781 worth 
of manufactured tobacco in various forms. 
Of this she consumed $12,644,372 and ex- 
ported $12,446,409 worth. In 1911 she pro- 
duced $26,920,777, consumed $13,33.'j,340 
and exported $13,585,537 worth, virtually 
one-half in each year. To these figures 
must be added 308,479 bales of unmanufac- 
tured tobacco exported in 1911, valued at 
$58.07 per bale, or $17,193,376. Following 
are the details of manufactured tobacco by 
quantities : 

TRODUCTIOX 

Manufactures 1910 1911 

Cigars, pieces 340,644,299 368,666.438 

Cigarettes, boxes or bundles.. 236. 189, 179 245,558.621 
Picadura, kilos 301.419 405.062 

CONSUMPTION 

Cigars, pieces 169,215,575 180.537,250 

Cigarettes, boxes or bundles. .223, 318,713 231,386,209 
Picadura, kilos 232,310 241,334 

EXPORTATION 

Cigars, pieces ...- 171,428,474 188,129,188 

Cigarettes, boxes or bundles . 12,870,466 14,172,412 

Picadura, kilos 104,553 295,049 

Xot only were all the quantities greater 
in 1911, but prices having advanced, the 
valuations outran the quantities, evincing 
a healthy and profitable trade. The most 
noticeable detail is the fact that nearly all 
the cigarettes were consumed on the island, 
whereas formerly the}' were exported in 
very much greater quantities. This is due 
to the substitution of the Russian papiross, 
which is made chiefly in the Ignited States, 
and out of Cul)an picadura and other to- 



baccos, mixed; a testimony of the superior 
taste of our manufacturers. 

In 1911 the average value of the cigars 
exported from Cuba was $68.83 per thou- 
sand ; of cigarettes, $28.36 per thousand 
boxes : and of picadura, 83 cents per kilo- 
gram ; the total exportation amounting in 
value to $31,500,764 in 1911 against $27,- 
359,626 in 1910. 

It should be possible to tranquilize her 
people when Cuba, under independent gov- 
ernment, can show such prosperity as this 
in a single staple industry. — IVall Street 
Journal. 

Reports on the new Culian crop comes 
by way of Key West and are on the whole 
highly satisfactory, the yield being plenti- 
ful and the stock of good quality, especially 
fillers. Wrappers, it is said, w-ill not strike 
the eye favorably, as the}' have a poor 
appearance, but the smoker will be pleased 
with them, as they possess good burn and 
aroma. 

Havana correspondence of the United 
States Tobacco Journal under date of June 
ist said that the "present racial trouble 
in the island interferes with operations in 
the country to some extent. Last year at 
this time one factory had $209,000 out buy- 
ing Vegas of tobacco, but this year not one 
cent so far. A condition which must be 
severely felt by the farmers." 

The more the tobacco situation in Cuba 
is studied, the more it becomes apparent 
that there is going to be a great scarcitv 
of light colored wrappers. 



inancial 



Notes 



HAVANA STOCKS LISTED 

Among the stocks recently listed on the 
New York Stock Exchange are those of 
the Havana Electric Railway Light and 
Power Co. to the extent of $15,000,000 par 
value per cent cumulative preferred stock 
and $15,000,000 par value common. 

In connection wih its application for the 
listing of its stock, the company has issued 
a statement of income, combining the re- 
turns of the Havana Electric Railway Co. 
and the Havana Gas & Electric Co. for the 
quarter ended March 31st last as follows: 

Total earnings $685,396 

Expenses 311,358 

Net earnings $474,038 

Previous surplus 2,138,432 

Total surplus $2,612,471 

The common and preferred stocks of the 
Havana Electric were stricken from the lists. 



The Spanish American Iron Company 
has called in, for redemption, $165,000 of 
its first mortgage, twenty year, sinking- 
fund, six per cent gold bonds dated July 
1, 1907. These will be paid on July 1, 
1912, at par and interest, at the Girard 
Trust Company, trustees, at Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. 

The National Bank and Trust Company 
of the Isle of Pines has b^en organized 
by Cuban and American capital with $5,000, 
000.00 capital stock, and with banks at 
Sante Fe and Xueva Gerona. 

I\Ir. E. L. Kennedy of Xueva (ierona 
is president, and 'Sir. J. A. Miller of Xueva 
Gerona is vice-president. Mr. W. H. 
Xorth, also of Xueva Gerona, is cashier. 

The profits of the Cuban Telephone 
Company for May aggregated $40,465. 

On May 1st, the company had 9,220 sub- 
scribers and on June 1st 9.430, an increase 
of 210. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



PICTURESQUE EASTERN CUBA 



EXPLORATION INTO A COMPARATIVELY UNKNOWN PART OF 
THE ISLAND, IN QUEST OF RUBBER TREES 

I should make it plain that I had heard of certain sheltered valleys at this end of 
the island of Cuba, where rubber was already flourishing, having been planted by some 
of the wealthy cocoanut growers. What the rubber was no one seemed to know. Indeed, 
as I looked at the barren hills surrounding Santiago I could think of no rubber tree 
that would be likely to flourish, there unless it were the Maiiihot. I knew little of 
Baracoa beyond the fact that it was the first capital and the oldest town on the island. 
It was out of the track of the tourist and few Americans or even Cubans seemed to 
have been there. I finally engaged passage on a Cuban steamboat that ran from 
Santiago to Havana stopping at many ports en route including that which I sought. 
Awful tales of dirt, garlic and discomfort were passed out to me by a couple of 
x\merican drummers who had travelled on the same boat. As usual, the tales were 
fictitious. I found the "Habana," although very small and incredibly slow, clean, well- 
found, and handled by Spanish-speaking officers, who were most dignified and courteous. 

We sailed at nine in the morning, out through the beautiful land-locked bay and the 
narrow channel, by Alorro Castle and then followed the coast. At four that afternoon we 
ran into Guantanamo Bay, where three American battleships lay at anchor. After 
discharging a little cargo and taking on a little more, we steamed out again and con- 
tinued along the coast. It was very calm and clear and warm, and so bright a moon- 
light night that we stayed on deck very late, watching the dim shores slip slowly by. 
When we awoke the next morning we were off the rugged and very picturesque shores 
of Baracoa. A little later we entered a narrow passage in a reef and dropped anchor 
in a tiny oval harbor on the steep encircling slopes of which lies the city. Back of it 




Plaza and Old Cathedral m tlu- * it 



16 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




r.aracoa, vvitli "Yunque" Mountain, J.ilOi) feet higli, in the Ijackground. 



and visible out to sea 
for miles towers a great 
mass of rock, 2,000 feet 
high, known as "Yunque"' 
the Anvil. 

Here "Don Angel" 
met us with a carriage 
and boys to carry the 
luggage and conducted 
us to "El Siglo XX" 
Hotel, which as anyone 
would guess means the 
Twentieth Century Ho- 
tel. This hotel was 
thoroughly Spanish. Our 
rooms fronted on a 
l)road balcony that over- 
liioked a tiny plaza. The 
delicious quaintness of 
this town was indescri- 
bable. The streets were 
most ingeniously ill 
paved except for a 
stretch of 300 yards that 
w^as smooth asphalt. This 
was laid by a former reform inayor (in front of his own residence) and the towns- 
people point to it with much pride. Carriages were few, as a mile or two outside of 
the city only trails existed. Nearly every one rode horseback and there were many 
fine horses, beautiful trappings and dashing and graceful riders. As the country is 
mountainous, bullocks, most surefooted of beasts, are used instead of pack horses. They 
are big black fellows, often gaily caparisoned and much more picturesque than any 
other pack animals that I have seen. 

Baracoa is very beautiful with its tiny bay, its stretches of sandy beach, its close 
encircling mountains and its red tiled houses. While the stores are exceedingly well 
equipped, the city could not boast of a dentist, an oculist or an automobile. 

After the purchase of a few necessaries and the bargaining for horses to take the 
explorers into the valley to the "Nunez" estate, where the rubber grew, distant some 
five miles, they set out at seven in the morning, believing they would be but a short 
time on the journey. Outside of the town they struck a mountain trail and then 
their troubles began, which might best be told in the travelers' own words: 

"We forded a river and were soon on a mountain trail that followed the erratic 
course of another and larger river. When I say followed, I mean that in its fullest 
sense, for when the banks grew too precipitous on one side we forded the streatn and 
rode along the other. By mid-afternoon we had crossed and recrossed so many times 
that I had lost count and was wondering what 'five miles' Cuban meant in English. 
The scenery, however, was grand, the day not too hot, and the little horses sure-footed 
and easy to ride, so I was contented. At last, about five o'clock, we crossed the river 
for the last time, scrambled up a steep bank, passed through a thicket of giant bamboo, 
and found ourselves in front of a huge thatched house surrounded by dilapidated 
outbuildings. We were welcomed by a big, athletic negro, who was in charge of the 
place, his greetings being seconded by half a dozen thin hounds, many naked pickaninnies 
and the lady of the house, who, suckling an infant at her breast, and a big black cigar 
in her mouth, gave us a tiny yellow hand and warm greeting in Spanish. 

"The big house had evidently been a planter's mansion at one time, but its negro 
tenants had allowed it to go to ruin as fast as it pleased. The narrow veranda in front 
had sagged to an angle of about 45 degrees, and polished smooth by many bare feet 
it made a slippery ascent : but we negotiated it safely and were soon in the great living 
room, seated in wrecks of massive chairs, covered with stretched cowhide. We at once 
formed the center of an interested circle of negroes, big and little, dogs, hens, pigs, 
goats and turkeys, all of whom seemed to have the run of the house, while Don Angel, 
like a patriarch of old, patiently explained the cause of his visit, asked after the health 
of each individual and listened to voluble descriptions of plantation and domestic hap- 
penings, garnished with gusts of rollicking laughter. Night fell and the big room was 
lighted by half a dozen of the inost primitive of all lamps, tin cups filled with cocoanut 
oil, on the top of which floated cotton wicks. 

"The night passed without events of importance. Towards morning I wondered why 
I could hear the crowing of the cocks so near and I found out at daybreak that three 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



17 



bold-eyed fighting cocks were tethered close to my bed. I also awoke once in the night 
when a heavy shower drove a score or more of the big black hogs to cover tmder the 
house, where they squealed, grunted and crowded one another for half an hour before 
settling down to sleep. 

"The morning broke clear, cool and delightful, and after coffee we went out to view 
the plantation. The valley broadened out and consisted of a fertile alluvial plain some 
ten feet above the river. Here were thousands of cocoanut trees in full bearing. There 
was also coffee, many acres of cocoa and a forest of huge bananas. 

"It was, however, rubber that we were in search of and we found it. The trees, 
Castilloas. were very large and thrifty. The leaf suggested the Guatemaloisis and I 
was pleased when Don Angel remarked that a near relative of his had married the 
president of Guatemala and brought the seed from that country. The latex was thick 
and rich and flowed even in the middle of the day. There were only 20 or 30 of the big 
trees, but on the ground be- '^ 

neath were hundreds of 
young seedlings. In fact, 
here was the nucleus of an 
exceedingly valuable Castilloa 
plantation. We coagulated 
some of the latex with al- 
cohol and got a clean, strong 
and mature rubber. It was 
here that I added a rather 
unusual bit of rubber in- 
formation to my store. Don 
Angel in tapping one of the 
trees got some of the latex 
in one of his eyes and was 
suffering intensely. I sug- 
gested warm water and we 
went back to the house .for 
it. The lady of the house, 
however, knew a better 
remedy, namely, human milk. 
This she applied dexterously 
and promptly from her own 
ample store and the pain was 
at once allayed. 

"The tale of an indigenous 
rubber tree that could be 
found up the mountain side 
took us up one of the steep 
trails as far as the horses 
could go ; then we climbed. 
We found the tree, the 
"Lechugo." but the latex was 
of no value commercially and 
except for the exercise and 
the fine appetites developed 
b}' it the excursion bore nn 
fruit. The travelers explorei 
all the rivers in the neighbor 
hood, fed on tropical fruit.~ 
and grew more fascinatei 
with the country. Their 
dinners each evening at the 
plantation house 'were abun- 
dant and picturesque.' The 
freshest of eggs, fish from 
the rapidh' flowing rivers, 
fresh pork and chicken. 

"The dogs of the planta- 
tion are really to be re- 
spected. Left to guard a 
house, no one may enter. They 
will fearlessly attack the huge 
wild boars that are found Largest Castilloa in Cuba, 58 years oirl. 




18 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



in those mountains and harry them until their negro master makes the kill, or as is 
often the case is himself killed. In the last case the dog will stay for days watching 
and starving, until help comes. These boars, huge fellows, four feet high at the 
shoulder, with tusks eight to ten inches long, are vicious only when attacked. We 
saw their spoor many times. 

"Incidentally we tapped some bread fruit and some chicle trees while at the plantation. 
The latter gave a fair grade of chicle, while the former produced an exceedingly sticky 
gum that may or may not have contained a certain amount of rubber. 

"Finally the day came for our return to Baracoa. We said our good-byes not only 
to Salvador and his family, but to all of the neighbors for miles around who had come 
in for the purpose. After a delightful boat ride we reached the city safely, from 
whence we sailed on the 'Gibara' for Preston on Nipe Bay." — Matter and illustrations 
from the India Rubber World, New York. 



FRUIT CROPS IN BARACOA 

Statistics from Baracoa are to the effect 
that the production of bananas in the 
present fiscal year will be considerably 
larger than last year, the exportations 
being estimated at 1,200,000 bunches and 
for the next fiscal year it is expected that 
the exportations to the United States will 
reach 2,000,000 bunches, unless the present 
■disturbance in this section prevents. 

The production of cacao and coffee in 
the country around Baracoa will likewise 
show a large increase this year over 1911. 
Unexampled weather during the year has 
favored the growers. 



El Dia, an Havana daily, quotes a con- 
gressman as saying that a company has 
been organized in Jacksonville to furnish 
several hundred Italians for Cuban tobacco 
growers in the Pinar del Rio Province, 
and that it is planned to smuggle them into 
Cuba on steamers used by a local coal com- 
pany in the guise of members of the crew. 

Laborers are scarce in the province, due 
to a succession of crop failures, which have 
driven many families to other parts of the 
island. 

Messrs. Champion and Pascual, the well- 
known merchants and contractors of Ha- 
vana, are the new owners of Guajaba 
Island on the north coast of Camaguey 
Province. They are to develop the prop- 
erty, as it lies directly across the bay and 
only five miles from Port Viaro. It is 
fifteen miles long from east to west and 
an average of six miles wide, and previous 
to the devastation of war and subsequent 
desertion it was inhabited and cultivated 
to sugar cane and other products. A 
military road ran across the island and 
on the summit of an elevation an army 
look-out was built. Remains of all these 
still exist. In the centuries long ago the 
island and channels at each extremity were 
haunts of smugglers. It is now one of the 
most frequented points of our excursion- 
ists. There is a small collection of Cuban 
homes on the south coast. — La Gloria 
Cuban-American. 



AERIAL COAST DEFENCE 

Lieutenant Arsenio Ortiz, a young Cuban 
army officer, is to be the pioneer in the 
aerial cost defence scheme of the Cuban 
government. 

Filibusters, it is anticipated, will find the 
difficulties of their trade on the Cuban coast 
vastly increased by the creation of an 
aerial patrol of the same character as the 
United States army officials are about to 
create, says the Neiv York Herald. 

Those landing arms, which has been ac- 
complished despite the watchfulness of the 
Cuban gunboats, will find another chain of 
sentinels of greater speed and range of 
vision in the flying coast guard. 

The machine selected for the purpose is 
the hydro-aeroplane of the type used with 
success by the United States navy for 
more than a year. Lieutenant Ortiz was 
sent by the Cuban government to the train- 
ing ground of Glenn H. Curtiss, at Ham- 
mondsport, N. Y., to learn the use of the 
Curtiss marine aeroplane. He is making 
rapid progress. 



ICE MANUFACTURING PLANT 

The town of Colon, Cuba, is putting in 
an iee factory. It is a ten-ton plant and 
only destined to supply the needs of that 
town. The placing of ice plants in a hun- 
dred or more little towns such as Colon 
ought to be a good business, because there 
is practically no ice manufactured in Cuba 
outside of the big cities. In towns of 
10,000 and more inhabitants within a radius 
of forty miles of Havana, the supply comes 
from Havana. Until recently, when com- 
petition began, ice sold in suburban towns 
around Havana at $1.00 a hundred. 



Exports c f cotton piece goods from the 
United Kingdom to Cuba for the first four 
months of the years 1910, 1911 and 1912, 
are stated in millions of yards as follows : 

Printed goods Dyed goods 

1910 5,100,000 yards 10,000,000 yards 

1911 5,900,000 " 6,900,000 

1912 9,200,000 " 10,700,000 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



19 



HAVANA FROM THE HARBOR 

[Elbert F. Baldwin in The Outlook'] 



"Are you a Cuban?'' I asked of the 
sailor who was taking me about Havana 
harbor. 

He answered my question with another : 
'"Can a Cuban sail a boat?" 

Then he added, "No, Senor ; we have 
to come over here from Spain to sail the 
Cubans' boats for them. And there are 
many of us in Cuba for that and for other 
labors — more than a hundred thousand. 
Some come from Galicia, where I come 
from, some from the Canary Islands." 
All this in Castilian Spanish. I had sus- 
pected as much. Looking more closely 
at the sailor, I saw that his lean face re- 
sembled those of the north of Spain. 
There are, as he said, very many Span- 
iards still in Cuba — and, for their benefit 
to the opportunities of boating hereabouts, 
it is not to be regretted. 

Only as you sail about in one of these 
little blue-painted 1 oats do you really ap- 
preciate the harbor of Havana. Its great 
sight, until its removal and impressive 
burial at sea, was, of course, the "Maine." 
In the midst of the harbor's commercial 
shipping stood the dams and cranes and 
rafts and dredges about a battleship's 
grave. What a reminder in life of death 
— and of dreadful death! As one stood 
on the bank of the artificial circular island 
here constructed and looked down at that 
naked, dismembered, rusted body, he felt 
a sense of the force that was and is no 
more. As a ruin, the "Maine" seemed 
more melancholy than the Roman Forum 
itself as you view it from the Capitohne 
Hill. 

Every day, about noon, a breeze springs 
up here. It cools you a bit after the great 
heat of the city — much too hot for most 
northerners — and you sit for a long time 
in your sailboat, tacking about the two 
and a halfmile wide inner harbor, loth to 
go on shore. Perhaps you may sail to 
Regla, opposite Havana, across the harbor, 
or down to the weather-beaten fortress 
of Cabana, with Morro Castle at the 
harbor's entrance. 

Then you sail back to Havana, and op- 
posite the landing-place enter a quaint 



restaurant. Mounting to the second-story 
esplanade, you order your fish-in-a-paper- 
bag and other sea delicacies, and then, 
looking out from amidst the potted shrubs, 
settle down to the enjoyment of a new 
view of the harbor. It is a remarkably 
widespread view. Beyond Regla there is 
a grove of palms ; otherwise there is 
little of the tropical in the vegetation as 
seen from this distance save that it is 
green in December. 

In the harbor are craft of all sorts — 
from transatlantic steamers of ten to fif- 
teen thousand tonnage and the great 
Standard Oil boats (like floating docks in 
their immense length) to the coastal steam- 
ers and freighters, to the harbor lighters 
and guadafios (heavily built passenger 
boats), to the motor boats and yachts, to 
the sailboats and rowboats with that 
fascinating cover over the aft part, like 
the craft on the Italian lakes, to keep off 
the Southern sun from the too sensitive 
voj'ager. 

The harbor unites the strenuous with the 
serene. Unloading and loading mean a 
lot of labor. And yet the labor seems 
to go on unnervously, perhaps because of 
the tropical climate, which discourages 
over-exertion. Certainly the labor is not 
accompanied by as many shrill sounds as 
one might expect from the rather raucous 
voices of the Cuban children and women — - 
the men's voices seem better modulated. 
Now and then one hears a guttural excla- 
mation from a Spanish sailor, and then 
the creaking of the rigging from a near-by 
sail as the boat comes smoothly into port. 
And one hears constantly the cries of the 
drivers below in the busy San Pedro (the 
street connecting all the docks and ware- 
houses), and the cracking of whips, and 
occasionally the honk-honk of an auto- 
mobile — a strange sight in the old town — 
and always the crunching of heavy loads 
over the cobble-stone pavement ; always, 
too, the puffing of motor boats and tugs. 
But when one thinks of the hubbub about 
the quays of Naples or Barcelona, Havana 
does not seem noisy, but there is plenty 
of business activity nevertheless. 



HAVANA S BUDGET 

The budget of Havana for the new fiscal 
year amounts to $3,882,981. There was 
some opposition in the City Council about 
passing the budget because the calculated 
income of the city for the same length of 
time is $3,327,602, without taking into ac- 
count that part of this income, amounting 



to approximately $335,890, is in the form 
of deposits and will have to be paid back. 
Unless the income of the city is increased, 
these figures show a deficit of about 

$891,269. _ 

The value of United States exports of 
sewing machines to Cuba in the last fiscal 
vear amounted to $364,030. 



20 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD CO., THE HAVANA ELECTRIC, ETC. 
Earnings of the Cuba Railroad Company 



The report of the Cuba Railroad for the month of April and for the ten months 
ended April 30th compares as follows : 

1912 1911 1911) 1909 1908 

April gross $396,723 $301,182 $278,9.J4 $226,657 $209,758 

Expenses 181,575 151,267 148,311 121,773 123,436 

April net $215,148 $149,915 $130,282 $104,884 $86,322 

Charges 67,624 60,125 36,666 34,579 31,892 

April surplus $147,523 $89,790 $93,615 $70,305 $54,430 

Ten months' gross $3,119,580 $2,529,189 $2,100,736 $1,766,920 $1,720,385 

Net profits 1,493,429 1,133,538 881,647 769,676 607,506 

Fixed charges 623,749 459.050 361,876 329,937 301,618 

Ten months' surplus.. $869,680 $674,488 $519,770 $439,639 $305,888 



Earnings of the United Railways of Havana 



Weekly receipts : 1912 

Week ending April 27th i45,826 

Week ending May 4th 42.849 

Week ending May 11th 39,662 

Week ending May isth 36,875 



1911 
£28,061 


1910 
£31,982 


1909 
£30,886 


25,743 


27,410 


26,623 


22,237 


23,254 


22,117 


19,535 


18,316 


18,066 



Earnings of the Havana Electric Railway 



Weekly receipts : 1912 

Week ending May 5th $51,192 

Week ending May 12th 51.082 

Week ending May 19th 49,494 

Week ending May 26th 47,012 



1911 


1910 


1909 


$44,883 


$44,457 


$39,300 


46,201 


40,134 


39,557 


45,111 


41,325 


39,140 


44.709 


40,302 


38,124 



May Quotations for Cuban Securities 

Supplied by Lawrence Turiiure & Co., New York 



Bid 



Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (Interior) 98 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (Exterior) 103 

Havana City First Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 105 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 103 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 90 

Cuba Company 6 per cent Debentures 94 

Havana Electric Railway Consolidated Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds 98 

Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power Co. Preferred Stock 90 

Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power Co. Common Stock. 80 

Matanzas Market Place 8 per cent Bonds — Participation Certificates 104 

Cuban-American Sugar Co. Coll. Trust 6 per cent Gold Bonds of 1918.. Q6V2 

Santiago Electric Light & Traction Co. First Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 97% 

All prices of bends quoted on an "and interest" basis. 



Asked 

981/2 
103% 
107 
105 
none 

98 

991/4 

95 

85 
105 

97 
98i/t 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



21 



FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL 



EARNINGS OF THE SANTIAGO ELECTRIC LIGHT AND TRACTION COMPANY 

(Conipania Electrica de Alumbrado y Tracciun de Santiago) 

Gross revenues: Jan. 1912 Feb. 1912 Mar. 1912 Apr. 1912 

From tramway $18,380.28 $14,669.11 $16,354.53 $18,308.99 

From light and power 14,630.51 14.560.11 13,947.29 14,033.08 

From other sources 1,038.35 1,562.74 1,131.15 902.41 

Total gross revenue $34,049.14 $30,791.96 $31,432.97 $33,244.48 

Expenses 18,445.05 17,356.25 18,546.93 19^337.76 

Net revenue $15,604.09 $13,435.71 $12,886.01 $13,906.72 

Fixed charges : 

Interest on $2,000,000 — 6 per cent lionds 10,000.00 10.000.00 10,000.00 10.000.00 

Surplus $5,604.09 $3,435.71 $2,886.04 $3,906.72 

Information received by The Cuba Review is to the effect that the Santiago Electric 
Light and Traction Company has a capital of $2,000,000 in stock and $2,500,000 in bonds 
bearing 6 per cent interest. Of this, $500,000 worth of bonds and an equal amount of 
shares are in the treasury of the company, making the outstanding securities $1,500,000 in 
stock and $2,000,000 in bonds. 



UNITED STATES EXPORTS TO CUBA 

From the figures compiled by the United 
States Department of Commurce and La- 
bor, Bureau of Statistics, the United States 
sold to Cuba some 62 million dollars' 
worth of goods during 1911 as against 
23^2 million dollars' worth in 1903 when 
the recipro*city treaty went into effect. 
The country's imports from Cuba consist 
of course largely of sugar and tobacco, 
these two products aggregating over 97 
million dollars of the 106 millions dollars' 
worth of goods bought from the republic. 

A few of Cuba's purchases from the 
United States and their increase are as 
follows : 

Iroti and steel inaiiufactitres. These 
head the list and have increased from 2\-> 
million in 1903 to 12 million in 1911. Un- 
der this head are included locomotives and 
other machinery, wire, pipes and fittings, 
steel rails, builders' hardware, and numer- 
ous other articles. 

Boots and shoes. Boots and shoes have 
sextupled in value of exports since 1903, 
having risen from one-half million dollars' 
value in that year to 3^/4 million in 1911. 

Passenger and freight cars. The ex- 
ports to Cuba have almost doubled. 

Cotton Cloths. In 1903 exports of cot- 
ton cloths to Cuba were but little more 
than a quarter million dollars, while last 
year they were valued at 1 2-3 million. 

Lard. Increase from ll-i millions to 
4 millions. 

Flour. From 2 million dollars to 4 
million. 

Corn. From 2-3 million to 1^-j million. 



J'cgetahles. From l-j million to iVi; 
million. 

Pork, bituminous coal, milk, chemical 
medicines, furniture, fertilizers, oil, etc., 
also show large gains over 1903. 



NATIONAL bank's GOOD YEAR 

The annual report of the National P.ank 
of Cuba for 1911 shows a considerable in- 
crease in resources, despite the fact that 
there was no unusual industrial activity 
in the republic during the year. This is 
indicated in the general balance sheet. The 
total assets of the bank have increased 
during the year from $33,278,302.72 to $36,- 
351,519.24. This is nearly 10 per cent. The 
deposits have grown from $22,310,246.07 to 
$23,523,296.51, or $1,213,050. Cash on hand 
amounted to $10,582,869.63, against $10,- 
473,253.14 a year ago, or a little more than 
$100,000 larger. The surplus was further 
increased by $100,000 now standing at 
$1,100,000, against $1,000,000 in 1910. The 
undivided profits, after deducting $200,000 
for dividends, were $106,255.13, whereas 
a year ago they were $51,781.68. 

'Unlike the shares in our own national 
banks," says the Financial ll'orld of New 
York, "the stock of the National Bank of 
Cuba is exem])t from a double taxation, an 
advantage which should not escape atten- 
tion." 



The Cuba Railroad Company has declared 
a dividend of 3 per cent on its preferred 
stock, payable August 1st to stock of rec- 
ord July 15th. The last dividend was at 2 
per cent. 



22 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



RAILROADS, FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL 



SPECIAL REDUCTIONS IN DUTIES 

The Cuban government has granted 
exemptions from the surtax imposed in 
1904 for a number of articles for use in 
the manufacture of pianos, at present 
dutiable under tariff No. 207. The articles 
included are specially prepared steel wire 
for pianos, from No. 12 to No. 22 ; spe- 
cially prepared copper wires for pianos, 
from No. 1 to No. 27 ; keys for stretching 
piano srtings : woods in sheets 1 centimeter 
thick, specially prepared for certain piano 
parts : apparatus and accessories, such as 
hammers, hammer catchers and other small 
parts and pieces ; maple wood specially 
prepared for bridges ; piano keys of ivory 
and wood ; bronzed cast-iron frames for 
fastening piano strings. Up to the present 
these articles have been dutiable under the 
general tariff at 52 per cent ad valorem, 
and under the United States preferential 
tariff at 36.4 per cent ad valorem ; with 
the surtax removed in accordance with the 
present decree, the rates for the future 
are 40 per cent ad valorem under the 
generaly tariff and 28 per cent under the 
United States preferential tariff. These 
reduced rates are to be extended only to 
manufacturers of pianos, who shall submit 
a sw'orn statement that the goods imported 
are to be used by them in the manufacture 
of pianos. 

Special exemption from the surtax im- 
posed in 1904 is also accorded for labeled 
tin containers, when imported by those 
engaged in the butter-making industry, for 
use as containers of butter. Such con- 
tainers have been dutiable under tariff 
No. 56 at $5.20 per 100 kilos, general rate, 
and at $3.90 per 100 kilos. United States 
preferential rate. When imported as pre- 
scribed they will in the future be dutiable 
at $4 under the general tariff and $3 under 
the United States preferential. 



A company has been incorporated in 
Havana with $100,000 capital for the con- 
struction of a railway, four miles long, 
from Havana to Cojimar. The building 
of this railway will necessitate constructing 
a tunnel under the bay to Casa Blanca. 



The Cuban-American Sugar Company 
has declared the regular quarterly dividend 
of 1% per cent on the preferred stock, 
payable July 1st, to stock of record June 
loth. 



PLANTATION RAILWAY FOR SERVICE 

[From Our Havana Correspondent] 

Central Caracas, located in the muni- 
cipal district of Cruces, proposes the first 
of next year to open to public service its 
private railroad from the central to the 
Bay of Cienfuegos. It is proposed to run 
regular passenger and freight trains and 
contracts are being made with other sugar 
centrals for the shorter haul which would 
result bv using the Caracas lines. The 
entrance of the Caracas line to Cienfuegos 
is on the side of the bay opposite to the 
city, but it is proposed to put on a ferry 
boat service so as to be able to transport 
passengers direct to Cienfuegos. The sugar 
centrals which would be greatly benefited 
by the shorter haul would be Andreita, San 
Augustin, Portugalete, Dos Hermanos, 
Parque Alto, Santa Catalina and San Fran- 
cisco. The Caracas central is owned by the 
Terry family. It was recently reported 
sold to the Cuban Central Railways, Ltd., 
for $5,000,000, liut the deal never went 
beyond the option point. 



The biggest item of Cuba's imports is 
foodstuffs, says the Saturday Evening Post 
of Philadelphia. It takes more than all 
the exports of tobacco, or nearly two- 
fifths of the exports of sugar, to pay for 
the meat, fish, cereals, vegetables, oil, 
beverages and other edibles that Cuba 
buys abroad. Undoutedly a considerable 
part of these imports of food may be 
classed as articles of luxury. They are 
for those whose tastes have not conformed 
to native dishes. From the point of view 
of national economics, spending nearly a 
third of one's exports to set the table of a 
relatively small numl)er of well-to-do 
citizens looks rather extravagant. Inci- 
dentally it suggests the prominence of non- 
native elements. 



Pneumatic tires are going in large 
quantities to Cuba, according to President 
Seiberling of the Goodyear Tire Co. 



CUBA SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH 

The meeting of the Cuba Submarine 
Telegraph Company (Limited) was held 
in London in May. Mr. George Keith, 
who presided, said that the result of the 
half-year's business gave a profit balance 
of /1 2.900. out of which £2,000 had been 
added to reserve against loss of invest- 
ments and £2,000 carried to the general 
reserve. The directors recommended the 
payment of the usual dividend at the rate 
of 6 per cent per annum on the Ordinary 
shares, and the increase of the balance 
carried forward by £361 to £7,655. Their 
cables were now duplicated from end to 
end.^ — London Standard. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



23 




Molasses tanks on the wharf at Cardenas, Cuba. 



Revenues of the Cuban Government 



For the four months ended April 30, 1912, revenues of the republic were as follows: 

January February March April 
Custom house collections, consular fees, 

telegraph and post office receipts, etc $2,715,969 $2,260,865 $2,697,048 $2,544,649 

National loan tax 334,613 298,340 312,579 300,582 

National lottery 444,387 367,111 363,500 350,186 

Total $3,494,969 $2,926,316 $3,373,127 $3,195,417 

Havana's custom house collections for May, 1912, totalled $1,654,466 and compares with 
$1,641,649 for the same month in 1911. 

The first four months of the year aggregate as follows : 

January February March April May 

$1,747,782 $1,431,729 $1,627,298 $1,572,906 $1,654,466 



WESTERN RAILWAY OF HAVANA. LTD. 

Weekly receipts : 

May 4th £5,355 Increase... i851 

May 11th 5,038 Decrease... 58 

May 18th 5,959 Increase... 768 

May 25th 6,398 Increase... 522 



THE CUBAN CENTRAL RAILWAYS. LTD. 

Weekly receipts : 

May 4th £lS,857 Increase.. £9,601 

May 11th 15,680 Increase.. 9,389 

May 18th 14,158 Increase.. 8,347 

May 2oth 10,380 Increase.. 4,455 



A charter was recently granted by the 
State Department to the Jucaro and Moron 
Railway Company, of New York, with a 
capital of $1,000,000. The company will 
acquire a railway from the Cuban govern- 
ment in the province of CamagueJ^ The 
corporators are Frank R. Conklin, Stanley 
L. Konklin, Cecil A. Clarke, Howard K. 
W^ood, H. O. Coughlin and Joseph F. 
Curtin, all of New York. 



GIBARA RAILWAY RECEIPTS 

The receipts of the Gibara Railway, 
Cuba, in 1911 from freight and passenger 
traffic were $132,431 and the expenditures 
$121,913, showing a net gain during the 
year of $10,517. This railway company 
was organized in 1883 with a capital stock 
of $400,000 and its assets now amount to 
$813,675. 



24 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HAVANA ELECTRIC RAILWAY REPORT 



A SUCCESSFUL YEAR's BUSINESS GROSS AND NET EARNINGS 

MOST FAVORABLE FIGURES FOR SEVEN YEARS 

On December 31, 1911. the Havana Electric Railway Co. closed a most successful 
fiscal year, the earnings, after meeting all charges and preferred stock dividends, leaving 
a surplus available for the common stock equal to 8.84 per cent on the $7,4()3,630, 
■outstanding, as compared with 7.34 per cent in the year previous and fi.Gl per cent in 
1909. The report shows that the property was greatly improved during the year, several 
additions having been made in the various departments. 

Gross and net earnings per mile during the last fiscal period have been most note- 
worthy when compared with previous years, as the following table shows : 

1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 

Gross railway earnings per track mile $31,406 $35,218 $38,448 $40,908 $44,128 $48,016 
Net railway earnings per track mile 12,252 16,923 19,168 22,360 23,600 25,535 

per cent per cent per cent per cent per cent per cent 
Ratio operating exp. to gross earns. 60.98 53.27 50.15 45.34 46.52 46.82 

Stage lines: 1910 1911 

Gross earnings $384,376.37 $403,451.57 

Operating expenses 308,431.44 307,617.11 

Net earnings $75,944.93 $95,834.46 

The gross earnings of the railway since 1905 are likewise given in the report of the 
■company just issued and these follow: 

1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 

$1,477,063 $1,570,301 $1,810,888 $1,937,797 $2,106,761 $2,272,603 $2,588,049 

The gross receipts from the stage lines (guaguas) operated by the company also show 
gradually increasing income. The number of vehicles in use is given as 181 and the 
total number of animals used in the service as 1,512. The tables of earnings follow : 

1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 

$329,500 $348,801 $332,234 $339,009 $381,886 $384,376 $403,451 

In the appended table will be noted the gross and net earnings, dividends paid and 
surplus yearly from 1905 to 1911, both fiscal periods inclusive : 

Gross earns. Net earns. Divs. paid Surplus 

1911 $2,991,502 $1,472,198 $747,818 $222,219 

1910 2,656,980 1,291,339 747,821 96,939 

1909 2,488,647 1,237,598 598,548 292,420 

1908 2,276,807 1,030,383 374,635 209,967 

1907 2,143,122 910,387 275,000 91,075 

1906 1.919.103 664,443 200,000 *31,932 

1905 1,542,870 785,796 370,920 

The following very interesting chart, which forms a part of the company's report, 
pictures the growth and earnings of the Havana Electric for the last decade. 

I902 i9o3 i9o4 i905 l9o6 i9o7 l9o6 i9o9 l9lO i»ii 




.871,697 1,084,.^08 l,2;3.5,W-5 1,477,00:3 1,. 570,301 1,810,888 1,9.37,797 2,106,761 2,272,603 

<oRO<S6 Earmimss uess Opcqatimq Expem5e& 



2,-588, 0.50 



512,267 442,676 526,-5;38 719,990 0r2,.591 846,1-55 
Figures in American currency. 





H.EKvCo. 




HtE-yCo 
A 




HE ev Co 

^ * ' 


H.E.e; Cc. 1 


— ^ — \ 









966,072 



1,151,.524 1,215,304 



l,376,;3(i3 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



25 



During the past 11 years, says the report, the annual increase in revenues on both the 
stage and rail lines has been uninterrupted. The stage line receipts began in 1903. 
The 1901 rail line revenues totalled about $600,000, contrasted with nearly $2,600,000 in 
1911. Therefore total rail and stage line receipts during the past 11 vears have increased 
from about $600,000 to nearly $::i,U(lO,0(iU. 

The operating ratio was slightly higher than in the previous year, although, as com- 
pared with 1908 and 1907, represents a lilieral saving in this respect. There has been a 
gradual improvement in per mile operations of the property for a number of years past. 

The figures from the year 190.5 for both lines follow: 
1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 

$1,806,563 $1,919,102 $2,143,122 $2,276,807 $2,488,647 $2,656,979 $2,991,501 

Average earnings per day during the last fiscal period were better than in the year 
previous and the indications are that the current year will show a very satisfactory gain 
over 1911, as December returns were the largest of the year by a substantial margin. 

Following are the average gross earnings per day during each month of the last fiscal 
period : 



Month — Av'ge per 

day 

January $7,943.66 

-FebruaVv 8,312.99 

March " 8,063.03 

April 8,109.75 

May 7,932.43 

June 8,086.55 

Julv 8,281.69 



Month — Av'ge per 

day 

August $8,197.70 

September 8,299.66 

October 8,376.61 

November 8,157.88 

December 8,595.92 



Average 



$8,195.89 



The balance sheet of the company, as of December 31st last, shows a surplus of 
$1,327,839, which is applied as follows : In redemption of consolidated mortgage bonds, 
$366,000 ; sinking fund, $84,626 and profit and loss, $876,507. Cash on hand on December 
31st amounted to nearly $1,000,000, and there was a very liberal working balance on the 
date mentioned. 




Harbor Work in Cuba.— Cuban Lighter off Isabela de Sagua, north coast of Santa Clara Province. 



26 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION 



PROFITS IN PEANUTS 

The extensive cultivation of the peanut 
may be a future agricultural industry in 
Cuba. Experiments carried out under the 
direction of the industrial department of 
the Cuba Railroad show conclusively that 
the peanut can be grown on the island 
with a good margin of profit. Some time 
ago a number of sacks of peanuts were 
shipped to Germany to ascertain the cost 
of transportation and the general condi- 
tions which the business would have to 
meet. The peanuts were of large size and 
grown for the manufacture of oil or for 
a stock feed. The German firm to which 
the peanuts were consigned answered that 
it would sign a contract to pay $54,800 
for every 1,000 tons of peanuts of the 
same class. This price is lower than that 
paid in the United States, but there the 
quantities bought are much smaller and 
the nut is used for roastim^ and eating. 
The Cuba Company calculated that the 
grower can make $20,000 clear on 1,000 
acres. Its figures are as follows : 
Cost of production of 1.000 tons. . .$20,000 

Freight and packing 10,000 

Commissions 4,800 

Total cost $34,800 

Net profit to grower $20,000 



SHEEP IN THE TROPICS 

Two strictly tropical breeds, both of 
which might prove valuable, are the Bar- 
bados and the Tunis. The former, or 
woolless sheep, are raised in the West In- 
dies. They are strictly a mutton animal, 
having no wool, the body being covered 
with coarse hair. They are hardy, produce 
an excellent quality of mutton, and are 
particularly adapted to the tropics. The 
Tunis (fat-tailed or Barbary sheep) have 
proven very successful in Africa and parts 
of South America. They produce a clip 
of good quality and their mutton is said 
to compare favorably with that of other 
breeds. 

In certain sections of tropical Australia. 
South America and Africa, where condi- 
tions are no more favorable than in the 
Philippines, sheep raising is an important 
industry. — Philippine Agricultural Review. 



Approximately, the waste of 1,000 leaves 
gives 400 liters (liter = 1.05 quarts) of 
juice, which in turn produces about 80 
liters of alcohol of 40 degrees, perfectly 
good for all uses. The improvements to 
the ordinary still for correcting the taste 
and color have been protected by patents. 



SOIL EXHAUSTION A MISTAKE 

Outside of the agricultural colleges, ex- 
periment stations and a few individual 
farmers, the general mass of farmers to- 
day is but little advanced from the farmer 
of thirty years ago on the question of 
profitably using mineral fertilizers, says the 
Milling and Engineering World. Yet the 
mineral fertilizer industry, in spite of its 
relative infancy, has already become of 
gigantic proportions. 

The fact that good crops exhaust the 
soil is pointed out by Colman's Rural 
]Vorld, which continues as follows : "There 
is much stress placed on seed selection, 
preparation of the seed bed, good cultiva- 
tion, proper drainage, etc., all important 
factors in producing good crops, and crop 
rotation is given due consideration both 
by writers on farm topics and by progress- 
ive farmers, but few stop to consider that 
these are all helping to exhaust the soil 
by making heavy drafts on the plant food 
in it, and each in its way, though a great 
help to the farmer, yet surely helps in his 
undoing if he does not do his part, which 
is neither more nor less than to faithfully 
put back into the soil each season some of 
the plant food which has been removed 
by the growing crops." 

It is generally understood that all 
manures or fertilizers are valuable for the 
nitrogen, potash or phosphoric acid they 
contain. Though other substances are 
needed for plant growth, they are almost 
always present in the soil in sufficient 
quantities. Lime might be an exception, 
although its use is largely to improve the 
mechanical condition of the soil and cure 
it of sourness. Lime also aids in rotting 
the vegetable matter. Other agricultural 
experts have no hesitancy, however, in say- 
ing that there is no way to tell, without ex- 
periment, what food constituents a soil lacks. 
In order to ascertain with certainty what 
food elements are lacking, the surest way 
is for the farmer to do some experimenting 
on his own soil and crops, applying differ- 
ent kinds of fertilizing materials in differ- 
ent combinations. For example, using 
potash compounds in one place, phosphoric 
compounds in another, nitrogenous mate- 
rials in another, etc., and leaving portions 
of the field without fertilizer of any kind, 
so that the result may be easily seen in 
the contrast of the yield. 

It is a well known fact that different 
crops need different quantities of nitrogen, 
potash and phosphoric acid compounds. 
In making fertilizer mixtures, it was first 
proposed to make the ingredients cor- 
respond to the analysis of the plant. This 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



method was practiced for some time, but 
it was found that there was already in 
the soil more or less available plant food. 
It was then suggested that soil analysis 
should form tlie basis of determining the 
needs of the soil for different crops, but 
this failed to produce satisfactory results. 
The formulas at present used by many 
have been based, in part upon the com- 
position of the plant, and in part upon 
actual field tests. 

Information as to the fertilizers best 
suited to special conditions of soil or to 
special crops, can be obtained from manu- 
facturers of commercial fertilizers, who 
have compiled a fund of information on 
the subject from the results obtained at 
experiment stations and from other sources. 



MOLASSES AS FUEL 

A letter in the Modern Sugar Planter, 
New Orleans, La., calls attention to the 
great feed value of black strap molasses, 
also to its remarkable cheapness. The let- 
ter says : "Persons who have made feeding 
of animals a study claim that the value of 
black strap molasses and corn are about 
the same. We have been using molasses 
for several years, and it is ideal feed, 
keeps the animal in splendid condition, and 
when used in conjunction with ground 
grain almost entirely eHminates colic. 

"In addition to the above consideration, 
should the consumption of molasses be 
greatly increased, there is no doubt that 
it will help to give an enhanced value to 
vour cane." 



HONEY IN COOKING 

I do not like sweet things — never touch 
sugar and do not like honey. I have to 
live at a small apiary away from home, 
sometimes three days out of a week, cook- 
ing on a small oil stove. Little by little 
I found that adding a little honey to any 
kind of food, just enough to make it 
smooth, but not in the least sweet, did not 
in the least disagree with me, and also made 
the food more pleasant. An old camp cook 
(and a camp cook has to be a cook) came 
to me for some honey. This being an 
off part of the season I had only some 
that had been heated, and told him so. 
He did not care — wanted it for cooking 
only — never ate honey. Then seeing I 
knew all about it he told me his experience, 
hitherto with him a secret. He said he 
would not boil Dotatoes nor cook a stew 
nor bake bread, nor even make tea or 
coffee, without honey, but in quantities so 
small as not to allow the sweet to come 
out, as it were. He said that often people 
asked him what made the food prepared 
by him taste so smooth and so rich. — 
Gleanings in Bee Culture. 



CUBA S SEA-ISLAND COTTON 

[From Deputy Consul General Henry P. Starrett, 
Habana] 

The Artemisa Tobacco Co., at Artemisa, 
Pinar del Rio Province, has for the past 
three years been carrying on a series of 
experiments in the culture of sea-island 
cotton. The chief desire was to demon- 
strate whether or not cotton grown in 
Cuba under certain conditions of culture 
and planted during the fall months would 
be troubled with the boll weevil. 

The first crop was planted in September, 
three years ago, the acreage being very 
small, and selected sea-island cotton seed 
from Florida was used. Xo boll weevil 
appeared and a good crop of cotton was 
obtained. After the crop was gathered 
every particle of trash from the plant was 
burned. The second year produced equally 
good results : and this, the third year, has 
so far proved that cotton planted here in 
September will escape the ravages of the 
boll weevil, provided that care is taken that 
the insect is not imported into the field and 
that all trash is burned directly after the 
crop is gathered. The writer has seen 
a sample of this year's production, and it 
seems to be of high grade and of excep- 
tional length. 

This matter is of great importance to 
Cuba, as there are many localities in the 
island where labor conditions are right, 
which are very well adapted to the ex- 
tensive raising of cotton of the long-staple 
varietv. 




Irrigation as practiced in Florida orange groves. 



GILTNERBROS.,Emineiice,Ky.,U.S.A. 




and breeders of 
Stallions, Mares 



Dealers 
Kexitucky 
and Jacks 

Hereford, Shorthorn, Hol- 

stein and Jersey bulls. Well 

broken mules in car lots for 

5ugar planters. 

Export Trade a Specialty. 

Prices named on animals 

fa delivered anywhere in the 

' world. Write its \oiir wants. 



28 THECUBAREVIEW 

COST OF A SUGAR ESTATE IN CUBA 

[Report of United States Deputy Consul General H. P. Starrett, Havana] 



PRODUCTION COSTS AND PROFITS AMERICAN CAPITAL IN SUGAR 

MILLS NOW $54,000,000 EASTERN PROVINCES TO DEVELOP 

The treaty of reciprocity between the United States and the RepubHc of Cuba, which 
was negotiated in 1903, allowed a preference of 20 per cent in the duty of Cuban sugar 
entering the United States. Since that date Cuba has entered upon a period of de- 
velopinent that has exceeded the predictions of the most optimistic. Vast new areas 
of land have been brought under cultivation, new mills have been erected, old mills 
have been remodeled and improved, and projects are on foot for many additional mills 
to be built in the near future. So great has been this recent development that it can 
safely be said that if the present activity continues, Cuba will be in a fair way of 
becoming the largest producer of sugar in the world. 

The relations between Cuba and the United States have been so close during the last 
few years that it is interesting to observe to just what extent American capital has 
invested in the Cuban sugar industry. A careful estimate of this investment in mills, 
lands, railroads and other equipment devoted exclusively to the industry, but not in- 
cluding mortgages, gives a total of $54,000,000. In this estimate, however, are included 
a few companies which were organized in the United States and hold charters granted 
by different States, but whose stock is owned by persons other than Americans. Their 
investment amounts to a very small percentage of the whole. The distribution of this 
total investment through the different provinces of the island is as follows : Pinar del 
Rio, $750,000: Habana, $.3,000,000; Matanzas, $5,750,000; Santa Clara, $14,500,000; Ca- 
maguey, $4,700,000 and in Oriente, $25,300,000. 

Sugar in western Cuba has about reached the law of diminishing returns in agriculture, 
but the prediction is that eastern Cuba — Santa Clara, Camaguey and Oriente Provinces — 
will continue to develop and expand. 

The impetus given the industry by the recent high prices and the favorable outlook 
for a continuance of at least a very remunerative price in the future has drawn the 
attention of many American capitalists to the profits in this field of endeavor. In view 
of this interest it would seem that a brief description of the methods of culture and 
the cost of production, together with an estimate as to the cost of establishing a com- 
plete sugar estate in Cuba, might be of assistance. With this object in view the 
writer has collected, from planters, engineers and investors in the industry, data bearing 
on the cost of production and the profits to be expected. It must be stated, however, 
that these figures are only approximate and many factors tend to make them vary, 
such as the location of the plant, price of labor, and whether European or American 
machinery is used, but the endeavor has been to be very conservative in the estimate 
as a whole. 

The two most important items to be considered are the fertility and adaptability of 
the land and the transportation facilities. The ideal location is on or near a good 
harbor, with the mill's own railroad to carry the cane. 

Let us take as a basis a sugar estate which will produce 100,000 bags of sugar of 320 
pounds each per annum. The amount of land for all purposes — fields, roadways, pas- 
tures, timber tracts, sites, etc. — should be about 20,000 acres, and good land of this 
character would cost $6 to $10 per acre, according to fertility of the soil and nearness 
to transportation facilities. The total first investment for such an estate would be about 
as follows : 

20,000 acres of land, at $10 $200,000 

Clearing and planting 5,000 acres, at $50 250,000 

Oxen and carts 60,000 

Railroad and equipment 260,000 

Wharf 40,000 

Sugar mill and house 800,000 

Office, store, dwellings, hospital and barracks 40,000 

Working capital 50,000 

Total $1,700,000 

Two general systems of growing the cane are in vogue in Cuba — the "colono" system 
and the "administration" system. The first contemplates the ownership of the land 



THECUBAREVIEW 29 

and equipment by the mill, money being advanced to "colonos" or tenants to grow, cut, 
and deliver the cane to the company's railroad, a percentage of the sugar extraction 
being returned to the tenant in payment for his work. In many instances the "colono" 
owns his land and equipment, and in such cases the basis of settlement is different 
only in that the percentage returned to him is larger. These percentages vary ac- 
cording to locality and the number of mills competing for the cane, but it probably 
averages about 5 per cent of the cane actually delivered to the mill or the company's 
railroad. That is, for every 100 arrobas ( arroba = 2.5.3664 pounds) of cane delivered 
to the mill the colono receives J arrobas of sugar or the market price for the same. 

The second method, that of "administration," is one in which the company owns the 
land and either does the whole work through its own employees or lets the different 
branches of the work out to contractors who perform the work under the supervision 
of the company's representatives. One class of contractors cleans the cane rows, another 
cuts and loads the cane on the cars, etc. This seems to be the preferred method, and 
this is the one upon which the figures of this report are based. 

In Oriente Province the average cost by contract of clearing land, fencing, making 
roadways, plowing, planting and cultivating cane to maturity (12 to 14 months from 
planting) is $50 an acre. The cane once planted in new and what is considered good 
sugar land will produce an average crop of 30 tons per acre per annum for a period 
of 10 years, after which time it would have to be replanted; and the cost of cultivation 
per year would be about $15 per acre. 

Taking these general figures as a basis, it would be necessary to plant the first year 
5.000 acres of cane, which at an average of 30 tons per acre, would produce 150,000 tons 
of cane per annum. Allowing a "rendimiento" or sugar extraction from the cane of 
10 per cent, would give a production of 96° raw sugar of 15,000 long tons, or 13,600,000 
pounds in all. The average net price for Cuban raws f. o. b. Cuba for the past 10 years. 
but not including the high prices of 1911 and 1912, was 2.25 cents per pound. It must 
be stated here, however, that the high prices of 1911 and the favorable outlook as to 
future prices will considerably raise this average. This production of raw sugar would 
give approximately 1,000.000 gallons of molasses, and the price for which this could 
be sold would be about 3Vi; cents per gallon f. o. b. Cuba. Thus the following statement 
shows the gross annual income to be : 

33,600,000 pounds 96° raw sugar, at 2^/4 cents $756,000 

1,000.000 gallons molasses, at 3 V2 cents 35,000 

Total income $791,000 

In such a mill located near the coast, with no railroad freight to pay on its product 
and with efficient management, it is safe to say that the cost of producing this amount 
of sugar, including cultivation, harvesting, transporting the cane to the mill, railroad 
operation, mill operation, administration, maintenance, depreciation, insurance, taxes and 
all other operating expenses, would not exceed $550,000. or at the rate of 1.6 cents 
per pound. The difference between the gross income and the total annual cost would 
therefore be $241,000. or slightly in excess of 14 per cent on the investment of $1,700,000. 

This, as has been stated above, is a very conservative estimate of the costs and 
profits obtained from the operation of a modern sugar mill under favorable conditions 
in Cuba, as the figures for the total investment and those showing the cost of production 
are probably higher than they would be under skillful management, while the price 
received for the products would undoubtedly average slightly higher than the figure 
given. For instance, if such a mill had sold its product for the high prices which 
obtained during the latter part of 1911, it would have produced a gross income of over 
$1,400,000, or more than SO per cent on the whole amount invested in the plant. Careful 
students of the industry claim that on the basis of a period of, say, 10 years, there is 
no reason why a mill' properly located and managed should not produce an average 
net income of 15 to 20 per cent on the actual investment. 

There are in the island at the present time 173 active mills, of which 34 are wholly 
.\merican owned and 2 partlv controlled by American capital. .Another interesting 
fact is that American-owned m'ills produce nearly 35 per cent of the total sugar output 
of Cuba In Pinar de Rio thev produce over 22 per cent: in Habana. 15 per cent: in 
Matanzas. 14 per cent: in Santa Clara. 26 per cent; in Camaguey. 58 per cent: and 
in Oriente more than 70 per cent. From this statement it can readily be seen that in 
the provinces of Camaguey and Oriente the sugar output was largely from American 
mills, and, on account of the American mills now building and bemg planned in those 
provinces, these percentages will be increased still further within the next two years. 

A dividend of 1 per cent on the preferred stock of the Xipe Bay Co. has been declared 
payable July 15th at the office of the treasurer, Boston, Mass., to holders of stock of 
record at close of business June 25th. 



30 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



SUGAR CROP NOTES 



Central "Aguedita," at Los Arabos, Ma- 
tanzas Province, finished grinding on May 
25th, with a total of 38,000 bags. Last 
year its output was 23,919. 

The "Feliz" mill at Bolondron, Matanzas 
Province, finished on the same day with 
119,000 sacks to its creidt. Last year, 
64,054. 

Central '"Jobo" at San Nicolas, Havana 
Province, has 88,000 sacks from the present 
crop. Last year, 41,111. 

In Oriente Province, Central "Palmarito" 
has finished grinding with only 19,000 sacks 
when it had counted on 40,000. It had 
6,730 bags last year. 

Central San Antonio at Madruga, Ha- 
vana Province, has 120,000 bags to show 
for its season's work. Last year's crop, 
56,520 bags. 

Central "Loteria" at Jaruco, Havana 
Province, Cuban ownership, has finished 
grinding with 28,000 bags as the total of 
its output. Its estimate earlier in the sea- 
son was for 25,000 bags. Last year its out- 
put was almost the same. 

The mill of the Washington Sugar Co. 
at Hatuey, Santa Clara Province, finished 
with 93,975 sacks as compared with 70,798 
last year. 

Central Toledo in Marianao, Havana 
Province, finished grinding on May 30th 
with 110,000 sacks. Last year the yield 
was 36,257 bags. The estimated yield for 
this crop made in February last was 90,000 
bags. 

The yield of the "San Manuel" estate, 
Oriente Province for this year's crop was 
61,000 bags. 

The "Cuba" central in Pedro Betancourt, 
Matanzas Province, finished grinding on 
June 1st with 177,000 bags. Its earher 
estimate was for 170,000 bags. Last year's 
output was 103,358 bags. 

June 5th, the central "Nueva Paz" at 
Los Palos, Havana Province, finished 
grinding with over 91,000 bags to its credit, 
exceeding considerably its earlier estimate, 
which was for 70,000. Last year the mill's 
yield was 48, 269 bags. 

"Parque Alto" central in Santa Clara 
Province produced this season 7."., 000 bags, 
which is a record for this mill, and the 
largest crop it has yet made. The mill 
began grinding January 6th and finished 
on May 13th. Last year's output was 
66,709 bags. 



On May 19th, the central "Portugalete" 
at Palmira, Santa Clara, finished its season 
with 93,000 bags. Its estimate was for 
90,000. 

Central "Constancia" in Santa Clara 
Province finished grinding May 19th with 
116,000 bags to its credit as this season's 
output. Last year its yield was 81,232 
bags. 

"Lequeitio" central at Cartagena, Santa 
Clara Province, finished grinding, and its 
output was 109,000 bags. If the weather 
had been favorable, the mill would have 
ground some 16,000,000 arrobas and made 
135,000 bags, but continual rains forced a 
shutdown. 

May 21st the "Conchita" central in 
Matanzas Province closed its season with 
250,000 bags, which is somewhat in excess 
of its expectations. 

Because of the heavy rains the central 
"Mercedita" at Melena del Sur, Havana 
Province, finished grinding June 6th with 
174,000 bags. Its anticipations were for 
140,000 bags. Last year it ground 110,000 
bags. 

Central "Toledo" at Marianao, Havana 
Province, has 110,000 bags to its credit for 
this year's crop. For the last three years 
the output of this mill has been in the 
neighborhood of 35,000 bags, but new 
management and machinery have made a 
great improvement in its capacity. 

On June 1, 1910, 20 estates were grinding. 

On May 31, 1911, 13 were working, and 
on the same date in 1912, 67 sugar mills 
were in operation. 

Central "Amistad" at Guines, Matanzas 
Province, ceased grinding early in June 
with 187,350 bags as its output. Last year 
its total was 101,421 bags. Its estimate early 
in February was for 140,000 bags. 



THE MANATI SUGAR COMPANY 

On June 1st in Havana, says La Lucha, 
the necessary papers were signed trans- 
ferring to the Manati Sugar Co. 2,143 
caballerias of land, on which the company 
will build a sugar mill. 

The capital of the new company is stated 
as $2,000,000, one-third of which has been 
subscribed by Cubans and the remainder 
by Americans. The names figuring in the 
new enterprise are those of the Marquis 
de San Miguel de Aguayo, Regino Truffin, 
Jose H. Beola, Manuel R. Augulo and 
Francisco Pons. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 3t 



THE CARE OF LEATHER BELTING 



BELTING RUINED THROUGH MISUSE TO AN ENORMOUS EXTENT — - 
ATTENTION AND CARE EXCEEDINGLY PROFITABLE 

An interesting article on the use and care of leather belting is contributed to the' 
current issue of the Southern Eng'uicer by Fred B. May. He finds that the amount of 
belting ruined through misuse and carelessness in not securing the proper kind of belt" 
for a particular service is enormous. It is not watched and cared for as a piece of 
machinery which constantly receives the attention necessary to keep it in good running 
condition, but is apparently forgotten. Every pound of belting which is in operation 
costs the owner about $1.00 per poimd and as there are thousands of pounds of belting 
in use it would certainly be profitable to give some attention to the preservation of 
such high priced material. "In many establishments," says Mr. May, "the upkeep of the 
belting is left to the engineer and again to the millwright." He strongly advises the' 
employment of a competent man just to care for the belting, as it would lessen the' 
amount used every year and better results would be obtained in the transmission of 
power. He cites the case of a wood working plant in Michigan which pays a man 
$20.00 per week to keep all the belting in proper condition. Under this arrangement 
they buy less belting each year than other concerns who have less machinery. He says :- 

"If a belt breaks while a machine is in operation, the belt man at once puts on af 
new one and the time lost is that merely required to make the change. If there is- 
any good left in the belt he puts it in first class condition and after the machinery 
is shut down he puts the repaired belt on the machine and takes off the new belt an<i 
tags it for that machine. It is not brought into use again until the old belt breaks- 
or is worn out. It does not necessarily follow that they have a new duplicate 
belt for every machine, as he finds by overhauling several different belts at different 
times that some are good and some bad. The good belts are worked up into certairt 
lengths of serviceable belting and this is utilized in replacing broken belts. It is said 
that this company loses less time in their machine room than any other concern of 
its kind." 

In selecting a leather belt, the size of the pulley over which it is to run, and the" 
load it is to pull should receive much consideration. On this subject Mr. May says: 

"It is not always necessary to have a light belt run over small pulleys. Users of 
leather belting often make the mistake of using light belts on pulleys on which they 
could easily run a heavier belt. We often hear a user say that he wishes a light belt, 
as it is to run over a 16-inch or 12-inch pulley. If the small pulley is not less than 12 
inches in diameter and the speed fairly high, it is advisable to use a medium weight 
belt, provided it is kept pliable. The wearing qualities are greater and it will probably 
give several years more service than a light belt would give. 

"We also find heavy belting where a medium light belt should have been put on, and 
if this belt were made from very firm leather and does not happen to be perfectly 
balanced, it will soon whip itself to pieces. A careful selection of belt for each machine 
means a great deal to every user of leather belting in the matter of expense of operation. 
The usefulness of a large amount of belting is shortened by not giving it the right 
attention at the proper time. By this I mean that ofttimes a belt is allowed to run 
slack, so that it slips and burns. This may not be noticeable to a great extent, par- 
ticularly if the belt slips a little now and then, but when the grain of the leather 
becomes slightly burned the adhesive or pulling qualities are greatly lessened. If the 
belt were shortened an inch, or whatever amount that be needed to give the proper 
running tension, it would not only save the belt, but it would also increase the producmg 
power of the machine. Even slight slipping costs manufacturers thousands of dollars 
every year. 

"Many persons use a belt dressing, instead of shortening a belt. This may keep the 
belt from sHpping for the time being, as the dressing in most cases is of a sticky, 
gummy nature, but ingredients in this kind of dressing are not only injurious to the 
leather and in time rot the fiber, but they also form a coating on the leather which 
prevents the leather from coming in contact with the surface of the pulley. It also 
gathers dust and dirt, and a thin coat of guminv, dirty substance will accumulate on 
the belt. A leather belt which is kept at the proper tension and perfectly clean will 
outwear two belts when used in the manner mentioned. 

"When a leather belt is used in a very dry room the leather becomes dry, the 
atmosphere graduallv taking from the leather the natural oils, which are used in tanning 
and stuffing of the leather. To relieve this condition, many users employ neatsfoot oil. 1 his 
is not advisable for the reason that neatsfoot oil will gather dust to a certain extent and 



32 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



will injure the adhesive qualities of the leather. The best stuffing for a dry leather 
belt is pure fish oil, which is used largely in the tanning of the leather and is the 
principal stuffer. By using fish oil it will not only restore the natural oil required to 
strengthen the fiber of the leather, but it will also penetrate the leather in such a way 
that no dust or dirt will accumulate to lessen the pulling qualities of the b?lt. A little 
of this oil used on belting greatly increases its durability. 

''The proper use of a little belt cement will also increase the life of belting. A lap 
on a belt may open a little at the edges or at the points, and where no attention is paid 
to it it becomes worse with the operation of the belt. When laps reach such a condition 
that the operator is afraid to use the belt it is thrown aside and a new one put on, 
whereas the use of a little belt cement would have prolonged the life of the belt a 
great deal. 

"Where slight breaks or defects are discovered during working hours, causing a 
shut down, and in order not to delay the operation of the machinery, a belt will be 
filled with rivets, shoe nails or tacks. This is merely a temporary repair, but if it 
holds, the belt is sometimes allowed to run in this condition until further defects are 
discovered. It would take no more time to use belt cement and eliminate the rivets 
or tacks, and it certainly would leave the belt in much better condition. Many good 
leather belts are spoiled by just such careless work, particularly in sawmills. I have 
found leather belts which, if properly repaired would have lasted for years, but by the 
use of rivets or nails, the life was cut down to less than one-half of what it should 
have been." 



Extending 

the Malecon 



The bill providing for the 
extension of the Malecon in 
Havana became a law on 
June sth, President Gomez 

having affixed his signature on that date. 

The improvement will continue this famous 



and beautiful driveway along the gulf 
front to the Almendares River and costs in 
the neighborhood of $1,00().000. The bill 
has been before Congress over a year and 
was held up to eliminate some objectionable 
clauses. 




Interior of a rugar mill, r.hovving the belting requirements for running the centrifugals, conveyors, 
hoisting machines, etc. See article on the "Care of Leather Belting" on preceding page. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



33 



SUGAR CROP CONDITIONS 

[From United States Deputy Consul General 
Henry P. Starrett, May 14th] 

The outlook for a large crop of sugar 
cane for the present season is very good, 
especially if the present dry weather con- 
ditions are maintained for a few weeks 
longer. The extremely favorable weather 
of the past two months is responsible for 
the continued grinding and consequent 
larger output of sugar. Up to the present 
there has been a total production of 
1,487,081 tons of sugar with 150 mills still 
grinding. Last season at this time there 
was a total production of 1,302,552 tons 
with only 37 mills grinding. In view of 
these figures and reasonable weather it 
would seem that Cuba's output of sugar 
for this season should easily reach 1,750,- 
600 tons. [Weather conditions in Cuba 
up to June 3d have continued favorable. — 
Editor Cuba Review.! 



CUBA CROP ESTIMATE 

Up to the week ending June 11th, total 
receipts of sugar totalled 1,708,604 tons as 
compared with 1,373,478 tons in 1911, and 
1,652,814 tons in 1912, when the entire crop 
exceeded 1,800,000 tons. Up to Alay 31st 
there were 28 centrals grinding as against 
9 in 1910 for the same period. Willett & 
Gray accordingly increase their original 
estimate of 1,800,000 tons to 1,850,000 and 
expect a further slight increase if condi- 
tions continue favorable. 



Enrique Pujals, manager of the electric 
light plant at Batabano, has been authorized 
l)y the national government to establish a 
telephone Hne between his plant and the 
town. Presidential permission is a very 
necessary provision in Cuba as three Amer- 
icans found to their sorrow when they 
were sent to jail on the Isle of Pines be- 
cause they neglected to obtain this per- 
mission and put up a private line of their 
own. 



CANAL THROUGH CUBA 

A $90,000,000 trans-Cuban canal for 
shortening the distance between Atlantic 
ports of the United States and Panama, 
is being considered by certain engineers 
and promoters in Cuba, reports the Amer- 
ican minister at Havana. The necessary 
bonds are to be floated in Havana and the 
enterprise kept an entirely Cuban matter. 

According to reports published, it is 
planned that a sea-level canal shall be built 
from Cardenas on the north to the Bahia 
de los Cochinos on the south coast, of the 
same width and depth as that traversing 
the Isthmus of Panama. The canal would 
cross one of the widest parts of the island, 
but the formation of the country is said to 
be such as to more than compensate for 
the increased distance over other possible 
routes. 

Among those interested in the enterprise 
are Joaquin Chalons, tintil recently secre- 
tary of public works : Louis G. Estefani ; 
and Dr. Carrera Justiz. 

Lockjaw is one of the greatest dangers 
of the Cuban soldiers in the field against 
the negroes because the slightest scratch 
oftentimes results in that disease. 



The number of French citizens who 
have made claims of damages since the 
uprising of the negroes started has de- 
veloped that there are quite a few French 
subjects scattered about Cuba. The total 
number is said bj- the government to be 
2,840 of both sexes. Of this number 1,430 
are in Oriente Province. 

On account of the rapid growth of Xipe 
Bay as a port of entry, the Cuban govern- 
ment has decided to build an immigrant 
station and other buildings necessary for 
a port of such importance. The station 
will be built at Ca\-o San Juan Vicente. 
The contract for the buildings has been 
let for $129.911. .50. 



METAL AGUILA BABBITT 



EL METAL BAB- 
BITT "AGITLA" es 
iin metal antifric- 
tion esnieradanientc 
rundide y de larga 
(iiiracion. Es has- 
tante rigido y tenaz 
para dar resultados 
satipfactorios hajo 
la mayor presion y 




grande 



a la nuis 
vclofidad. 

Lo recomendamos 
cspecialmcntc para 
maquinaria de moler 
cana do aziicar. 



Prec'io, 15 cts. la 
libra. 



HOYT METAL COMPANY - - NUEVA YORK 



34 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



SUGAR REVIEW 

Specially Written for The Cuba Review by Willett & Gray, of New York 



Our last review for this magazine was dated May 13. 1912. 

All that time the quotation for centrifugals was 3.92c. per lb., 96 test duty paid and is 
still the same with only trifling changes in the meantime. 

European markets for beet sugar have fluctuated from 12s. iVtid. (4.62c.) to 12s. 6d. to 
lis. 11 %d. to 12s. %d., lis. llVid. to 12s. 3%d. to lis. T^d. to 12s. %d. to lis. 9d. to 
lis. 10 %d. at the close. 

These small fluctuations indicate a comparatively steady market at home and abroad 
with no special disturbing incidents of importance. 

The most notable feature calling for attention is the negro insurrection now going on 
in the Island of Cuba, in its influence on the sugar situation. 

There is little doubt but that its existence has caused our sugar market to be less strong" 
in tone and tendency than it would otherwise have been. 

Naturally there is more disposition to sell sugar out of the Island for its safety, of 
which circumstance buyers are sure to take advantage. The crop is practically all made 
so that the insurrection cannot materially curtail its size. In view of the large increase 
of production in Cuba to date over the big crop year 1910, we have increased our estimate 
of the present crop of Cuba to 1,850,000 tons. 

Advices just received increase the estimate of Porto Rico crop to 320,000 tons. 

As regards tariff legislation nothing has been accomplished thus far and the Senate has 
postponed action until after the two Presidential Conventions have been held. The Re- 
publican Convention for the nomination for President of the United States begins next 
Tuesday at Chicago, and the Democratic Convention follows right after at Baltimore, Md. 

European crop reports continue favorable in all countries and it is becoming evident 
that sugar supplies over there are to be sufficient for the requirements for consumption 
up to the next crop w-ithout calling upon Cuba for further supplies. 

As regards supplies for the United States for balance of year, we have just completed 
an estimate which we incorporate in this review^ as follows: 

At this time of the year it is interesting to estimate the available supplies and the 
probable requirements for meltings to December 31st next, after which date the next 




Andreita Sugar Mill, Santa Clara Province. Cuhan-Spanish ownership. Ovitput averages 

130.000 bags annually. 

Inqcnio de azticar Andreita. en la Prozincia de Santa Clara. Es propiedad espauola. La pro- 
d'lccion aniial axricndn A 1.^0,000 sacos de asi'icar por termino medio. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Cuba crop may be expected to furnish what is needed. We give below such an esti i:r.';\ 
covering the movement through the Atlantic Four Ports and New Orleans, based on an 
outturn in Cuba of 1,850,000 tons, and allowing for liberal meltings. There is a pos- 
sibility that some Cubas now held in Europe may be re-shipped to the United States. 

It is taken for granted that the sugars now held in stock and practically all of the 
balance of available privileged sugars will be obtainable before the end of September at 
satisfactory prices. 

Last year the total receipts from Java during August-December were 138,470 tons and 
from Europe (all in November) were 2,903 tons. In 1910 the receipts from Java were 
90,579 tons. 

None of the required Java and/or Beet sugars have yet been reported purchased : 

Tons 

Total stock at U. S. Four Ports and New Orleans, June 12, 1912 234,000 

Total stock in Island of Cuba, June 12, 1912 520,000 

Balance production of Cuba, less local consumption 105,000 

Balance supply from Porto Rico 95,000 

Receipts from Hawaii from date to September 1 85,000 

Receipts from Philippines from date to September 1 40,000 

Receipts from San Domingo, Peru, etc., from date to September 1 5,000 

Estimated total supply from date to September 1, 1912 1,084,000 

Estimated melting from date to September 1, 1912 700,000 

Estimated balance of supply, September 1, 1912 384,000 

Additional Supply available in September : 

From Hawaii 30,000 

From Philippines 30,000 60,000 

Estimated supply in month oi September 444,000 

Less estimated meltings in month of September 250,000 

Estimated stock, October 1, 1912 194,000 

Estimated receipts Louisiana crop at New Orleans Oct. -Dec 200,000 

Estimated receipts from Hawaii and Phillippines at Four Ports Oct. -Dec. 55,000 
Estimated receipts from Demerara, Peru, etc., at Four Ports Oct.-Dec... 15,000 270,000 

Estimated supply from regular sources, Oct.-Dec 464,000 

Estimated meltings, Oct.-Dec 450.000 

Estimated carrying stock, December 31, 1912 89,000 539,000 

Estimated requirements Javas and/or Beet, or Cubas re-shipped from Europe 

Oct.-Dec 75.000 

Refined sugar is in fair demand only in the United States and the buying is mostly on 
the hand to mouth basis. The quotation for fine granulated is now 5.10c. less 2 per cent 
by most refiners. 

We see little change ahead in values of raws or refined for balance of the crop season. 



Las Valvulas de Lytton para Vacuos 

pueden aplicarse a cualquicr 
aparato al vacio que se 
conozca. Son iisadas por la 
Detroit Edison Illuminating 
^^^^___^^^^^^^ Co., Delrey, Mich., para evilar 

gf*^^'^_L| \£/jfi ll!!^^^^^^^^^B_ el escape de un vacuo de 

29 Vi pulgs. 

LYTTON MT'G CORPORATION ^^;:z:z::Xf^^^^ 

OFICINA EN CUBA: J. Hernam)i;z Hab.vna, Ciha 




36 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



REVISTA AZUCARERA 

Escrita expresameiite para la Cuba Review por Willett & Gray, de Nueva York 



Nuestra ultima revista para esta piihlicacion estaba fechada el 13 de mayo de 1912. En 
aquella fccha las cotizaciones del azucar ceiitrifugo polarizacion 96° eran 3.92 cents, la 
libra derechos pagados, y continuan aun al mismo precio, con algunos li-geros cambios 
en el entretanto. 

Las cotizaciones del azucar de remolacha en los mercados europeos ban iluctuado desde 
12s. i^iid. (4.62 cents.) a 12s. 6d., a lis. U%d.. a 12s. %d., a lis. lli/id.. a 12s. 374d., 
a lis. T^i'd.. a 12s. %d., a lis. 9d., a lis. 10 ^-jd. al cerrarse el mercado. 

Estas pequenas fluctuaciones indican un mercado comparativamente estable en el pais 
y en el extranjero, sin incidentes especiales de importancia perturbadores. 

El acontecimiento mas notable que llame la atencion es la insurreccion de la gente de 
color que al presente tiene lugar en la Isla de Cuba, por la influencia que pueda tener en 
la cuestion del azucar. 

No cabe duda que dicba insurreccion ha sido causa de que el tono y la tendencia de 
nuestro mercado azucarero sea menos fuerte de lo que hubiera sido en ordinarias cir- 
cunstancias. 

Naturalmente, hay mas empeno en vender el azucar de la Tsla para su seguridad, de 
cuya circunstancia no cabe duda que los compradores sabran aprovecharse. La zafra 
esta toda hecha practicamente, asi es que la insurreccion no puede matcrialmente reducir 
la cantidad. En vista del grande aumento de produccion en Cuba hasta la fecha sobre 
la grande cosecha del ano 1910, hemos anumentado nuestro calculo de la presente cosecha 
en Cuba a 1,850,000 toneladas. 

Acaban de recibirse noticias que aumentan el calculo de la cosecha de azucar de Puerto 
Rico a 320,000 toneladas. 

Respecto a la legislacion del Arancel hasta ahora no se ha llevado a cabo cosa alguna, 
y el Senado ha postergado los debates hasta despues que hayan tenido lugar las dos Con- 
venciones Presidenciales. La Convencion Republicana encargada de nombrar el futuro 
Presidente de los Estados Unidos empezara el proximo martes en Chicago, y la Con- 
vencion Democratica tendra lugar mismamente despues en la ciudad de Baltimore. 

Los informes de la cosecha europea continuan favorables en todos los paises, y es 
evidente que las existencias de azucar allende los mares seran suticientes para los re- 
querimientos del consumo hasta la proxima cosecha. sin necesidad de recurrir a Cuba para 
mayores existencias. 

El azci'icar refinado obtiene buena demanda solamente en los Estados Unidos, y las 
compras son en su mayor parte bajo la base mas apremiante. La cotizacion del azucar 
fino granulado es ahora 5.10 cents, menos 2 por ciento la mayoria de los refinadores. 

Vemos en perspectiva poco cambio en los precios de los azucares crudos 6 retinados 
para el resto de, la estacion cosechera. 

Nueva York, junio 13 de 1912. 




Zarraga's sugar warehouse, Caibarien. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



CATLE ADDRESS: Turnure 



NEW YORK 
64-66 Wall Street 



LAWRENCE TURNURE & CO. 

BANKERS 

Deposits and Accounts Current. Deposits of Securities, we taking cliarge of Collection and Remittance 
of Dividends and Interest. ^ Purchate and Sale of Public and Industrial Securities. Purchase and Sale 
of Letters of Exchange. Collection of Drafts, Coupons, etc., for account of others. Drafts, Payments 
by Cable and Letters of Credit on Havana and other cities of Cuba; also on England, France, Spain, 
Mexico, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, Central and South America. 



CORRESPONDENTS: 



HAVANA— N. Gei.ats y Ca. 
MENICO Banco Ce.\tral Mexicano. 



LONDON— The London Joint Stock Bank. Ltd. 
PARIS— Heine et Cie. 




Bombas de Marsh 

Del mas alto grado 
de eficacia para el 
servicio de Ingenios. 



Bomba de Vacio Seco de Marsh 



Garantizamos menor 
consumo de vapor que 
cualquier otro fabri- 
cante de bombas de 
accion directa. 
Pidase un catalogo. 

AMERICAN STEAM PUMP CO. 

BATTLE CREEK, MICH. 



SUGAR TESTING APPARATUS 



FUNDADA EN 1851 




POLARlstOPK) SOPRL "J.OLKsl \ li\ 1 \ I oKM \ M \^ M(»i)l K\ \ 
Con caja a prueba de polvo, parte de prisma, y engranaje prolongado. 



Hace una esjieciali- 

dad de surtir 
Todos tos Instru- 
mentos para la 
Prueba de Aziicar 
y Habilitacion de 
Laboratorio. 
Unicos Agentes en 
los Estados Unidos 
y Canada i)ara los 

STANDARD 

POLARISCOPIOS 

Su triple 6 doble 
campo de vision ha 
sido adoptado per 
el (iobierno de los 
Estados I'nidos co- 
mo norma. 

Toda la maqnina- 
ria experimental y 
los aparatos descri- 
tos en ((.\gricultural 
Analysis.)) del Prof. 
II. \V. Wiley. Se 
siuninistran con 

gustos todos los in- 
formes pedidos. 

Pidanse Listas de 



EIMER & AMEND, 205=211 Third Avenue, New Yorkp,^^^;;^/,;/,^;^.: 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



38 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HAVANA 



CUBA 

National Bank of Cuba 

Government Depositary 

CAPITAL, SURPLUS AND 
UNDIVIDED PROFITS 

$6,250,000.00 



Head Office — Havana 

20 BRANCHES IN CUBA 

N eXD York Agency 
1 WALL STREET 



COLLECTIONS 



THE 



TRUST COMPANY OF CUBA 

HAVANA 



CAPITAL mm* 
SURPLUS 



$605,000 

TRANSACTS A 

GENERAL TRUST AND 
BANKING BUSINESS 

REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENT 



EXAMINES TITLES 
NEGOTIATES LOANS 



COLLECTS RENTS 
ON M0RT6AGE8 



Correspondence Solicited from 
Intending Inyestors 



OFFICERS 

Norman H. Davis President 

Oswald A. Hornsby - - - . Vice-President 
Claudio G. Mendoza - - - Vice-President 

J. M. Hopgood Treasurer 

Rogelio Carbajal Secretary 

W. M. Whitner - - Mgr. Real Estate Dept. 

Offices: Cuba, 31, Havana 



The Royal Bank of Canada 

INCORPORATED 1869 

Fiscal Agent of the Government of the Republic of 
Cuba for the Payment of the Army of Liberation 

Paid-up Capital 

and Reserve. .. .$13,100,000.00 
Total Assets $95,000,000.00 

Head Office MONTREAL 

New York Agency 
68 William Street 

P.ranches in Havana: Obrapia 33, Galiano 92; 

Matanzas, Cardenas, Manzanillo, Cienfuegos, 

Camaguey, Santiago de Cuba, Mayari, Sagua, 

Caibarien 



Established 1844 

H. UPMANN & CO. 

BANKERS 

TRANSACT A GENERAL BANKING BUSINESS 
Corrtiptndenti at All Prinelpal PlacM cf tht Island 

Safe Deposit Vaults 

Manufacturers of the Famous H. Upmann 
Brand of Cigars 



FACTORY: 
PaiM d« Taeon 151-163 



OFFICE: 
Amariura 1-9 



Established 1876 

N. GELATS & COMPANY 

BANKERS 



Transact a general banking business 
Correspondents at all the principal 
places of the world 

Safe Deposit Vaults 
Office: Aguiar 108 



A post office has been established at 
Candonga between Baire and Palma 
Soriano on the line of the branch railroad 
running from Bayamo to San Luis, Oriente 
Province. 

Another office has been established at 
Yabazon on the line of Gibara and Holguin 
R. R., Oriente Province. 



Please mention THE CUBA RE\'tEW when writing to advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



39 



HAVANA 



The United Railways of Havana 

in conjunction with the Cuba Railroad, maintain a service of 
two trains daily between Havana and the growing Eastern 
city of CAMAQUEY, and one Express Train daily between 
Havana and SANTIAGO DE CUBA, the "Dream City of the 
West Indies." Buffet lunch is served on these trains. 

FOUR TRAINS DAILY 

in both directions between Havana and MATANZAS, which latter city because of its picturesque 
situation and ine charm of its principal attractions (Yumuri's famous valley and the wonderful 
caves of Bellamar) has long enjoyed distinction as the great "Mecca" of the tourists, and it 
continues to gain in populaiity. EXCELLENT TRAIN SERVICE is maintained to many other 
places of great interest to tourists, all of which are fully described in "Cuba — A Winter 
Paradise," a profusely illustrated 80-page booklet with six complete maps and 72 views illustrative 
of this wonderful island, sent postpaid on receipt of 3 cents in stamps. 

Frank Roberts, General Passenger Agent 
United Railways of Havana -------- us, Prado, Havana, Cuba 



FRED WOLFE ^^i calzada de vives, Havana 

Cable, "Wolfe" 

Negociante en Todas Clases Dealer in all Classes of 
de Ganado Live Stock 

Especialmente en Mulos Especially in Mules 

Always on hand Large Stock of All Classes of Mules^All Mules Sold Are 
Guaranteed as Represented — Can Furnish Any Number Desired on Short Notice 



'te 



i'sfAND\F''SuBA''SF THE LIVERPOOL & LONDON & GLOBE INSURANCE CO. 

This Company will issue Binders on risks in the Island of Cuba 
at theii New York ofTice, 45 William Street. Tel., 3097 John. 

FIRE LOSS OF INCOME BOILER EXPLOSION 

FIRE AMD BOILER EXPLOSION FOLLOWING FIRE ENGINE BREAKDOWN 

Havana Office: 106 Cuba Street 



P. RUIZ ® BROS. 

ENGRAVERS 

FINE STATIONERY 

Obispo 22 P. O. Box 608 

HAVANA, CUBA 



JAMES S. CONNELL & SON 

Sugar Brokers 

Established 1836, at 105 Wall St. 

Cable Address, "Tide, New York" 



The Cuban government has allotted the 
contract for the building of a special build- 
ing at the immigration station at Triscornia 
for the care of persons with granulated eye- 
lids. Many immigrants are refused permis- 
sion to land in Cuba on account of the 
eye-disease, and such persons will be con- 
fined in the clinic under medical care until 
they can be sent back to the country from 
which they came. More immigrants are 
refused permission to enter Cuba on ac- 



count of granulated eyelids than from any 
other cause. 



Two Cuban students are to be sent to 
attend the International Congress at Lima, 
Peru. Secretary Garcia Kohiy, of the De- 
partment of Public Instruction, asked and 
received of President Gomez an appropria- 
tion of $:i,()00 to pay the expenses of the 
students. Secretary Kohly proposes that 
the students shall be elected by a popular 
vote of the other students. 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



40 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



ESTABLISHED 1852 



ROHLIG & CO. 

FORWARDING AGENTS 
BREMERHAVEN 



INQUIRIES REQUESTED 



BREMEN BREMERHAVEN HAMBURG 

Knochenhaui;rstr 16/17 am IIai i.\ 113 Ai.sterhamm 14/15 

GENERAL AGENTS OF MUNSON STEAMSHIP LINE, NEW YORK 

ukdp:rt.\kix(; traffic all over the world at lowest rates 
through rates to axd from exery place porx'ided ox applicatiox 




LINGUISTIC PRINTERS' COMPANY 

NEUMANN BROS., PROP'S 

124-132 WHITL 5TRLLT :: NLW YORK CITY 



EXCLLLLNT PRINTING OF MAGAZINF-S AND TRADE PUBLICATIONS 
ALL KINDS OF JOBS QUICKLY DONE AND TASTEFULLY EXECUTED 



WILLETT & GRAY, BroKer. and Agents 

FOREIGN AND ^^XT^^^ ;V ^E> ^t ^^^ ^^^ 

DOMESTIC 1^^'l^l.:^.^rlL-C^1^3 REFINED 

82 ^VALL STREET, NEMT YORK 

'ublishers of Daily and Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal^ the recognized authority of the trade. 
TELEGRAPHIC MARKET ADVICES FURNISHED. 



HOME INDUSTRY IRON V^ORKS 

Engines, Boilers andMacHinery 

Manufacturing and Repairing of all kinds. Architectural Iron and Brass 
Castings. Light and Heavy Forgings. All kinds of Machinery Supplies. 

St«aina^ip "Work a Spscialty^ 
A.. KITING. Prop. VfORYf IT Af A 



The Sugar News of Cuba 

is given in the very interesting correspondence from the tropical island appearing in 
every issue of the 

AMERICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY 

The latest and most reliable sugar news from every part of the World is gathered 
by our own Special Correspondents, and appears exclusively in this paper. 

PRINTED IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH 

A Spanish Section has been recently added for the benefit of our readers in Cuba, 
Porto Rico and other Spanish speaking countries. 

Monthly. $2.00 per year in the United States. Cuba, and Mexico. In foreign 
countries, $3.00 per year. Subscribe for it if you want to keep posted. 

SAMPLE COPY FREE. SEND FOR ADVERTISING RATES. 

Address: BEET SUGAR GAZETTE COMPANY 

Hearst Building, Chicago, 111. - 140 Nassau St. New York 



Please mention THE CUBA REVIEW when writing to advertisers 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



41 



Telephone, 33 Hamilton 
NiRht Call, 411 Hamilton 



Cable Address: 
'Abiworks," New York 



Atlantic 'Basin Iron Works 

Engineers and Boiler Makers 

Machinists, Plumbers, Tinsmiths, Pipe Fitters, Blacksmiths, Coppersmiths, Pattern 
Makers, Sheet Iron Workers, Iron and Brass Castings. Steamship Repairs a Specialty. 



Corner Imlav and Summit Streets 



Brooklyn, N. Y. 



John Munro& Son 

Steamship and 
Engineers' Supplies 

722 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cable Address: Kunomale, New York 
Telephone. 2402 .South 



Telephone Box 186 

215 Hamilton Maritime Exchange 

YULE & MUNRO 

SHIPWRIGHTS 

Caulkers, Spar Makers 

Boat Builders, Etc. 

No. 9 SUMMIT STREET 
Near Atlantic Dock BROOKLYN 



The telegraphers of Cuba are talking of Central "Carolina" at Coliseo, Matanzas 

going on strike for higher wages, says the Province, stopped grinding in the last days 
Voice of Guantanamo. of May with 61,12!) bags to its credit. 




The Chinese market gardener on his way to Havana. His fields are just outside of the city 
and he is an indefatigable worker. 



42 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



HENRY E. BROWN Shipping and Ex- 
, port Chemist and 

Pharmacist Druggist. 

Ships' Medicine Chests furnished and re- 
plenished. Prescriptions compounded by a 
Graduate in Pharmacy. 

Trusses, Surgical Appliances, etc. 

Office and Laboratory, Room 36 

116 BROAD STREET, NEW YORK 



Bottled at the Brewery 




For Sale at all Dealers 
and on the Munson Line 



Sobrinos De Bea & Co. 

BANKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS 
lmportaci6n directa de todas loi 
centroi manufactureros del mundo 

Agents for the Munson Steamship Line, 
New York and Mobile; James E. Ward & 
Co., New York; Serra Steamship Company, 
Liverpool; Vapores Transatlanticos de A. 
Folch & Co. de Barcelona, Espaiia Indepen- 
dencia Street 17/21. 

MATANZAS, CUBA 



JOHN w. McDonald 

COAL. WOOD. LUMBER 
AND TIMBER 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

112 Wall Street, New York 

Near South Street 

Yard; 565S Beard Street, Erie Basin 

Telephones: 

Office, 1905 John Yard, 316 Hamilton 



M. J. CABANA 



COMMISSION 
MERCHANT 
P. O. Box 3, Camaguey 
Handles all lines of merchandise either on a com- 
mission basis or under agency arrangements. Also 
furnishes all desired information about lands in 
eastern Cuba. 

The National Bank of Cuba lias declared 
a dividend of $200,000 for the first six 
months of 1912, which is equal to S per cent 
per annum. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

"Superheated Stea}n in Locomotive Service,'' 
by W. F. M. Goss, has just been issued as Bulletin 
Nci. 57 of the Engineering Experiment Station of 
the L'niversity of Illinois. It jjresents, in al)ridged 
form, tlie information whicli originally appeared 
as Bulletin 127 of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington. 

The use of high temperature steam in locomotive 
service represents an important development of 
modern practice. I'ulletin No. 57 gives tlie results 
of a study of recent German ])ractice in the use 
of superheated steam, and the results of an elabo- 
rate series of tests made upon an American loco- 
motive. The conclusions are to the effect that the 
use of superheated steam introduces no serious 
difficulties, that it brings about a material saving 
in the use of coal and water, and that it supplies 
the means whereby the power capacity of an 
^\merican locomotive may be readily increased. 

Copies of Bulletin No. 57 may be obtained upon 
application to W. F. M. Goss, Director of the 
Engineering Experiment Station, University of 
Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 

The thirteenth edition of the yearly sugar re- 
port of El Hacedado Mcxicano, just received, con- 
tains the names and addresses of all the sugar 
factories in Mexico, Central America, South 
America, Porto Rfco, Cuba, Hawaii Isles, Java 
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"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 
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Vol. X JULY, 1912 No. 8 

Contents of This Number 



The cover page is of "Palmarejo," a sugar colonia belonging to Sr. Juliaii Cendoya, of 
.Santiago de Cuba. It is on the line of the Guantanamo and Western Railroad. 

Pages 7, 8, 9 and 10 are given over to political and government matters. The reclaim- 
ing of the Zapata swamp is discussed on page 7. The discussion in the Cuban 
Congress of the project of a loan is given on page 8. Tliere is also an article on 
the bubonic plague on the same page. On page nine there is an account of the suits 
for libel which President Gomez has instituted against .Sr. .\rmando Andre, editor of 
El Dia. The Cuban Senate bill to adopt a plan to distinguish Cuban made cigars, 
cigarettes, etc., from those of foreign make was amended, and the article giving 
further information appears on page 10. An account of the end of the negro revolt 
appears on page 10, with a picture of General Monteagudo, in charge of the gov- 
ernment forces, and of General Evaristo Esteiioz, who headed the negro rebels. 

On page 11 appears the press and individual comment on Cuban matters. 

On pages 12 and 13 there is a translation of a conversation between the Cuban minister 
at Berlin and a representative of the Vossische Zeitunij of Berlin on the negro 
uprising. 

Foreign opinion of Cuban conditions appears on page 14. 

The building of a trans-island canal through Cuba is discussed on pages 16 and 17, and 
tliere are two maps showing the route the proposed canal will take. 

Pages 18 and 19 are devoted to general notes. 

The earnings of the Cuban railroads, and prices of Cuban securities are given on page 20. 

Some recent Cuban tariff reductions and American glassware exports are described on 
page 21. 

The consolidation of the Havana Electric Light and Power Co. and its income is given 
on page 22. 

Import and export figures of Cuba's trade are on page 23. 

I'^irther Cuban financial matters are discussed on page 24. 

Cuba's trade witli tlie world from recent financial statistics will be found on page 25. 

The wonderful formation of the banana leaf is described on page 26. 

Further agricultural notes on pages 27 and 28. 

.\n article on sugar cane requirements will be found on page 29. 

Some plantation and liarvest notes are given on page 30. 

A very important article on pipe covering especially contributed to THE CL'BA 1\E\'IE\\' 
by Mr. 1). J. Lewis, Jr., is printed in Spanish and English on page 31. 

Some further official data of sugar production costs is on page 32. 

The diseases which attack sugar cane are the subject of a Spanish article on page 3i. 

The usual valuable sugar article prepared for us each month by Messrs. Willett and 
Gray, the well-known sugar authorities, appears on page 34 and 35. The same 
article appears on page 36 in Spanish. 

HANDSOMELY ILLL'STRATED THROUGHOUT 



THL 
CUBA RE.VILW 

"ALL ABOUT CUBA" 

Copyright, 1912, by the Munson Steamship Line 



Lf8 

eOTA 



Volume X 



JULY, 1912 



Number 8 



CUBAN GOVERNMENT MATTERS 

ZAPATA SWAMP CONCESSION OPPOSED BUBONIC PLAGUE IN HA- 
VANA A NEW LOAN PROPOSED 



The Official Gazette has 

Reclaiming just made public the par- 
Sivaiiip ticulars of the decree 
signed by President Gomez 
upon the recommendation of Secretary of 
Public Works, Rafael de Carrera, granting 
and giving over to the "Compania Agri- 
cultura de Zapata" all the lands comprised 
in what is known as the "Cienega de Za 
pata" which stretches from the Punta de 
Mangle to Cienfuegos and which comprises 
all the south coast of the province of Ma- 
tanzas and part of that of Santa Clara, 
over 200 square leagues. 

The company which gets an acreage of 
charcoal lands valued, says the Havana 
Luclia, at many millions of dollars, obtains 
this concession for nothing. The only 
.obligation which it acquires is that it should 
proceed within the term of eight years to 
sanitate and reclaim these swamps, "which 
then pass to the company perpetually." 

Ever since Cuba was freed from Spain 
six different attempts have been made to 
put a similar deal through without any 
success. 

The National Board of Sanitation had 
previously declared the swamps unhealthy, 
but it is declared that hundreds of persons 
reside within the swamps and they have 
never been known to have suffered any 
disease. 

Says La Luclia further : "The concession 
interferes seriously with the rights of prop- 
erty_ owners residing within the swamps. 
Their rights are damaged by a provision 
of the concession which declares that a 
commission shall proceed to place a 
valuation on the lands as they are now and 
that the property owners whose lands are 
reclaimed shall be forced to pay the over 
valuation which is also to be fixed by the 
commission. 

"The Cienega de Zapata includes one of 
the largest rivers of Cuba, the Hatiguanico, 



and the Cochino harbor, which is the largest 
on the south coast of Cuba." 

General Loynaz del Castillo is bitterly 
opposed to the granting of the concession 
and has appealed to Congress on the ground 
that the president's decree granting the 
concession violates the constitutional pro- 
visions contained in Article 32 which says : 
"No one shall be deprived of his property 
except by the competent authorities and for 
a just cause of public use and which pro- 
vides just compensation." He says there 
are immensely valuable groves of jucaro 
and'.j-ana trees in the swamp. 



The 
Foreign 
Claims 



Discussion continues among 
the foremost lawyers of 
Cuba and cabinet officials of 
the claims held against 
Cuba by France, England 
and Germany for damages alleged to have 
been suffered by citizens of these countries 
during the war with Spain. Another sub- 
ject under discussion is to what extent 
Cuba is responsible for damages to foreign 
properties which were guarded by American 
marines. 

In the Treaty of Paris, signed December 
19, 1898, both the United States and Spain 
waived all rights against each other to 
claims for damages suffered by any of their 
citizens, but no provision was made, says 
La Luclia. for the claims of citizens of 
other nations than the United States and 
Spain and despite the waivers of both Spain 
and the United States, such waivers could 
not reach or affect the obligations con- 
tracted by the rebels in arms or their repre- 
sentatives, the revohitionary juntas. 

Some of these claims have a foundation 
in our constitution, says La Lucha. 

Secretarj' Sanguily has called the lawyers 
together so as to get their opinion regard- 
ing the liability of Cuba. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



Discussion in the Cuban 
Eleven Million Congress of the project of 

Dollar Loan President Gomez for an 
$11,000,000 loan is being 
closely followed by Minister Beaupre and 
officials of the State Department, says a 
Washington despatch to the New York 
Commercial. Should the Cuban Congress 
accept Gomez' proposal the United States 
will exercise its rights under the Piatt 
amendment to pass upon the proposition. 
It is to be doubted whether consent to the 
loan will be given by this government and 
w^ithout the consent of the United States 
there will be no loan made. 

The impression prevailing at Washing- 
ton is that the revenues of Cuba are not 
sufficient to warrant its incurring any 
further obligation. It is believed that the 
loan might be possible, however, if unneces- 
sary expenses of the Cuban administration 
were eliminated. The charge of great ex- 
travagance has been made against the 
Gomez government by Americans in Cuba 
and also by many Cubans. 

Gomez has stated that he desires the 
$11,000,000 for sewers and other public 
works which a previous loan was supposed 
to provide for. The charge is being made 
in Cuba that the proceeds of this earlier 
loan have been frittered away in projects 
not supposed to have been undertaken with 
the loan funds. 

A Washington dispatch of July 15th to 
the New York newspapers said that State 
Department officials were closely following 
the discussion in the Cuban Legislature 
of the project for an $11,000,000 loan. The 
United States government probably will 
not express itself regarding the matter until 
it assumes more definite form. If the 
Cuban Congress should approve the pro- 
posal, it is believed that the United States 
will exercise its rights under the Piatt 
amendment and pass upon the proposition. 
Without the consent of this government, no 
loan can be affected, and it is doubtful that 
consent would be given. The loan is for 
public works, which a previous loan was 
supposed to provide for. 



The Cuban government has granted an 
exequator to Luis Amezaga as honorary 
consul of Uruguay in Matanzas. 



The Cuban Senate on July 7th approved 
a long standing bill which amends the 
organic municipal law in all that which 
refers to the tax to be imposed on the 
transfer of cattle. 

The law which has been repealed pro- 
vides for a tax of 25 cents for each head 
of cattle, horses, mules and asses more than 
two years of age. and fifteen cents when 
under that age. It wnll become effective 
on July 1, 1913, and all municipalities are 
ordered to strike out that source of income 
from their annual budget. 




Major Andre, congressman and editor of El Dia, 
an Havana daily which has on every occasion 
attacked the administration. He is the candidate 
of the Conservative Party for governor of Ha- 
vana Province. 



The existence of bubonic 
Bubonic plague in Havana, for the 
Plague first time in the history of 
Appears Cuba, was definitely deter- 
mined on July 7th. A spe- 
cial board of physicians pronounced a case 
at Las Animas hospital true bubonic. 

Recognizing the danger of the transmis- 
sion of the plague from infected Cuba to 
the United States through the medium of 
incoming ships from the island republic, 
the governtnental medical authorities im- 
mediately became stringent in their en- 
forcement of quarantine provisions. An 
order was issued at once that all passengers 
from Havana to Atnerican ports should be 
detained seven days at the Trisconia quar- 
antine station near Havana, before con- 
tinuing the voyage to the United States. 
All Mexican Gulf ports put into effect the 
same day strict quarantine measures 
against Porto Rico and Cuba. 

Aside from the two known cases in Ha- 
vana, one of which died July 12th. Passed 
Assistant Surgeon Von Ezdorf, Stationed 
at Havana, reported on July 14th three new 
suspected cases, two of which proved 
negative. The first person taken ill, how- 
ever, was pronounced as recovering. Dr. 
Von Ezdorf has greatly increased his field 
in fighting the disease and has a quaran- 
tine line about the zone of infection, in- 
cluding in this district the strip from 
Montserrate Street to the bay. This in- 
cludes the confines of the old city. Dr. 
Von Ezdorf stated that 800 rats had been 
examined, but no infection was discovered 
in them. While the situation in Havana 
was regarded as serious because of the 



THE CUBA REVIEW 




Dr. Alfredo Zayas. Liberal Party candidate tor 
president of Cuba." 



Colonel doctor Rafael Manduley. Liberal Party 
candidate for vice-president of v^nba. 



increase of the epidemic in Porto Rico, 
Surgeon General Blue took steps on July 
15th looking to the expediting of commerce 
between Havana and New York. He issued 
orders that passengers for New York 
should be allowed to embark without quar- 
antine delay subject to a completion of 
examination at Xew York. Allowing five 
days from Havana to New York, pas- 
sengers would be detained two days in 
Xew York. A new case was reported in 
Havana on July 17th. 



ThcY 

Stand By 

Goiiicc 



Major 'Andre resigned his 
congressional office recently 
because the Lower House 
would not stand by him in 
his latest charge against 
President Gomez of complicity with Gen- 
eral Esteilos in the recent negro uprising. 
Both the Liberals and Conservatives in 
caucus refused to consider the charges on 
the ground of lack of proof. 

Because of these and other charges, 
President Gomez began suit against Major 
Andre. The laws of Cuba allow the de- 
fendant to produce his proofs and if these 
substantiate his charges he is not guilty 
nf libel. The president has also libel suits 
pending against the Havana dailies La 
Lucha and /.(( Prcnsa for alleged libelous 
matter. 



As the result of a i)etition 
French made by the Cuban State 
Consul Department, the Fr.ench le- 

Transf erred gation on July 7th officially 
notified Secretary Sanguily 
tliat the government of the French republic 
had finally acceded to its request and that 
M. Henri Bryois, French consul at San- 
tiago de Cuba, had been given a leave of 
absence, which implies that he will not be 
again assigned to a post in Cuba. 

The action of the department was taken 
as the result of the consul's animosity to 
Cuba. He was blamed more or less for 
the attack made on the Cuban government 
in the French Chamber of Deputies which 
nearly resulted in a tariff wall being raised 
in Cuba against France, and charged with 
contributing to the French press articles 
detrimental to the Cuban people. 



The Department of Government has re- 
ceived complaints from Governor ]\Ianduley 
of Oriente Province regarding the safety 
of the bridge over the Guaninicum River 
at the station called Aura, and near San 
Luis. The governor says that he has been 
informed that the bridge is about to give 
way. This bridge was received by the 
Railroad Commission and the Department 
of Public Works in 1902. It is 5.32 feet 



10 



THE CUBA R E V I i: W 




General Jose F. Monteagudo in command of the 

Cuban army. His tactics speedily ended the 

negro uprising. 



Protecting 

Cuban 

Tobacco 



The Cuban Senate on July 
ISth adopted the report of 
the Committee on Laws, 
authorizing President Go- 
mez to negotiate an ampli- 
fication of the reciprocity treaty between 
Cuba and the United States, which would 
give more advantages to Cuban tobacco, and 
also providing for a new system of identi- 
fication, guaranteed by the government, to 
properly distinguish Cuban made cigars, 
cigarettes and cut tobacco, from that manu- 
factured outside of Cuba with Cuban or 
alleged Cuban leaf. 

This bill was sent to the Senate, where 
it was considered at length, it having been 
amended in the sense that the provision to 
authorize the president to make a new 
treaty was not in accordance with the con- 
stitution, inasmuch as the treaty-making 
power is vested in the Senate, but leaving 
untouched the other provisions concerning 
the government stamp for Cuban made 
cigars, cigarettes and cut tobacco. 

The bill as amended by the Senate was 
received in the House July 10th and ap- 
proved without debate. 



The necessity for the 

Tlie United States to restore 

Negro Revolt order in Cuba has been 

Ended averted. With the death 

of Estenoz the uprising 

seems to have been wrecked, although 

rebel bands were still in the field until very 

recently. 

As late as July .5th an attack was made 
on the outskirts of Santiago when several 
negroes were killed. The attack caused 
much alarm among the citizens, who 



thought all danger from the revolt prac- 
tically over. 

General Monteagudo reported on July 
10th to President Gomez that the province 
of Oriente had been so thoroughly pacified 
that he considered it unnecessary to con- 
tinue the suspension of the constitutional 
guarantees. He will, however, leave 3,250 
troops in the province. 

All American marines on guard duty in 
Cuba in connection with the negro uprising 
were ordered to proceed to home stations. 
They have been in Cuba since June 6th. 

Of the $1,000,000 voted to put down the 
revolt, there is still a balance of $846,490 
remaining, according to a statement of the 
Treasury Department. The $153,510 spent 
represents $100,000 paid to the United 
States government for the Krag-Jorgensen 
rifles and ammunition and $28,000 paid 
over to the quartermaster-general of the 
army for the equipment of guerrillas in 
Oriente Province. 

On July 18th General Pedro Ivonet, the 
negro rebel for whom the government 
troops have been diligently searching, was 
killed at Nueva Escocia, Oriente Province, 
by Cuban troopsi and on the same date 
General Julio Antomarchi. the negro rebel 
leader, who threatened death to all foreign- 
ers and the destruction of all foreign prop- 
erties, surrendered. He was the last leader 
of any importance remaining at large. 

The restoration of order vindicates the 
attitude of President Taft throughout the 
trouble. The United States stands ready 
to preserve peace and order. The damage 
to Ameircan interest from a financial 
standpoint, it is said, has been small. 




General Evaristo Esteiioz who Icl the recent 

negro uprising. He was killed in a fight which 

ended the rebellion. 

Jefe del levantamiento de negros en Cuba. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



It 



PRESS AND INDIVIDUAL COMMENT ON CUBAN 

MATTERS 



THE BILL REGULATING INTERVENTION 

That ultimate annexation necessarily 
must ensue in case of the repeated and 
unrestricted intervention of the United 
States in Cuba has been asserted in the 
Senate by Senator Bacon of Georgia. 

It was made on June 10th in connection 
with the introduction by the Georgia 
senator of a bill regulating intervention. 
The bill provides first for interference 
upon the request of the Cuban authorities, 
and in urging the desirability of this pro- 
vision Mr. Bacon said that the frequent 
presence of American troops would so ac- 
custom the Cubans to them ns lo render 
more easy the formal transfer of all re- 
sponsibility of government to the United 
States. 

He thought also there should be especial 
effort to prevent all appearance of any 
intention of subverting the authoritj' of 
the Cuban authorities. In more extreme 
cases the president is authorized to land 
American troops in Cuba for the restora- 
tion of order. 

The full text of Senator Bacon's measure 
follows. 

"Whenever the duly constituted civil authorities 
of the government of Cuha shall inform the presi- 
dent of the United States that there exists a re- 
bellion, or resistance to the authority of law, in 
Cuba such as the Cuban government is itself unable 
to subdue or control, and shall request the assist- 
ance of the United States for that purpose, the 
president of the United States is hereby authorized 
to use the army and navy of the United States, 
or so much thereof as in his descretion he may 
deem to be necessary, to subdue said rebellion and 
enforce obedience to the then existing govern- 
ment and laws of Cuba. 

"Section 2. Whenever there shall exist in the 
island of Cuba a condition of rebellion and civil 
disorder, and it shall appear that the government 
of Cuba is inadequate for the protection of life, 
property and individual liberty, and for the main- 
tenance of law and order, and the duly constituted 
authority of Cuba shall fail and omit to request 
the assistance of the United States to suppress 
such a rebellion and disorder, the president of the 
United States is hereby authorized, if Congress 
shall not be in session, to use, in his discretion, 
the army and navy of the United States, or so 
much thereof as he may deem to be necessary to 
subdue said rebellion and restore order and obe- 
dience to the then existing civil government and 
laws of Cuba. 

"Section 3. Whenever under the authority here- 
inbefore granted the military and naval forces of 
the United States are used for the suppression of 
rebellion and disorder and for the restoration and 
maintenance of order in Cuba, in no event shall 
the civil government then existing in Cuba be sub- 
verted or the civil officers of the government of 
Cuba removed or supplanted, nor shall any officer 
be appointed to perform the duties of a civil office 
in Cuba without the authority of an act of Con- 
gress of the United States. 

"Section 4. That whenever the army and navy 
of the United States shall be used as aforesaid 
in said island of Cuba, the military and naval 
operation conducted and executed in pursuance 
thereof shall be under the direction, management 
and control of the president of the United States." 



INTERVENTION STILL IMMINENT 

Even without the present negro disturb- 
ance in Oriente, conditions as they now 
exist, and as in all probability they will 
continue to exist for an indefinite period, 
make the possibility of American interven- 
tion more nearly imminent than is generally 
supposed. Cuba, as Mr. Lindsay has well 
observed, presents the curious anomaly of 
"a highly prosperous country with an ex- 
tremely needy population."' Possessed of 
a vigorous munerative agriculture, the na- 
tion is, nevertheless, slipping rapidly into 
bankruptcy, and its administration shows 
no tendency to correct the obvious defects 
in its economic condition, says George 
Marvin in Harper's Weekly. 

Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston, the Af- 
rican explorer, has written to the London 
Times advocating annexation by the United 
States as the best thing that could happen 
for Cuba. He declares that if the United 
States hesitates much longer, Cuba may 
experience the history of Hispaniola — which 
would mean its division into two parts. 




THK WHITE M.\KS HURDE.V. 

— Minor in tin- So. I.imi'i Ptml nisimtcfi. 



12 THECUB A REVIEW 

OPINIONS OF GONZALO DE QUESADA 

[Interview at I'.crlin witli tlic ('ul)an minister to Gerninny reganling tlic neg'-o iiprisiiig] 



Although the negro uprising which kept Cuba in a turmoil for some six or seven 
weeks has been put down and disturbances are at an end the following interview will 
be found interesting. 

A representative of tiie I'ossische Zeitiing of Berlin recently interviewed the Cuban 
minister to Germany, Sefior Gonzalo de Quesada. The representative's questions and 
the minister's answers were as follows : 

"What is your opinion as to the tinal outcome of the negro revolution?" 

"There can be no doubt regarding the final outcome of this revolution. Cuba can 
never become a black republic. Out of the two and one quarter million inhabitants, 
70 per cent belong to the Caucasian race, 12 per cent negroes and 17 per cent mulattoes. 
The latter class will never join the blacks. If you take the whole situation as a race 
problem you will find the blacks are in such a minority that it is impossibe that they 
will be victorious." 

"Do all the blacks favor the revolution?" 

"This seems to be the erroneous supposition in Germany. It is not true that all the 
blacks take part in the revolution ; on the contrary there are only a few hundred here 
and there. The total might amount to about 2,000. The rebels are not acknowledged 
by the well-known leaders of the negro race, besides the papers and a majority of 
the people have declared themselves as against the revolutionists and have stated that 
they will do everything in their power to assist the government." 

"Is the revolution over all of Cuba?" 

"Noj the rebels have not spread over more than a small district in the eastern part 
of the island. The island has an area of about 1,800,000 sq. kilometers and of this 
only 7,000 are infected by the revolution, and this section is in the moutainous parts 
of Cuba which are impassable on account of the dense forest growth." 

"What is the reason for the uprising?" 

"The leaders have stated that they were not allowed to form a negro party and that 
they do not enjoy the same civil rights as the white people, and that a share of the 
ad. patronage was denied them. But this is not true, as the blacks have always secured 
official positions whenever they have shown themselves sufficiently capable. Our laws 
do not recognize any difference in color, religion or position. No race in the island 
enjoys any special privileges of any kind. As far as the organization of a special 
negro party is concerned it was a black senator, Morua Delgado, who introduced the 
law into the Senate that the organization of negro parties should be declared contrary 
to the constitution. The blacks have the right, and they use it, to join any party in 
Cuba, and in such cases as they have showed themselves worthy they have quite often 
been elected to the Senate and the House of Representatives. The organizing of an 
independent negro organization, however, would necessarily be in contradiction to the 
equal rights of all Cubans as provided by the Cuban constitution." 

"What part do American interests play in this revolution?" 

"This is an embarassing question. I do not trust the leaders of the rebels very far. 
Generals Ibonet and Esteiioz have tried very often to organize the negroes. There 
is a rumor that certain people for private reason desired to create a panic in the Cuban 
financial market, and that they provided the leaders with the necessary money for the 
revolution. The same can be said of the American capitalists who have invested their 
money in Cuba, and who, for private reasons, are looking for the death of the Cuban 
republic. The United States Senators Page and Nelson have announced that they 
will consider an investigation into these matters. It would be difficult in fact to find 
another source for securing money other than that stated, when the rebels have drained 
the source they now have. It is remarkable also, that so far the rebels have destroyed 
only foreign property and especially American property." 

"And the reason?" 

"It is a very simple one. By this they hope to force the United States to intervene. 
They hope that the United States will declare the Cuban republic as incapable of keeping 
order in the country and of protecting foreign property. This would end the independ- 
ence of the island. It would mean military possession by the United States and later 
it would mean Cuba would become an American province." 

"And do you believe that the United States will intervene?" 

"I do not think so. The government of the United States and the people that have 
helped Cuba to secure her independence will never do anything like that. President 
Taft and Secretary of State Knox have expressed to the President of Cuba, Mr. Gomez, 
that they do not think of intervention, but only in case of necessity, and that warship.s 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



13 



will be sent for the protection of American and other foreign property, in case the 
Cuban government has not sufficient power at their disposal for this purpose." 

"Do you think this will become a necessity?" 

"I do not know. But this is certain. As soon as the Cuban army will be once free 
to persecute the revolutionary bands and use their own guerilla tactics against the 
rebels the end will be very near. So far the Cuban soldiers have had their hands 
full to protect foreign property, in accordance with Cuba's international obligations. 
It is impossible to prevent, right from the start, in such mountainous neighborhoods 
as exist in the eastern part of Cuba, robberies and the burning of property. But the 
conditions are now changing by the population of the respective districts taking up 
arms in aid of the government." 

"How long will the revolution last?" 

"It would not be fair to expect that the revolution should be suppressed in a certain 
number of days, especially in the rainy season. But the w'orld can be sure that President 
Gomez and the government of Cuba will do all in their power and that if they are 
left alone, order and peace will soon be restored." 

"What is the opinion of the Cuban people generally?" 

"This is shown best b}' the address of President Gomez to the Cuban people and 
from which very much can be learned. To deprive the Cubans of their liberty and 
independence for which they have fought for almost a century would be a very difficult 
problem. There is no law or agreement which says that Cuba must cease to exist as 
a nation, because small irresponsible bands have destroyed some foreign property. The 
sympathy of all the governments and of the people ought to be an incentive to the 
Cuban government to try to put an end- to this revolution. On account of my fun- 
damental knowledge of the United States and its people I am fully convinced that there 
has never been an intention to intervene, without sufficient reason, and so commit the 
incredible political crime of obliterating the republic which America herself has helped 
to establish and the progress of which she has supported in every w'ay." 



The Cuban ^Marine Hospital Service be- 
gan precautions against the importation of 
cholera about the middle of June. The 
port authorities throughout the island have 
been instructed to maintain special vigi- 
lance against all vessels arriving from 
Mediterranean ports. 



Dr. Huerta of Havana, whu received the 
honorary degree of doctor of science at 
Harvard last month, proved that Cuba 
was at one time a part of the mainland. 
His collection of fossils and shells, which 
enabled him to establish his proofs, has 
been contributed to the Harvard museum. 




A Cuban country house, the home of the "guajiro" or laborer. 



14 THECUBAREVIEW 



FOREIGN OPINION OF CUBAN CONDITIONS 



VIEWS OF THE INDEPENDANCE BELGE, KOELNISCHE ZEITUNG, LONDON 
TIMES, LONDON AND SATURDAY REX'IEW 

Gomez, the patriot general who rules the distracted island, seems to many foreign 
observers, such as the Indepcndaiicc Beige (Brussels) and the Kolnische Zeitung 
remarkably efficient, "a strong engaging man of the people and an extremely astute 
politician," to quote one eulogy. British views are in the main no less flattering. 
The Cuban government, says the London Times, for instance, has preserved unbroken 
the admirable record set by the Americans in matters of public health and sanitation. 
"Cuba, once the fever den of the West Indies, is to-day a favorite health and tourist 
resort with one of the lowest death rates in the world." The island government has 
done much to encourage foreign capital, to improve communication by building roads 
and bridges and by dredging harbors, to develop education and to forward the agri- 
cultural interests of the island. It has organized an efficient and well disciplined 
force of rural guards and has preserved the public peace with vigor. These statements 
accord with those of many European journals which have kept correspondents in the 
island. On the other hand the London Times and the French dailies hint at "graft," 
which, they fear, Gomez has tolerated in too easy-going a fashion. Gigantic corporations 
have long found Cuba a paradise, if the conclusions of the London Standard, confirming 
those of the Berlin Krciiz-Zeitiing, be well founded. The tedency of the Gomez ad- 
ministration has been to grant concessions to cliques and financiers upon terms so 
liberal as to be wholly inconsistent with the public interests. 

The London Spectator and the London Saturday Reviezv refer significantly to Cuba 
as one of the richest and most productive areas for its size on the face of the globe. 

"Cuba as yet is only on the threshold of its development ; its resources have been 
scarcely even surveyed, much less exploited ; it is doubtful whether more than one- 
fifteenth of the island is under any sort of cultivation. Lying on one of the great 
trade routes of the world — a route that will be more than ever crowded when the 
Panama Canal is opened — it has, nevertheless, remained for centuries almost derelict; 
the surplus capital of the investing nations is only now beginning to find its way 
there ; and the population of the island, a little more than a mere two millions, is 
ludicrously disproportionate to a country that could, and, in the future unquestionably 
will, support four or five times that number. Yellow fever has been stamped out; 
Cuba to-day has all but the lowest death-rate in the world; and the beauty of its 
scenery and the brilliance of its climate are making it one of the pleasantest winter 
resorts in the West Indies. A frostless land of perpetual June, where the thermometer 
rarely falls below 60 degrees or rises above 90 degrees, where the water supply in 
every province is fresh and abundant, where the distribution of the rainfall favors 
luxuriant crops and their ready marketing, and where nearly all the staple agricultural 
products of the tropical and sub-tropical zone are indigenous, Cuba deserves its name 
of 'the indigenous Garden of Eden.' Like the western States of America thirty or 
forty years ago, Cuba resembles a storehouse of unsuspected riches awaiting the men 
and the money to unlock it. Apart from sugar and tobacco, it contains deposits of 
three thousand million tons of iron ore, and some ten million acres of uncleared forest, 
containing over fifty different varieties of hard w'oods : it offers a wide, and in many 
ways a unique, range of opportunities to the small planter ; and, in addition to the 
openings for capital that are always abundant when a rich but undeveloped country 
begins to equip itself with the accessories and conveniences demanded by a modern 
community, it also holds out a feasible prospect of building-up large industries on the 
native supplies of sponges and textile plants." — Current Literature for July, 1912. 



Aliguel Mariano Gomez, son of the presi- A cabinet crisis was threatened July 4th. 

dent, was on July 16th given the degree of Secretaries Quiros and Carrera, it was ru- 

Doctor of Laws. He has been studying mored, having resigned. Later, however, 

law in the Havana University. it was said that the officials would not 

The Krajewski-Pesant corporation has ^^^^^ ^^e cabinet, 

announced that it was reorganized under The Lower House on July 3d passed a 

the laws of Delaware. The company has resolution appointing the Committee on 

obtained possession of the Havana Iron Laws as a special commission to investigate 

Works, the Erie Basin Iron Works and the lease made by the Department of Pub- 

the Havana Dock Co. Adolfo B. Horn lie Works of the swamp property which 

is president of the company. belongs to the state. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



15 




Church ajticl Piaza at Guines, Havana Province, Luiia. 
Iglesia y Plaza en Giiincs, provincia de la Habana. Cuba. 



PINEAPPLES TO GERMANY 

Hamburg, Germany, June 10, 1912 

The Munson Steamship Line, 
82-92 Beaver Street, 
New York, N. Y. 

Gentlemen: 

I am in receipt of a marked copy of THE CUBA 
REVIEW containing my report in regard to pine- 
apples, and I thank you for your courtesy in 
sending it to me. I am aware of no reason why 
the West Indies should not secure a fair sliare 
of the pineapple trade of Germany. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 

Robert P. Skinner 

Consul General. 



YEARLY EARNINGS 

The earnings of the United Railways of 
Havana for the fiscal year 1911-12 aggre- 
gated £1,411,377 or £186,963 more than in 
the fiscal year of 1910-11 when the figures 
were £1,224,397. 

Previous fiscal years' figures are as fol- 
lows : 

1906-07 £1,211,472 

1907-OS 930,216 

1908-09 1,085,743 

1909-10 1,244,961 




Orestes Ferrara, speaker of tli 
Representatives. 



Cuban House of 



16 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



A TRANS-CUBA CANAL 



A COLOSSAL UNDERTAKING NORTHERN TERMINAL AT CARDENAS AND 

ITS SOUTHERN IN COCHINOS BAY 

The approaching completion of the Panama Canal has hrought forward a project for 
a canal across the island of Cuba, designed to shorten the route between Panama and 
the principal North Atlantic ports, as well as to foster the internal commerce of Cuba. 
The Revista Municipal of Habana contains an article giving much interesting informa- 
tion in this matter. 

As regards Cuban interests alone, this project is by no means of recent date, for a 
century and a half ago the building of such a canal was proposed to facilitate internal 
commerce between the ports on the southern and northern coasts of Cuba. As an 
illustration of the advantages to be attained by water between Havana and Cienfuegos 
would be reduced from 953 miles to about 120 miles. 

As far back as 1767, a royal decree notes the receipt by the Spanish government of 
"new special charts and also a general chart of the north coast of Cuba," relating to 
the matter of the Cuban canal, and in 1776, the cost of a navigable canal between 
Havana and the Batabano River was estimated at $1,200,000, a figure that naturally 
refers to other times and conditions. An old chart in the archives of the Sociedad 
Economica de Amigos de Pais, shows the proposed course of a canal along this route, 
as planned by Francisco and Felix Lemaur in 179S, by order of a royal commission 
appointed to provide new means for the economic development of the island. Three 
years earlier, in 1795, the Real Junta de Fomento y Navigacion, the department charged 
with the maintenance and improvements of communications by land and water, advocated 
the execution of what was even then termed "the old project of the Conde de Macuriges," 
regarding the construction of "a navigable canal to unite the Gijines and Almendares 
Rivers." It provided for the nivelization of the tract between these rivers and the 
dock-yard of Havana, traversing the heights of the Cerro near the Puente de la 
Zanga. 
The political complications in which Spain was involved and the unsettled state of 

things in Cuba has 
interfered hereto- 
fore with its se- 
rious considera- 
tion. Now, how- 
ever, the interest 
of the Cubans has 
been aroused in 
this matter by the 
hope and expecta- 
tion that great ad- 
vantages would ac- 
crue for Cuba if 
the canal should 
be constructed. Of 
this, the writer 
says : 

"Cuba is situated 
immediately in Pa- 
nama's zone of in- 
fluence : moreover, 
its entire length 
faces the Panama 
Canal, so that an 
imaginary line 
Fernandez^ drawn between 

this interoceanic 
port and New 
York crosses ap- 
proximately the 
middle of the is- 
land. . . This being 
the case, a Cuban 
canal, supplemen- 







'^ CAYO BIANCO 

Ala), ..I I];- M-n 



Casilda 



iiir tlie trnns-Ciiha canal 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



17 



tary to that of Pa- 
nama, might be im- 
mediateh' profitable, 
as it would have a 
virtual monopoly of 
a great part of the ves- 
sels passing through 
the trans-isthmian ca- 
nal. According to 
expert opinion, the 
Cuban route would 
be the logical one for 
vessels sailing from 
New York to Pa- 
nama. 

It is also believed 
that our canal 
would be used, al- 
most without excep- 
tion, by vessels sail- 
ing from Panama td 
Europe and to the 
Atlantic ports of the 
United States, since 
shortly after travers- 
ing the Panama Ca- 
nal and entering the 
Caribbean Sea, the 
strong equatorial cur- 
rent flowing from 
east to west would 
oblige them to seek 
the Strait of Yuca- 
tan, in order to avoid 
sailing against this 
current, and then to 
follow the north- 
eastern coast of Cuba, 
so as to take advan- 
tage of the Gulf 
Stream, up to the 
Florida Straits. 

All this would 
be rendered un- 
necessary by pass- 
ing through the 
Cuban canal, and if 
by this means there 
should result a sav- 
ing, however small, 

of expense or danger, the ships would take this route, provided the conditions were 
reasonable. 

A direct route from the gulf coast to the Panama Canal, avoiding the tour around 
the island of Cuba, would be secured by this canal and a distance of 400 miles or more 
would be saved. 

Cochinos Bay on the south side of the island is one of the deepest harbors in Cuba. 
From the bay boats would have clear saihng without reefs or other obstructions to 
Panama. 

According to the canal bill now pending in the Cuban Congress the United States 
government will be asked to assist in digging the ditch, says the Key West (Fla.) 
Citizen. 

The Cubans will put up the money, but thej- want to use some of the Panama 
machinery after that canal is completed. 

Recent press despatches were to the effect that at least part of the Panama Canal 
machinery would be taken after the Panama ditch is dug, but the promoters of the 
project are positive that if Uncle Sam is once shown the benefits of the proposed canal 
across Cuba that the necessarj^ machinery will be forthcoming. 




E.Nll^'^'-* 



COLUMBIA 



Map showing the geographical position of the gulf ports, Cuba and 
the Panama Canal. 



18 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



GENERAL NOTES 



TAKING PICTURES IN CUBA 

The general impression which one gets 
of lights and colors in Cuba is always sug- 
gestive of what is known as the impres- 
sionist style in art. Everywhere are bright 
■colors; the verdure is of the most vivid 
green, the sea is the brightest crystal blue, 
the sky is clear and the sun shines with 
a. brightness which no one who has never 
visited the tropics can imagine. But to 
give an idea of the intensity of the sun- 
light, we will relate an experience with 
photography. We carried during our visit 
on this occasion a 4x5 Poco camera. In 
and around Boston, or, rather, New Eng- 
land, we would use the largest, or the 
next to the largest stop, with exposure 
according to the light. In the tropics we 
found that nine times out of ten the pic- 
tures would be over exposed and spoiled 
if we did not use the smallest stop and 
speed the exposure up to one five-hundredth 
or one-thousandth of a second. A gentle- 
man from New York, who had an ex- 
pensive camera, and who had the stop 
timed to one-fiftieth of a second, using 
the smallest stop, lost every picture by 
over exposure. Unfortunately, we had a 
plate camera instead of one carrying films. 



Wishing to develop some pictures while in 
the West Indies, we chose the night as the 
coolest portion of the twenty-four hours. 
Now, ice, of course, was not obtainable 
anywhere, but we procured as cool water 
as possible in which to wash the plates, 
but many of the pictures were ruined 
because the gelatine film slid off the glass, 
either entirely into the bath or enough so 
that the film was wrinkled, which also 
ruined the picture. 

CHURCH WORK IN CUBA 

The chief Protestant bodies of this 
country having missions in Cuba are the 
Baptist North and South, the Episcopal, 
and the Methodist South, says the Pater- 
son (N. J.) Chronicle. The earliest there, 
even before the political freedom of the 
island, were the Baptist South and the 
Episcopal. The growth of Protestant 
work in the island, among white and black 
both, has been steady and along educational 
lines largely. 

Baptist North work was early projected 
in Santiago and the extreme east, and sup- 
ported by Americans through Baptist 
churches here are a large Baptist church 
in Santiago itself, and several smaller 




(Courtesy of Our Dumb Animals. Boston) 

The new Ensign fountain in Havana, the gift to the city from the National Humane Alliance 

of New York. Another may be placed in Central Park in the same city. 

La nueva fucnte Ensign en la Habana, donativo hecho a la ciiidad por la National Humane .Alliance'. 

de Nueva York. Probablcmentc se colocard otra en el Parquc Central en dicha ciudad. 



THE CUBA R E \' I E W 



19 




Yacht club headquarters on Cardenas Harbor at El Veradero. The scene is of mid-summer 
racing activity when crowds visit this well-known resort. 

Edificio principal del Club de Yates en el Puerto de Cardenas en El T^aradero. . Es un luyar de grandes 

regatas durante los meses de verano, adondc acude un inmenso gentio a visitar 

este sitio vcranicgo tan conocido. 



churches in Oriente Province. Attached 
to the churches are schools, and these 
schools have been attended by children of 
both races, usually heretofore without 
prejudice to either. Reports received by 
the Baptist Home Mission Society show 
that chapels at La Alaya and at Jorahucca 
have been burned, not by military forces 
l)ut by marauders and malcontents. Bap- 
tists in eastern Cuba alone have fifty-four 
churches. The Episcopal Church has work 
in nearly all parts of the island, with a 
cathedral at Havana, and a considerable 
educational .system that has headquarters 
in Guantanamo. 

Cuban's daughter fights will 

Surrogate Cohalan of New York County 
appointed on July 17th a referee to ascer- 
tain whether Paul Fuller and Joseph Man- 
dremi, as executors of the estate of Tirso 
Mesa y Hernandez, used due diligence to 
have placed in their hands property of the 
estate to which a daughter of the testator 
now lays claim. H the executors erred 
the referee will also be required to report 
the amount with which they should be sur- 
charged. 

Mesa y Hernandez was a Spaniard, who 
lived in Havana, where he was killed in 
1908. He left a wife, two sons and a 
daughter, the latter a Vassar student. 
Under the Spanish law, a wife inherits 



one-half of the estate which her husband 
acquired after his marriage. When Mesa 
y Hernandez married, in 1881, he had prac- 
tically nothing, but when he died his estate 
atnounted to $1,092,896. His will left his 
wife an income of only $300,000. Mrs. 
Mesa y Hernandez brought an action in 
the Cuban courts, and was granted one- 
half the estate. 

It develops that Mesa y Hernandez in 
1901 in New York became a citizen of the 
United States. A special guardian ap- 
pointed for the daughter has objected to 
distribution under the laws of Cuba, con- 
tending that the laws of New York State 
should apply. Surrogate Cohalan was in- 
clined to the opinion that the property was 
not subject to the law of the place of 
domicile. 



LEGITIMATE AND ILLEGITIMATE BIRTHS 

Of the 4.6.53 births registered in the re- 
public during the month of April, 3,668 or 
78.83 per cent were white and 98.5 or 21.17 
per cent were colored. 

Of the white births 3,150 were legitimate 
and 518 illegitimate; of the colored births 
431 were legitimate and 554 illegitimate. — 
Statistics of the Cuban Health Department. 



A telegraph office for public service has 
been established at MafYo, Oriente Province. 



20 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



TRAFFIC RECEIPTS OF CUBAN RAILROADS 



EARNINGS OF THE CUBA RAILROAD CO., THE HAVANA ELECTRIC, ETC. 
Earnings of the Cuba Railroad Co. 



The report of the Cuba Railroad for the month of May and for the eleven months ended 
May 31st compares as follows: 

1913 1911 1910 1909 1908 

May gross $380,854 $267,506 $232,401 $193,540 $173,515 

Expenses 187,093 148,714 117,333 104,674 112,638 

May net $193,761 $118,792 $115,068 $88,865 $60,876 

Charges 67,624 60,125 36,666 34,579 31,892 

May surplus $126,136 $58,667 $78,401 $54,286 $28,984 

Eleven months' gross. $3,500,434 $2,796,695 $2,233,138 $1,960,460 $1,893,900 

Net profits 1,687,190 1,252,330 996,715 858,441 668.383 

Fixed charges 691,373 519,175 398,543 364,516 333,510 

Eleven months' surplus $995,816 $733,155 $598,171 $493,925 $334,873 



Earnings of the United Railways of Havana 



Weekly receipts : 1912 

Week ending May 25th.. £30,821 
Week ending June 1st.. 28,090 
Week endmg June 8th.. 22,522 
Week ending June 15th.. 18,370 



1911 


1910 


1909 


1908 


£18,468 


£18,205 


£15,868 


£11,542 


17,076 


16,515 


15.225 


11.944 


17,372 


16,906 


14,894 


11,955 


15,255 


16,079 


14,876 


11,268 



Earnings of the Havana Electric Railway 



Weekly receipts : 
Week ending June 2d... 
Week ending June 9th. 
Week ending June 16th. 
Week ending June 23d. 



1912 


1911 


1910 


1909 


1908 


$48,096 


$46,349 


$44,157 


$41,557 


$35,840 


40,085 


45,491 


41,166 


41,157 


35,962 


47,040 


40,990 


42,804 


39,698 


32,013 


48,074 


45,823 


42,414 


37,960 


38,231 



June Quotations for Cuban Securities 

[Supplied by Lawrence Turnure & Co., New York] 



Bid 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (interior) 97^/4 

Republic of Cuba 5 per cent Bonds (exterior) 103 M 

Havana City First Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 103 

Havana City Second Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 101% 

Cuba Railroad First Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds 102 1/^ 

Cuba Railroad Preferred Stock 92 

Cuba Railroad 6 per cent Debentures 95 

Havana Electric Railway Consolidated Mortgage 5 per cent Bonds.... 98% 

Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power Co. Preferred Stock 90 

Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power Co. Common Stock 80 

Matanzas Market Place 8 per cent Bonds — Participation Certificates.... 103 
Cuban-American Sugar Co. Coll. Trust 6 per cent Gold Bonds of 1918 96% 

Santiago Light & Traction Co. First Mortgage 6 per cent Bonds 97 

All prices of bonds quoted on an "and interest" basis. 



Asked 

98 
103% 

106 

105 
103% 

100 

99% 

96 

86 
105 

97 

98 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



21 



SPECIAL CUBAN TARIFF REDUCTIONS 

[From the Gaccta Oficiai, Cuba, June 3, 1912] 



The Cuban government has granted special exemption from the surtax for olive oil 
and cottonseed oil imported into Cuba for the manufacture of butter substitutes and 
lard compounds ("mantecas"). These oils are dutiable under tariff No. 274 of the 
tariff, inclusive of the surtax, at $3 per 100 kilos when imported in receptacles of 
earthenware, wood or tin, and at $3.75 per 100 kilos when imported in bottles ; if such 
oil is imported from the United States, the rates, inclusive of the surtax, are $2.40 and 
$3, respectively. With the removal of the surtax, the rates under the general tariff 
are $2.40 and $3, respectively, and the rates under the preferential tariff' applicable to 
imports from the United States are $1.92 and $2.40, respectively. 

These reduced rates are applicable only to oils imported by those engaged in the 
manufacture of "mantecas," and only under certain prescribed conditions. 

The Cuban government has also granted exemption from the surtax for canvas, 
cotton tape, and jute thread, to be used as materials in the manufacture of sandals 
made without leather, known as "alpargatas." On canvas, dutiable in tariff No. 114, 
the removal of the surtax reduced the rates by 20 per cent. Cotton tape, under tariff 
No. 128, by the removal of the surtax, is dutiable with a reduction of 15 per cent. 
Jute thread, by the removal of the surtax, is dutiable at a reduction of 25 per cent of 
the rates specified in tariff No. 129. 

These special reductions in the rates of duty are applicable only when importation 
is made by those engaged in the manufacture of alpargatas, and only under special 
conditions prescribed by the government. 



EXEMPTION OF THE SURTAX 

[From the Cuban official treasury bulletin] 

The Cuban government has authorized 
exemption from the surtax for a number 
of articles to be used for industrial pur- 
poses. Bristol board, fine cardboard, card- 
board covered with fancy paper, etc., 
dutiable under tariff No. 162A, is hence- 
forth subject to the following rates of 
duty : $3.50 per 100 kilos, general rate, and 
$2.45 per 100 kilos, preferential rate to the 
United States. Other cardboard, and card- 
board covered with ordinary brown paper, 
dutiable under tariff No. 162B, is hence- 
forth subject to the following rates of 
duty : $1 per 100 kilos, general rate, and 
$.70 per 100 kilos, preferential rate to the 
United States. Machinery and apparatus 
imported by the Cuban Coal Co. (Corn- 
paiiia Carbonera de Cuba) and the Cuba 
Copper Co., under tariff No. 226, is to be 
dutiable at 20 per cent ad valorem, general 
rate, and 16 per cent ad valorem, preferen- 
tial rate to the United States. 

These exemptions from the surtax apply 
only when the articles specified are im- 
ported direct by those engaged in the in- 
dustries specified in the decrees, for use in 
their own industrial establishments. 



An experimental shipment of twelve 
boxes of grapefruit from La Gloria district 
to London, England, during the season, 
realized 2.50 net, on the tree. This ship- 
ment was sent by way of New York, neces- 
sitating an extra handling there. With 
direct shipment a better rate can be made. 
— La Gloria Cuban-American. 



AMERICAN GLASSWARE EXPORTS 

The glassware export statistics of the 
United States are divided into three classi- 
fications, "cylinder, crown and common 
window glass," "plate glass," and "all 
other." 

Export statistics for glassware to Cuba 
during the past five fiscal years ended June 
30th have been as follows : 

Cylinder, Crown and Common Window Glass 

1907 1O08 1909 1910 1911 
$15,398 $1,513 $2,176 $1,381 $5,137 

Plate Glass 

1908 1909 1910 1911 
$7,890 $7,964 $3,814 $1,887 

All Other Glass and Glassware* 
1907 1908 1909 1910 

$186,810 $172,189 $133,249 $200,146 



1911 
$191,743 

* The 1911 column includes the exports for the 
SIX months July 1 to December 30, 1910, of "cyl- 
inder, crown and common window glass," and of 
"plate glass." 



The annual report of the Cuban Tele- 
phone Company shows excellent progress 
during the past year, the lines now extend- 
ing through Havana, Alatanzas and Santa 
Clara Provinces and for some distance 
into Pinar del Rio. 

The earnings of the company are now 
in excess of $1,000 a month and the presi- 
dent is confident that the amount will in- 
crease for many months to come. Some 
idea of the growth of the long distance 
business may be obtained by the statement 
that from a revenue of $500 in October it 
has been increased to $3,500 in JVIarch.— 
Havana Post. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



RAILROADS, FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL 



CONSOLIDATION OF UTILITY COMPANIES 

The Havana Electric Railway, Light & 
Power Co., of which $15,000,000 6 per cent 
preferred and $ir),00(),000 common stock 
was recently listed on the Stock Exchange, 
is a consolidation of the Havana Electric 
Railway Co. and the Havana Gas & Elec- 
tricity Co., as already mentioned in the 
June Ci;ba Review. 

The new company was incorporated un- 
der New Jersey laws, in March, 1912. 
Stocks of the new company were exchanged 
on the basis of $110 par value preferred, 
and $2.5 par value common, for each $100 
par value preferred of Havana Electric 
Railway, $140 par value common for each 
$100 par value Havana Electric Railway 
common ; and $110 par value preferred, 
and $25 par value common for each $10 
par value of Havana Gas & Electricity 
stock, to provide funds for improvements 
and extensions of the properties, and to pay 
expenses of consolidation ; $2,900,000 pre- 
ferred and $1.7.")(),iiO() common are to be 
sold. 

The new company operates about fifty- 
nine miles of street railway lines in Ha- 
vana and vicinity, and ISO guaguas (stages) 




Frank Steinhart, former United States consul- 
general to Cuba, and now general manager of the 
Havana Electric Company. 



on the streets of the city. It also will 
operate a gas plant with a capacity of 
.390,000,000 cubic feet a year, and electric 
power plants of 7,200 kilowatt capacity, 
with coal yards, wharves, and an ofifice 
building. The street railway has $9,554,000 
consolidated mortgage 5 per cent bonds 
outstanding, while the gas and electric 
company has $10,674,183 bonds outstanding. 
■The railway company has paid 6 per cent 
on its preferred, and 6 per cent on its com- 
mon stock for the last two years, while 
the gas and electric company has paid 8 
per cent dividends on its stock. The plan 
of consolidation was assented to by 97 per 
cent of the stockholders of the gas and 
electricity company, and 95 per cent of the 
stockholders of the street railway company. 
Earnings of Havana Gas & Electricity 
first quarter of 1912, and twelve months 
ended December 31, 1911, show: 

Eirst Quart. 12 Months 
1912 1911 

Gross earnings $659,853 $2,991,553 

Net earnings 353,996 1,472,250 

Net income 228,703 960,036 

Earnings of Havana Gas & Electricity 
Co. for first quarter of 1912, and twelve 
months ended December 21, 1911, were : 
First Quart. 12 Months 
1912 1911 

Gross earinngs $513,161 $2,208,607 

Net earnings 331,373 425,454 

The income statement of the combined 
companies for the first quarter of 1912 
shows net earnings of $685,396 ; deductions 
for bond interest, taxes and other cliarges, 
$211,358 : surplus for the quarter, $474,038. 
The combined profit and loss surplus of 
the companies, as adjusted Januarv 1, 1912. 
was $2,138,432. 

A cable report announced the death on 
June 17th of Sr. Juan Lopez Sena, editor 
of El Avisador Comercial. the well known 
commercial daily of Havana. Senor Sefia 
died at Santander, Spain, where he had 
gone to spend a short vacation. 

He has been president of the Produce 
Exchange and of the Cuban Press Asso- 
ciation. He was considered an authority 
on Cuban commercial subjects. The body 
was brought to Cuba for interment at Colon 
Cemetery, Havana. 

The United Kingdom's importetion of 
unrefined sugar from Cuba, for the first 
five months of 1911 and 1912 compares as 
follows : 

1911 1912 

2,625 tons 59,462 tons 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



23 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF MERCHANDISE AND GOLD 



IMPORTATIONS OF TOBACCO 

Imports of leaf tobacco from Cuba by 
the United States during the month of May 
aggregate as follows : 

Leaf tobacco importations suitable for 
cigar wrappers : 





1911 


1912 


Quantity . . 


4,92S lbs. 


6,142 lbs. 


Value 


$7,015 


$8,784 


All other 


leaf tobacco : 






1911 


1912 


Quantity . . . 
Value 


. 2,124,144 lbs. 
. . $1,302,773 


1,633,309 lbs. 
$1,010,852 



Twelve months' consumption of sugar in 
Europe for three j^ears, ending April 30th. 
in thousands of tons, as recorded in Licht's 
Circular was as follows : 

Great Britain 1,985 

Germany 1,340 

France 753 

Austria-Hungary 617 

Holland, Belgium, etc 234 

Total Consumption 

1911-12 1910-11 1909-10 

4,929 4,844 4.600 

FRENCH GOLD IN CUBA 

There has been imported from Paris 
$1,00,000 for re-shipment to Cuba. As a 
money market factor this was of no im- 
portance as the movement was entirely 
based upon the current rate of exchange 
between Cuba and France, which is low 
at the present time. 

There is an interesting reason why 
French gold is imported into Cuba from 
time to time, says the Wall Street Journal. 
The French gold is current in Cuba be- 
cause it exchanges conveniently with the 
Spanish coinage there. A 20-franc gold 
piece, the "Xapoleon." is equivalent to 4 
pesos 24 centavos in Cuba, while the Cu- 
ban gold piece, the "centenes," is equiva- 
lent to 5 pesos 30 centavos. The 24 and 
30 centavos represent the 6 per cent pre- 
mium lixed in Cuba to keep the gold in 
the country. By working out an exact 
equivalent in this way French gold has 
come to be used in Cuba along with the 
native coinage as the commercial currency 
of the country while American money is 
the official currency. 



UNITED STATES TRADE WITH CUBA 

Figures for ten months ending April, 
1910. 1911 and 1912 compared: 

IMPORTS FROM CUBA 

1910 1911 1912 

Copper ore $372,289 $635,213 $667,828 

Bananas 617,232 521,832 542,475 

Hides 565,981 326,040 372,489 

Iron ore 3,213,171 3,062,209 2,894,200 

EXPORTS INTO CUBA 

1910 1911 1912 

Agric. implements.... $208,072 $291,938 $179,495 

Corn 1,316,735 1,064,130 1,283,338 

Wheat, flour 3,948,559 3,653,596 3,349,498 

Railroad cars 495,228 1,299,059 1,349,054 

Coal, anthracite 1,725,580 2.068,381 2,403,991 

Cotton cloths 844,732 1,087,923 1,617,583 

Electrical appliances 417,639 523,272 490,736 

Struct, iron & steel.. 431,966 636,394 453,795 

Wire 400,541 533,608 442,143 

Electrical machinery 166,153 141,512 312,378 

Sewing machines 256,224 300,239 295,551 

Locomotives 119,899 153,967 271,548 

Typewriters 67,803 83,206 86,539 

P'ipes and fittings 692,181 973,411 914,440 

Boots and shoes 2,308.747 2,733,512 2,376,415 

Bacon 697,972 665,575 423,105 

Hams and shoulders 348,525 466,340 598,200 

Pickled pork 564,011 702,625 754,687 

Lard 3,271,145 3,136,154 3,719,550 

Lard compounds 1.934,569 2.273.053 1,019,843 

Crude oil 355,201 262,944 191,671 

Illuminating oil 86,358 114,762 32,595 

Lubricating oil 311,261 354,487 437,999 

Cottonseed oil 177,386 197,967 120,601 

Books, maps, etc 178,952 175,991 287.870 

Furniture ' 495,820 616,935 644.787 

TOTAL VOLUME OF TRADE 

1910 1911 1912 

Imports $92,336,856 $83,071,625 $94,367,994 

Exports 44,194,360 51,094.356 52.479,208 



GERMANY S TRADE WITH CUBA 

Germany's exports to Cuba during the 
last four years are as follows. The values 
are given in inarks. One mark equals 24 
cents American currency. 



1908 
20.116 



1909 
20,219 



1910 
22,326 



1911 
26.134 



The Cuba Railroad is in the market for 
100 box, 50 flat and 10 dump cars. 



NEW WHARVES USED 

The new Paula steel and concrete 
wharves on Havana harbor, constructed 
for the Cuban government by the Havana 
Terminal Company as contracted for in 
the exchange proceedings of the Arsenal 
property for that of the Villanueva station, 
were formally delivered to the government 
on June 14th. Ward liners, it is understood, 
will dock regularly at these piers, the "Ha- 
vana" being the first to use them. 

The Havana Central has ordered 100 box 
cars from the Standard Steel Car Co. 



24 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



CUBAN FINANCIAL MATTERS 



SANTIAGO ELECTRIC LIGHT AND TRAC- 
TION COMPANY 

It is learned that Lawrence Turnure & 
Co. and Speyer & Co. have contracted for 
the purchase from the "Spanish Bank of 
the Island of Cuba" of the outstanding 
$2,000,000 First Mortgage G per cent Gold 
Bonds of the Santiago Electric Light & 
Traction Company of Santiago, the second 
city in Cuba. 

From the commencement of operation 
in 1908 this modern property has shown 
a steady increase in earning power. For 
the present calendar year it is expected 
that net earnings will double the amount 
required for interest on the bonds. There 
is no floating indebtedness. Frank Stein- 
hart has become a director of the Santiago 
property, to which he has agreed to give 
his close personal attention. If his con- 
spicuous success in the management of the 
Havana Electric Railway Co. is a criterion, 
substantial benefits are expected to result 
to the Santiago Company from his co- 
operation. It is believed Lawrence Turnure 
& Co. and Speyer & Co. will acquire a 
substantial interest in the stock of the 
Santiago Company. 

The railway (which is largely laid with 
87 pound steel rail) will probably be ex- 
tended somewhat during the present year. 
The company has a lighting contract with 
the city of Santiago. There is no other 
tramway or lighting company in the city, 
nor is there a gas company. The conces- 
sions extend well beyond January 1, 1959, 
the maturity of the bonds. A sinking 
fund will provide for the redemption of 
the authorized issue of $2,.o00,000 bonds 
at their maturity. The Equitable Trust 
Company, of New York, is trustee for the 
mortgage. 

While a public offering is not likely to 
be made at present, it is understood that 
the bankers have already sold a substantial 
amount of bonds privately in the United 
States, Canada, Europe and Cuba. The 
issue price is likely to be slightly under 
par, probably at 98^4. 



CUBA S FINANCIAL MUDDLE 

Recent special cables from the Herald's 
Havana correspondent outlined some of 
the difficulties which the Gomez adminis- 
tration was facing. American contractors 
were reported clamoring for unpaid 
charges, and political opponents of Presi- 
dent Gomez were reported demanding an 
accounting from the administration for the 
last $16,000,000 Cuban loan. 

Poor business foresight, unprofitable 
laws governing financial transactions and 



a lack of proper system in keeping tab on 
expenditures are believed here to be mainly 
responsible for the present state of Cuban 
finances. When a new budget is not ap- 
propriated for the last year's budget re- 
mains in force in Cuba. In the words of 
one official here the Cuban government 
goes along from year to year spending 
money on an aristocratic scale and ignoring 
the coming day of reckoning. 

The contract which the Cuban govern- 
ment has with the port company for the 
dredging of the Cuban harbors is con- 
sidered an example of poor business fore- 
sight. The company for the next thirty 
years gets the proceeds of revenue receipts, 
which amount to between $1,000,000 and 
$1,500,000 a year. The total amount of 
the work to be done in dredging will cost 
about $13,000,000. For this work it is esti- 
mated that the Cuban government will pay 
about $48,000,000. The whole project, it 
has been many times said, is not viewed 
with much favor at Washington. 

On June 20th it was asserted that the 
United States government had demanded 
of Cuba that it pay Judge Reilly's claim 
for the Cienfuegos improvements. The 
amount involved is $650,000. 



LIGHT AND POWER CONCESSIONS 

William A. P'ulton has been granted a 
concession to build an electric street car 
line in Matanzas. The auction sale of the 
concession required by the law will be car- 
ried out on August 12th. Up to that time 
the government will receive propositions 
from any others who wish to build and 
exploit the street car line. 

President Gomez of July 1st granted a 
franchise to Sr. Santiago Portuondo to 
establish an electric light and power plant 
at Cobre, Oriente Province. 

The president has also signed a decree 
authorizing Arturo G. Bornstein, Miguel 
Roura and Juan Barrechea to install elec- 
tric and power plants at Artemisa, Quema- 
dos de Guines, Calabazar and Mate. 



WESTERN RAILWAY EARNINGS 

June 1st to June 29th, i23,836, a decrease 
as compared with the same period in 1911 
of £653. 



CUBAN CENTRAL EARNINGS 

June 1st to June 29th, i34,126, an increase 
as compared with the same period in 1911 
of £6,715. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



25 



CUBA'S TRADE WITH THE WORLD 



The official figures of the exportations and importations of the Cuban repubHc have 
just come to hand. They embrace the trade of Cuba with all countries for the calendar 
years 1910 and 1911 and are as follows: 



IMPORTATIONS 



United States.... 
Other countries of 

America 

Germany 

Spain 

France 

Great Britain 

Other coimtries of 

Europe 

From all others . . 



1910 
^54,569,393 

8,319.929 
6.542,760 
8,680,256 
5,514,939 
12,292,219 

5,."32,357 
2,223,728 



1911 
$59,962,409 

9,159,359 
7,234,657 
9,046,531 
6,202,738 
13,699,060 

5,352,137 
2,398,863 



EXPORTATIONS 
1910 

United States $129,328,507 

Other countries of 

America 3,391,216 

Germany 3,646,398 

Spain 727,297 

France 1,549,080 

Great Britain 10,696,289 

Other countries of 

Europe 915,175 

All others 569,945 



1911 
$106,660,616 

3,641,696 
3,641,555 
459,703 
1,307,517 
5,697,314 

809,075 
726,176 



Total $103,657,581 $113,055,774 Total $150,823,907 $122,943,652 

The difference of $28,000,000 less in the exportations of 1911 as compared with those 
of 1910 is found in the last six months of 1911 and is largely due to the larger sugar 
crop of 1909 and 1910 which was not reached in 1910 and 1911. 



UNA VALVULA DE REDUCCION 

La pieza de maquinaria mas molesta con 
que tiene que luchar un ingeniero en la 
operacion de un trapiche es la valvula de 
reduccion. Cuando se requiere una gran 
cantidad de vapor todas las valvulas fun- 
cionan como es debido, pero cuando se 
requiere poco vapor 6 cuando se corta el 
vapor la ma3-or parte de las valvulas se 
aprovechan de la pieza de reduccion hasta 
que la presion de reduccion es igual a la 
presion inicial, y a menos que los tachos al 
vacio esten equipados con valvulas de se- 
guridad pueden ocasionarse perjuicios, y 
donde los tachos al vacio esten equipados 
con valvulas de seguridad tiene lugar un 
constante escape de vapor a la atmosfera, 
que es un desperdicio. 

La Corporacion Lytton Manufacturing 
fabrica una valvula de reduccion que evita 
este inconveniente. Esta valvula ha sido 
ensayada en varias instalaciones durante el 
ano pasado, asi como en la Marina de los 
Estados Unidos, y esta dando perfecta sa- 
tisfaccion en todas partes. 
_ La Corn Products Refining Company, 
situada en Argo, Estado de Illinois, recien- 
temente puso a prueba una valvula de 8 
pulgs. de esta clase, haciendo una reduccion 
de 150 lbs. de presion inicial a 40 lbs. de 
presion reducida, y desde entonces han 
duplicado el pedido, reconociendo y atesti- 
guando de este modo el trabajo excelente 
de dicha valvula. 



LOSSES THROUGH LABOR SCARCITY 

"The injury to the sugar industry on 
account of the scarcity of labor has been 
enormous during the last season according 
to advices received on every hand," writes 
The Cuba Review's Havana correspondent. 
A Havana writer on sugar topics has com- 
piled statistics of twenty-eight sugar mills 
aft'ected by the scarcity of labor ; they show 
that the output which the 28 mills had 
up to April was 1,867,852 sacks. Had the 
mills had a sufficient number of la'^orers 
their output would have been 2,337,100 
sacks. The calculation of the mills re- 
garding the shortage in the yield under 
these circumstances is figured at 414,000 
sacks. 

A fair idea may thus be attained of the 
large losses which must have occurred 
throughout the entire island, owing to the 
great scarcity of laborers during the time 
of grinding the cane. 



The Central Stewart in Camaguey Prov- 
ince finished grinding on June 19th with 
205,000 bags to its credit. 



The Jagueyal sugar estate at Moron, 
Camaguey Province, ceased grinding on 
June 19th with a yield of 180,156 sacks of 
sugar. It would have made much more, 
but the excessive rains prevented. Last 
season the yield was 143,156 bags, an in- 
crease this year of 37,000 bags. 

Over $17,000 worth of goods have dis- 
appeared from the Havana wharves in the 
last month, according to President Gelats, 
who says that there is reason to suspect 
that an organized band of thieves is en- 
gaged in the work. The collector of cus- 
toms will make an investiention. 

Complaints have been very frequent of late. 



26 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



WONDERFUL LEAF STRUCTURE OF THE BANANA 

[I'nim tlu- \\\-st Iii-lia Committfc C'irculai- of Lomlcii, KiiglandJ 



The most striking features about the ba- 
nana plant are its rapid growth, its early 
maturity and the enormous amount of 
food produced in proportion to the area 
occupied.* These are accounted for by 
almost the whole plant being composed of 
leaf structure. 

Compare the leaves with those of the 
coconut, which are divided into ribbons, 
offering no resistance to wind, and seem- 
ing to enjoy the stormy gales of the sea- 
shore. The undivided leaf of the banana 
shows very clearly that it was developed 
under conditions where only gentle breezes 
lazily move it, and as the structure of the 
root points to a forest soil as the cradle of 
the family, so the leaf indicates an open 
glade sheltered from the rough winds by 
surrounding woodland. Naturally a windy 
situation is not the best, if large bunches 
and good fruit are desired, and the crop 
becomes more precarious in proportion as 
the plants get heavier and more top-heavy 
with ripening bunches. 

The young leaf, before it expands, is so 
rolled around on itself that not a drop of 
rain can penetrate to the centre of the 
cylindrical trunk, where another young leaf 
or the bunch is forming; when it at length 
expands, another convolute leaf is there on 
guard. The last leaf to appear before 
the flowering stalk is much smaller than the 
rest, and it hangs over and protects the 
flowers from the direct sunlight. 

As has been already indicated, the 
sheathing bases of the leaves act the part 
of a woody stem in supporting the huge 
leaf blades and carrying them upwards to- 
wards the sunlight. They also enclose in 
their centre and protect the flowering stalk 
for the few weeks while it is pushing its 
wav up from the bulb to the top of the 
trunk. 

The sheaths when cut across, show very 
large air spaces, and these are connected 
with minute pores on the lower surfaces 
o^ t he leaves which admit air, a large 

* Banana, 242,000 lbs. of food per acre- nota- 
toes. 4.000 lbs.: wbeat, 2,000 lbs. 



quantity of which is necessary for the 
rapid growth. 

It is interesting to note how the leaves 
adapt themselves to sunshine and shade. 
When the rays of the sun are perpendicular 
and too intense, the sides of the leaf col- 
lapse and hang together, the under surfaces, 
on which the vast majority of the minute 
pores are situated, coming together and 
preventing too great evaporation. In wet 
weather, on the other hand, the upper 
surface of the leaves becomes concave. 

The banana leaf also collects the rain 
drops of a shower and conducts them along 
the fluted leaf stalk into the interior of 
each concentric sheath. Each leaf pro- 
vides for its own sheath, but the central 
space, where the young growing leaves or 
the flowers are pushing their way upwards, 
is protected. Water supplied in this way, 
and quite independent of the amount at 
the roots, is important for the proper 
"shooting" of the flower stalk; it causes 
expansion of the trunk and relieves the 
pressure on the central space. An ob- 
servant planter noticed that in dry weather 
a shower of rain seemed to start his plants 
shooting, and when he found this process 
hanging fire, he used to spray his bananas 
with a hose in imitation of the beneficient 
shower. 

The function of the leaves is to provide 
food for the requirements of growth in the 
plant. The energy or motive power neces- 
sary for the work of manufacturing the 
food is obtained from the sun's rays by 
means of the green coloring matter. The 
water absorbed by the roots, containing 
nitrogenous and mineral material, is car- 
ried up the leaves, and a union of these 
elements with the carbonic acid of the air 
takes place. The manufactured food is 
transferred to any part of the plant where 
growth is taking place, or, if not required 
for growth, it is stored up in the bulb in 
the form of starch grains for use later. 
The green color of the trunk shows that 
it is also taking part in the manufacture of 
food. 



PRESIDENT BUYS BLOODED STOCK 

F. C. Giltner. of Eminence, Ky., member 
of the firm of Giltner Bros., live stock im- 
porters, recently sold to President Gomez 
50 cows and 4 bulls, all the finest Holsteins 
to be found in Kentucky. The cattle are 
now at the president's farm America, at 
Calabazar. 

Mr. Giltner will return in Septe»nl3er 
with other importations of Kentucky live 
stock. 



Without debate on July 9th the Senate 
passed the report of the Committee on Mu- 
nicipal Affairs which authorizes the segre- 
gation of the borough of La Gloria from 
the municipality of Camaguey and making 
it a part of the municipality of Nuevitas. 
The bill is now before the House for con- 
sideration. 

Marianao, a suburb of Havana, owes 
that city $20,000 for water supplied. A 
suit will be brought to compel payment. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



27 



HELPFUL SUGGESTIONS 

[From Popular Mcclianicsl 

A CONVENIENT LADDER 

It is often necessary for the owner of 
a house or garden to do some work that 
requires a ladder. Most ladders are 
heavy and hard to handle. The illustra- 
tion (see Figure 4) shows a light ladder 
that can be placed anywhere alone or 
against uneven surfaces. The two props, 
which extend to the ground, are detach- 
able and can be set up at any angle. The 



m 





hooks are easily made by any blacksmith 
and riveted to the poles. They are set 
under any rung, and when climbing the 
ladder, it will stay where it is placed. 
The climber need not fear falling head- 
long, even though he may stand on the 
top rung. When gathering fruit, this lad- 
der can be set against any limb without 
danger of breaking the branches. 



A CHEAP FILTER 

To make a good filter at small cost, take 
a large flower pot and invert over the 
hole at the bottom a saucer from a smaller 
pot. Place over this a layer of coarse 
sand, fine sand, charcoal and fine sand 
again in the order named. Another 
utensil is then placed to receive the puri- 
fied water. 



To remove an ax stuck in a log place 
a small chip under the cuting edge of the 
ax on the handle end. Pressure on the 
handle will then easily withdraw the blade. 
When the ax is stuck so that the entire 
edge is in the wood, raise the handle until 
a part of the edge is out above the surface, 
and then place the cliip as instructed. 

An ordinary gate or barndoor can be 
kept partly open or held in any position 
ag^ainst a wind or draft by the use of a 
stop made from an ordinary hinge which 
has only one wing fastened to the lower 
part of the door or gate. The loose wing 
catches on the floor, ground or cement 
walk. When not in use it is turned up 
against the gate. 



PROFIT IN CATTLE AND HOGS 

Cattle constitute by far the most impor- 
tant class of live stock in Oriente Province. 
No country has better cattle pasture. One 
and one-half to 2 acres of para or guinea 
grass are sufficient to support an animal 
throughout the year, and, with a little pro- 
vision for feeding during the dry season, 
the number of head carried could be con- 
siderably increased. During 1910 the sup- 
ply rather exceeded the demand, and, as 
no provision had been made for export, 
prices of fat cattle fell off considerably. 
With a little attention to grading up the 
herds and to feeding, there would seem to 
be no reason why Cuba might not compete 
successfully in the beef markets of the 
world. 

The breeding of horses and mules is not 
receiving the attention it deserves. Saddle 
horses are always in demand at good 
prices. The native Cuban horse is small 
and not suitable for heavy mounts or 
work. The government has found it 
necessary to import horses for mounting 
the rural guard. Large work mules are 
practically all imported, though some at- 
tention is being given now to the breeding 
of mules. There is always a strong de- 
mand for mules at good prices, .and it is 
certain that in the near future there will 
be a larger demand for them, as it is now 
demonstrated that they can be used suc- 
cessfully in the cane fields, and that their 
work is cheaper and in many ways more 
satisfactory than cattle. 

Hogs always bring good prices in the 
local markets and their production could 
be profitably increased. They are usually 
grown on the range, eating grass, native 
fruits and palm nuts. Special crops are 
seldom grown for them, but there are 
many which might be profitably utilized, 
including corn, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, 
malangas. cassava, rape, cowpeas and 
peanuts. While hog raising does not com- 
mand the attention it deserves, the pro- 
duction increases each year, which results 
in a corresponding decrease of imports of 
hog products, such as hams, bacon and 
lard. — United States Cfliisiday Report. 



Commenting on the Cuban National Ex- 
position, La Politico Comica says that all 
the exhibitors appear to be Americans and 
that it is lamentable that the Cuban farmer 
does not visit the exhibition in very large 
numbers, which he should do in order to 
get new ideas and instruction in" methods 
of fruit culture. It takes comfort in the 
thought, however, that after all while ex- 
pert Americans have been so successful 
in raising fine fruits and vegetables, it 
is the wonderfully productive soil of 
Cuba that has grown the fine specimens 
exhibited. 



28 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



THE LIGHT OF FIRE-FLIES 

The nature of the light emitted by fire- 
flies has been the subject of speculation 
for many years, and it has generally been 
described as phosphorescent. An article 
in Nature for November 23, 1911, from 
which the following notes are abstracted, 
gives results of experiments in testing the 
light given by fire-flies, by means of 
photographic plates. 

The investigators who carried out the 
experiments, state that they observed the 
beautiful green fluorescence of the light 
emitted by an insect of the genus Luciola, 
of the family Malacodermidae, and were 
led to enquire whether the light was of 
the nature of the X-rays produced in the 
Crookes tube. 

An enquiry was instituted to see how 
this light aft'ected photographic plates, 
especially when media of several sorts 
were interposed between the plates and the 
source of light. The media tried were 
wood, dark-brown leather, flesh (mutton) 
and black paper. After several trials, it 
was found that the plates were affected 
after exposure for two hours through flesh 
and black paper, and three hours through 
leather and wood. 

The trials showed further that, as far as 
its effect on photographic plates is con- 
cerned, insect light is similar in intensity 
to lamplight, but it also has the important 
characteristic that this intensity is not va- 
ried, even when objects opaque to ordinary 
light are interposed between the insect and 
the plate. This light is intercepted by 
glass, in which respect also it differs from 
ordinary light. 

It is concluded that the light of the fire- 
fly experimented with is not phosphores- 
cent. It may, on the other hand, be pre- 
mature to conclude that the light rays 
emitted by the insect are the same as 
X-rays, but it may safely be asserted that 
they are similar to the X-rays and the 
ultra violet light, in that they render certain 
opaque media transparent, and are inter- 
cepted by glass. — Agricultural Nezvs. 

The Cucuyo of Cuba may be of the 
genus Luciola, for the beautiful green 
fluorescence noted is marked in the Cucuyo. 
The light emitted by this insect is dazzling 
and brightens or dims as it is held in the 
hand. — Editor The Cuba Review. 



Senator Gonzalo Perez of Havana is the 
author of a bill which is intended to be 
used in bringing about the much desired 
immigration of laborers to Cuba. His plan 
is to provide for a voluntary contribution 
from planters to be used in subsidizing the 
steamship conipanies who shall bring im- 
migrants and their families for a low rate, 
and to aid these failles after a year's 
residence in Cuba. 



TO PURIFY DRINKING WATER 

The use of chloride of lime for rendering 
water free from infection, and fit for 
drinking is thus described in the Journal 
of the Royal .Iriiiy Medical Corps, 1911, 
p. .50. 

(1) Take a spoonful of chloride of lime, 
containing about one-third available chlo- 
rine, and remove the excess of powder by 
rolling a pencil or other round object along 
the top, of the spoon, or by flattening it 
with a penknife blade, so that the excess 
will be squeezed off. 

(2) Dissolve the teaspoonful of chloride 
of lime in a cupful of water, making sure 
that all lumps are thoroughly broken up, 
and to it, in any convenient receptacle, add 
three more cupfuls of water. 

(3) Stir up the mixture, allow to stand 
for a few seconds in order to let any 
particles settle (this stock solution if kept 
in a tightly-stoppered bottle may be used 
for four or five days), and add one tea- 
spoonful of this milky stock solution to 2 
gallons of the water to be purified, in a 
pail or other receptacle. Stir thoroughly 
in order that the weak chlorine solution 
will come into contact with all the bacteria, 
and allow to stand for ten minutes. This 
will give approximately one-half part of 
free chlorine to a million parts of water, 
and will effectually destroy all typhoid and 
colon bacilli, or other dysentery-producing 
bacilli in the water. The water will be 
without taste or odor, and the trace of 
free chlorine added rapidly disappears. — - 
Agricultural Mezvs. 



PITCH PINE EXPORTATIONS 

Exports of pine from all gulf ports to 
Cuba for six months ending June 30th in 
square feet : 



1912 
y4,3."34,079 



1911 
oS,.589,219 



1910 
74,014,163 



Cuban shipment since January 1, 1912, 
totals 51,566,429 feet, four million less than 
a year ago, and seventeen million less than 
for the same period in 1910. Of this quan- 
tity 23,351,798 feet was to Havana, which 
maintains the customary proportion, but 
Havana shipment of the last few weeks 
has been light. — Gulf Coast Record. 

GILTNERBROS.,Emmence,Ky.,U.S.A. 

Dealers and breeders of 
Kentucky Stallions, Mares 
and Jacks. 

Hereford, Shorthorn, Hoi- 
stein and Jersey bulls. Well 
broken mules in car lots for 
sugar planters. 
Export Trade a Specialty. 

Prices named on animals 
delivered anywhere in the 
world. Write xts your wants. 




THE CUBA REVIEW 



29 



THE SUGAR INDUSTRY 



SUGAR CANE S REQUIREMENTS 

Sugar cane is of the grass family. Its 
stalks rise from 6 feet to 12 feet in height, 
and are about an inch and a half thick. 
It requires a rich soil. It calls for much 
shining down of a hot sun and heavy 
downpours of rain to bring it to maturity ; 
it shivers to death in frost and it is a 
greedy drinker. Hence it is of the greatest 
consequence to the planter that the rainfall 
be heavy enough and come at the right 
time. After the rainy season it needs 
months of burning sun, followed by dry 
and cool weather. Then the juice be- 
comes richer and richer in sugar, and the 
cane is ready to cut and grind. If the 
rainy season is too short or precipitation 
too light the cane is poor in weight and 
size and the sugar yield diminishes. If 
there is too prolonged a rainy season there 
will be great quantities of gummy juice 
and a much low^er sugar yield. If the 
cane cutting be done too early or if it 
be too long delayed the quantity of sugar 
in the juice will be low. The cane cutting 
must be done within little over 100 days 
for the best results. To sum up then, 
in proportion as the climate is warm and 
damp, and fairly constant in' keeping these 



conditions, so is cane growing likely to 
thrive in a particular country. Cuba and 
the West India Islands generally furnish 
large areas of cane-growing soil ; Mexico, 
Haw-aii, Java, Mauritius likewise meet the 
conditions. In the United States : Louisiana 
and latterly Texas, have cane areas, but 
their cane has not the great luxuriance 
or richness of tropical cane and requires 
an annual sowing, while in Cuba the same 
plants have produced richly for ten and 
even fifteen years. Little has really been 
done anywhere to improve the sugar cane. 
Experience and science have done much in 
dealing with the juice. Nature is so lavish 
with the cane that man has seemed to lack 
the incitement to better it, but the time 
is at hand when it will be specialized as 
fruit has been by the Burbanks and others. 
— Manuel Rionda, president Czarnikow- 
Rionda Co., in the Louisiana Planter. 

The first section of the branch railroad 
line in Santa Clara Province of the Cuban 
Central which joins Cifuentes and La Es- 
peranza cutting through the San Diego 
valley, and which now reaches San Diego 
de Valle from Cifuentes, has been thrown 
upon to the public service. 




Architecture in Cub.\. — Residence of the administrator of the Nueva Luisa Central, Jovellanos. 



30 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



SUGAR CROP NOTES 



The negro revolution interfered greatly 
in some section in Oriente Province with 
the work of the mills and the output in 
several instances was much smaller than it 
would otherwise have been. The Central 
Palmaritos' yield was in consequence onlv 
20,394 bags. 

Up to June 16th the figures of the output 
of the Chaparra, San Manuel and Delicias 
estates in Oriente Province aggregated 
549,609 bags divided as follows : 

Chaparra, 338,507 bags ; San Manuel, 60,- 
509 bags and Delicias, 150,503 bags. 



Central Niquero in Oriente Province fin- 
ished grinding on June 2Sth, with 100,000 
bags to its credit. Last year the yield was 
79,500 bags. The estate at one time had 
a serious strike, otherwise its ouput would 
have been considerablv larger. 



Up to June 26th the Santa Lucia Central 
in Oriente Province had made 110,436 bags 
of sugar and was still grinding after that 
date. Last year's crop yielded 162,238 bags. 



The Central Dos Amigos in Oriente 
Province finished grinding July 5th, hav- 
ing made 48,400 bags, an increase of over 
10,000 bags over last year. But for the 
heavy rains there would have been 30,000 
bags more. 



The Teresa plantation at Ceiba Hueca, 
Oriente Province, finished grinding at the 
end of June with 74,000 bags as its output. 



The Central Santa Ana in Oriente Prov- 
ince has finished grinding with a yield of 
59,241. Last season the mill's output was 
53,010 bags. 



It is stated that the Guantanamo Sugar 
Company will remove the business head- 
quarters of the company to New York City 
from Guantanamo where they are at pres- 
ent situated. The story that Theodore 
Brooks, vice-president and general mana- 
ger, has severed his connection with the 
company, is denied. 



Valvula FIJA 

de Reduccion de 
Lytton 




Coloque en 
sus Tachos 
una V a 1- 
vula de Re- 
el u c c i 6 n 
([ue sea se- 
gura y dara 
el servicio 
requerido. 



Lytton Manufacturing Corporation 

Oficina para la Venta: 

1159 HUDSON TERMINAL, NEW YORK 

Oficina principal y Fabrica: 

Franklin, Va., U. S. A. 



METAL AGUILA BABBITT 



EL METAL BAR- 
BITT "AGUILA" se 
ha preparado espe- 
cialmente para que 
gatisfaga la de- 
manda de un metal 
antifriccion para uso 
general de precio 
modico. 




Se garantiza que 
da resultado satis- 
factorio en la niaqui- 
naria de moler 
caiia de azilcar. 



Precio, 15 cts la 
libra. 



HOYT METAL COMPANY - - NUEVA YORK 



THECUB A REVIEW 31 



HOW TO BUY PIPE COVERING 

By D. J. Lewis, Jr., M. E., New York 
[Special Contribution to The Cuba Review] 



The question of buying insulating material for high pressure hot surfaces is one 
requiring considerable attention, especially in these days of high pressure steam. 

During the last 20 years the writer in course of his practice of conserving steam 
waste in manufacturing plants has made a vast number of condensation tests, and in 
addition to measuring the condensation has made note of the material and condition of 
the insulation, which has been good, bad and indifferent, mostly the latter, the method 
of installation and its condition, paying special attention to the time it has been in use. 

We have been much surprised at the indifference shown to the actual results given 
by the different coverings by the managers and engineers of the many plants examined. 
The kind and method of insulation depends mostly on the price and the ability of the 
covering salesman to convince the purchaser that he has the best covering. No results 
are as a rule asked for or required. The specifications generally call for some make 
or its equal. On sugar plantations tnany managers think because the run is a short one 
and fuel is cheap that the pipe covering question does not interest them, and in numbers 
of plants we find bare pipes carrying steam up to 125 lbs. Now, even if the question of 
fuel did not cut any figure the quality of steam does in the manufactured product. 
Where the pipe is uncovered the steam becomes saturated and carries along with it 
a lot of water which really acts as a cooling medium instead of one for heating. 

For example, to show the amount of heat lost, we find that from a bare 4-inch pipe 
line 300 feet long carrying steam at 125 lbs. pressure with a temperature of the air at 
90 degres F. would require 105 tons of coal for 300 days a year. To make up for 
the loss of heat, this means considerable, even with cheap fuel. 

Another matter to be considered is the finish outside of the covering. We find with 
the same covering condensation will vary as much as 20 per cent whether regular 
pasted canvas and bands are used or some special finish. The results vary also with 
the different material used for the insulation. 

Managers and engineers should give this considerable thought, as it is one of the 
great savings that can be made in industrial plants, and all live steam pipes should be 
properly insulated so as to prevent condensation from taking place. 



El articulo siguiente es una traduccion de una communicacion muy importante de 
Mr. D. J. Lewis, perito muy conocido, que no dejara de interesar a todo duefio de ingenio 
de azucar, pues da a conocer la iinportancia de conservar el desperdicio de vapor. 

El asunto de comprar material aislador para las suferficies calientes de alta presion 
es cosa que requiere una atencion considerable, especialmente en esta epoca de vapor 
a alta presion. 

Durante los ultiinos veinte anos el que suscribe, en el curso de su practica de con- 
servar el desperdicio de vapor en las instalaciones manufactureras, ha llevado a cabo 
un gran numero de ensayos de condensacion, y ademas de anotar la condensacion ha 
hecho apuntes del material y el estado del aislamiento, el cual ha hallado ser bueno 
en algunas casos y en otros malo e indiferente, este ultimo en la mayor parte de los 
casos, asi como el metodo de su instalacion y su condicion, fijandose especialmente 
en el tiempo que ha estado en uso. 

Nos hemos sorpendido mucho a la indiferencia mostrada por los encargados e in- 
genieros de las muchas instalaciones examinadas respecto a los distintos forros en uso. 
El metodo y clase de un aislamiento depende en su mayor parte en el precio y en la 
habilidad del vendedor de forros en convencer al comprador de que dicho vendedor 
tiene el mejor forro. Por regla general no se requieren ni se exigen resultados satis- 
factorios. Las cspecificaciones generalmente se concretan a una marca dada 6 a su 
cquivalente. En los ingenios de azucar muchos encargados creen que porque el fun- 
cionamiento es de corta duracion y el combustible es barato el asunto del forro de 
la tuberia no les interesa. y en bastante numero de instalaciones hemos hallado tubos 
desnudos conducicndo vapor hasta una presion de 125 libras. Ahora bien, aun supo- 
niendo que el asunto del combustible no sea de importancia, la calidad del vapor si lo 
es en lo que se refiere al producto manufacturado. Cuando la tuberia esta desnuda 
el vapor se satura y lleva en si una cantidad de agua que verdaderamente hace las veces 
de enfriador en vez de servir de calentador. 

Por ejemplo, para nostrar la cantidad de calor perdido, hallaremos que un tubo 
desnudo de 4 pulgadas de diametro y 300 pies de largo conducicndo vapor a una presion 
de 125 libras a una temperatura atmosferica de 90 grados Fahrenheit requeriria 105 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



toneladas de carbon durante 300 dias del ano. Para resarcirce por la perdida de calor, 
esto OS de mucha consideracion, aun con combustible barato. 

Otro asunto que debe considerarse es el acabado exterior del forro. Hemos hallado 
que con el mismo forro la condcnsacion variara hasta un 20 por cicnto, ya se usen 
lonas enipastadas regulares y bandas 6 algun otro acabado exterior. Los resultados 
varian tambien con el distinto material usado para el aislamiento. 

Los encargados e ingenieros de ingenios deberian pensar esto detenidamente, pues 
es una de las grandes economicas que pueden hacerse en las instalaciones industriales, 
y todos los tubos conducentes de vapor deberian ser aislados como es debido, con objeto 
de impedir que tenga lugar la condcnsacion del vapor. 



FURTHER DATA OF SUGAR COSTS 



Following United States Consul-General Starrett's investigations into the cost of 
establishing a sugar mill in Cuba, which were printed in the June issue of The Cuba 
Review, comes a bulletin issued by the Cuban Department of Agriculture along the 
same lines. 

In this bulletin is a table showing the cost of preparing and cultivating one acre of 
cane land in Cuba, which is reproduced below : 

Preparation of Land 

Clearing land for plowing from $1.50 to $10.00 

Cost of first plowing 4.00 6.20 

Cost of second plowing 2.70 3.00 

Cost of harrowing 1.00 1.25 

Marking and cleaning ; 1.25 1.65 

$10.45 $22.10 



Cost of Planting 

Cost of seed cane $4.00 to $ 5.00 

Cost of hauling .50 .70 

Cutting in pieces .50 .80 

Distribution of same 2.50 3.50 

Covering 3.00 3.80 

Cost of Cultivation 

First cultivation $4.00 to $ 4.50 

Second cultivation 2.75 3.10 

Third cultivation 1.60 2.00 

Three cleanings 2.20 3.00 

Cutting and Hauling to Mill 

Cutting and loading $12.75 to $18.00 

Hauling 9.00 18.00 



10.50 13.80 



10.55 12.60 



21.75 36.00 



Total $53.25 $84.50 

According to the bulletin, when replanting is necessary, the work can be done at an 
expense ranging from $15 to $20 per acre. With land producing 60,000 arrobas* of cane 
per caballeria** the crop lasting six years without replanting, the results would be 
approximately as follows : 

Cost of making and harvesting first crop, per acre $60.00 

Cost of making and harvesting 5 sul)sequent crops @ $40 per acre 200.00 



$260i.O0 
Yield of 6 years to growers, or 2,605.44 lbs. (a) $2.80 equals times $72.95 437.00 



Gain in 6 years $177.70 

Caballerias of good, new land often produce 100,000 arrobas of cane, and sometimes 
will not require replanting for 15 or 20 years. If irrigation is available, and intense 
cultivation is employed, it is possible to raise the production to 160,000 or even to 
200,000 arrobas of cane to the caballeria. 

* 1 arroba = 25 lbs. ** 1 caballeria = 33J acres. 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



33 



ENFERMEDADES DE LA CAnA 



El senor D. \\'. May, Agente Especial 
en la Estacion e ^layaguez, nos comunica 
en el boletin No. 9 lo siguiente: 

Las plantas, como los animales, estan 
mas expnestas a enfermarse cuando las 
condiciones no son favorable s. Las canas 
de Puerto Rico son relativamente sanas 
para un pais en que se ha cosechado desde 
hace tanto aiios ; sin embargo, son bastantes 
las enfermedades parasitarias y los insectos 
que cansan enormes perdidas. Las dificul- 
tades que se presentan en las caiia tienden 
a aumentar mas que a disminuir, y asi 
ocurrira mientras se siga cosechando ano 
tras aiio en un mismo terreno. Tambien 
pueden introducirse otros insectos y en- 
fermedades en las semillas importadas de 
otros paises productores de cana, y por 
esto importa mucho a la Estacion Experi- 
mental, el importar todas las canas nuevas 
en forma que puedan desinfectarse antes 
de sembrarse. Esta Estacion se propone 
propagar y ditsribuir entre los hacendados 
de Puerto Rico, libre de gastos, variedades 
de caiias que prometan dar buenos re- 
sultados. 

Las enfermedades y plagas de insectos 
de la cana seran tratadas en otro folleto, 
pero no estaran de mas aqui algunas obser- 
vaciones. Hay ciertas enfermedades para- 
sitarias que estan dando bastante que hacer, 
como la pudricion de la raiz y la enfer- 
medad de la piiia ; esto puede remediarse 
bastante sembrando semillas limpias. Toda 
semilla de rabo debe sumergirse por espacio 
de cinco 6 diez minutos en una solucion 
de Burdeos, y aunque esto no acabe con 
la enfermedad, si es que esta en el terreno, 
permitira que la semilla tenga buen prin- 
cipio, lo cual es una ventaja grande. 

Los terrenes que tienen una textura muy 
compacta son favorables para que se 
desarrollen las enfermedades de la raiz. 
Tratandose de plantas saludables, no tienen 
gran importancia los parasites que pro- 
ducen la pudricic3n de la raiz ; esta ocurre 
solamente cuando, debiclo a las condiciones 
pobres del terreno, las plantas crecen 
debiles. 

EI folleto 100 de la Estacion de Lui- 
siana, describe la enfermedad de la raiz 
de la cana, causada por el parasito 6 
"fungus" llamado "Marasmius plicatus." 
Aparentemente, esta es la misma enferme- 
dad que conocemos en Puerto Rico y que 
abunda mucho. Ataca las plantas destru- 
yendo las raices y ahogando las yemas 
(ojos) nacientes con las hojas que per- 
manecen pegadas 6 adheridas a la cana 
propia. Para impedirlo, el autor reco- 



mienda mejor cultivo, la desinfeccion de 
la semilla de rabo, la siembra de variedades 
resistentes, la destruccion de la paja in- 
festada y la rotacion de los terrenes de 
caiia. 

La Estacion de Hacendados de Cana del 
Hawaii ha heche un estudio de las enfer- 
medades de la cana, especialmente de la 
enfermedad de al raiz. Esta enfermedad 
ha heche que se abandone el cultivo de las 
canas. Lahaina y Bambu Rosada en algu- 
nes parajes. Los primeros sintomas de la 
enfermedad son iguales que si la caiia 
estuviera sufriendo los efectos de la seca. 
Las hojas se enrrellan, se amarillan y se 
secan ; las hojas inferiores se adhieren 
unas a otras y entre ellas se encuentra un 
parasite bianco, que vive en el suelo. El 
tratamiento que se recomienda es el sem- 
brar variedades de caiias que scan resisten- 
tes, cultivar y encalar el terreno, destruir 
el material infestado. y sembrar alguna 
otra cosa durante algun tiempo. 

En el informe de Bengala, India, del aiio 
1906 se dice que ciertas enfermedades 
parasitarias, como las manchas rojas 6 
tizne rojo, se deben en lo mayoria de los 
cases, a las semillas que se siembran. Se 
recomienda la seleccion de la semilla de 
variedades resistentes, y tambien la destruc- 
cion del material infestado y el sembrar 
con mas frecuencia. 

El Journal de AgriciiUura de Queens- 
land (190&) describe una enfermedad en 
la parte superior de la cafia; esta enfer- 
medad se ha cenocido en Australia desde 
hace algunos anos. En algunas epocas, 
casi todas las cosechas se ha perdide, 
mientras que en etras la reduccion del 
rendimiento la side de 20 a 50 por ciento. 

De las plagas de insectos que tenemes, 
la changa 6 grilletalpa es la peer de todas. 
Come que siempre trabaja baje tierra, y 
de noche se hace muy dificil dar con ellas. 
El gusane bianco del "caculo" tambien 
causa dafies considerables a la cana come 
tambien a otras plantas. Estos se encuen- 
tran alimentandese de las raices. Un 
abono fuerte puede llegar hasta ellos, pero 
si esto no diere resultado, seria necesario 
sembrar otro producte en el terreno. 

La "Esperanza" que ataca la heja de la 
cana y que -hace tanto dano en el Haw^aii, 
fue introducida de las Islas Fidji ; elli el 85 
por cietne de los huevos depesitados per 
este insecto son muertos per medio de para- 
sites. Estos parasites se intredujeron en el 
Hawaii donde la esperanza hace mucho 
dane a la cana. El Director de la Estacion 
de Hacendados de Caiia nos ha prevenido 
del peligro que pueda haber en importar 
este insecto a Puerto Rico en las semillas 
de caiia. — El Hacendado Mexicano. 



34 



THE CUBA REVIEW 



SUGAR REVIEW 

Specially written for The Cuba Review by Willett & Gray, of New York 



Our last review for this magazine was dated June 13, 1912. 

At that time, the quotation for centrifugals was 3.92c. per lb. for 96 degree test 
centrifugals, duty paid, and it is now 4.05c. per lb., but, in the meantime, quotation has 
been as low as 3.77c. per lb. following a declining trend in both the home and foreign 
markets. 

Suddenly, however, a marked change took place in Europe, confined, however, prin- 
cipally to the sugar exchanges with which Europe is net-worked and in which the 
two classes of members "Bulls" and "Bears" have unusual facilities for manipulating 
prices, of which the "Bulls" are the most recent participators, forcing prices upward 
two shillings or more during two weeks and causing the makers of short contracts 
to run to cover, which action on their part is now followed by a reaction of one shilling 
at the close. In order to show this movement more particularly, we give herewith